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for getting cotton next season, &c., and it is evident that his operations same subject, “This notable country builds up with one hand what it is have raised a general interest on the subject. Doubtless our consistent trying to pull down with the other." testimony against slavery has thus been brought home to the consciences No one pretends to question the propriety of the British enactment of hundreds in the midst of a slave state. May an over-ruling providence making the carrying of the slave-trade by British subjects piracy. This bless the bread thus cast upon the waters! An agent, says he, has had is a restriction of private enterprise, for the attainment of a glorious much to contend with in this business, sometimes of an unpleasant and holy object; and general opinion concurs in its propriety and justice. character, but adds : * though shall I say that our path has appeared to If public interference in a particular description of private undertakings be guarded by divine providence, for which we ought to be exceedingly be justifiable in one instance, for a given purpose, it is justifiable in all thankful, and I think we are.' He had been about three months in cases for the same purpose ; and we can see no reason why a sweeping Missisippi, and when he wrote was going further south.”
enactment should not be passed, declaring it to be illegal for Englishmen
to be concerned in undertakings, having for their direct tendency the VIRGINIA:-We learn from the Colonization Journal that Judge Leigh, the executor of John Randolph, has purchased a large tract of land in |
upholding of slavery, and the encouragement of the slave-trade. Either
the penalties annexed to slave carrying by British subjects are unjust, Mercer County, Ohio, on which to locate the slaves, some 300, manu
and ought to be abolished, or the British goverment will be justified in mitted by that remarkable man. A large quantity of land in Mercer
restraining its subjects, the result of which will be the indirect but inevi. County, comprising three or four townships, is now owned nearly alto
table encouragement of slave trafic.-Jamaica Morning Journal. gether by coloured persons.
The prospects of the sugar crops for the present year are represented as Texas:--The work of annexation being now finished, we have thought indicating great abundance. proper to place on record a few memorials of the conclusion, for general information and future reference. We give first the entire provision res
CIRCASSIA:-The Times' Correspondent, writing from Trebisond, pecting slavery, in the new constitution of Texas. The clause is as
| under date the 5th of January last, communicates the following painful follows:
intelligence :-" The communications between Anatolia and the Circassian " SLAVES.
coast are now more frequent than they have been for some time past. It “ Section 1.-The legislature shall have no power to pass laws for the
| appears beyond a doubt that General Budberg, who commands the Russian emancipation of slaves, without the consent of their owners, nor without
forts upon the eastern coast of the Black Sea, has received orders from paying their owners, previous to such emancipation, an equivalent in Prince Woronzoff not to interfere with the traffic of slaves between the money for the slaves so emancipated. They shall have no power to Turks and Circassians. The Russian fleet, which in former years remained prevent emigrants to this State from bringing with them such persons as are deemed slaves by the laws of the United States, so long as any
in the various ports between Kertsch and Bedut Kalch as late as the person of tbe same age or description shall be continued in slavery by
month of November, in order to prevent communication with Anatolia, the laws of this State: Provided, That such slave be the bona fide pro and to chase the vessels of the slave-merchants, this year withdrew to perty of such emigrants : Provided, also, that laws shall be passed to Sebastopol as early as September. General Woronzoff has even notiprohibít the introduction, into this State, of slaves who have committed high crimes in other States or territories. They shall have the right to
fied to the chiefs of the Circassian army that Russia would for the future pass laws to permit the owners of slaves to emancipate them, saving the
tolerate the sale of their young girls to the Turkish merchants upon conrights of creditors, and preventing them from becoming a public charge. dition that they wonld cease their attacks against the Russian forts, and They shall have full power to pass laws which will oblige the owners of forbear to cross the Cuban to plunder the Cossack villages, and that they slaves to treat them with humanity ; to provide for them necessary food and clothing; to abstain from all injuries to them, extending to life and
should, moreover, supply those forts with provisions, for which a liberal limb; and, in case of their neglect or refusal to comply with the directions price would be paid. It is but natural to suppose that General Woronzoff of such laws, to have such slave or slaves taken from such owner or owners. has been induced to make stipulations of the like nature simply from the They may pass laws to prevent such slaves from being brought into this embarrassed position in which his army in the east of the Caucasus is State as merchandize only.
placed. The war has re-commenced in all its fury upon the borders of the " Section 2.- In the prosecution of slaves for crimes of a higher grade than petit larceny, the legislature shall have no power to deprive them of Terek; the Russian forces are there insufficient to prevent the incursions an impartial trial by a petit jury.
of the mountaineers, a band of whom, well mounted, lately advanced to Section 3.--Any person who shall maliciously dismember, or deprive the environs of the town of Kislar, and caused the greatest terror. The a slave of life, shall suffer such punishment as would be inflicted, in case the like offence had been inflicted upon a free white person, and on the
Russian position upon the Cuban, and likewise upon the Black Sea, has like proof, except in case of insurrection of such slaves."
been considerably weakened in consequence of an order having arrived to
send all the disposable troops of the left wing towards Tschetschina and Texas papers have been received here to the 1st of January, which state
Daghestan. Unfortunately for the cause of the Circassians, several of that the election in Texas has resulted in the election of J. P. Henderson
their most influential chiefs have suffered themselves to be gained over by for governor, and A. C. llorton for lieut. governor. There were seventy
the promises and the gold of General Woronzoff. Pschemaff-Bey, one of five members elected to the legislature, sixty-five of whom are Houston
the four great princes of Circassia, aud who is also descended from one of Democrats. It was said that Gen. Houston would not only himself
the most illustrious families of that country, and who made vast sums of be elected to the United States Senate by a large majority, but that he
money by the sale of the daughters of the common people, has promised would also select his colleague.
General Budberg to use his influence to prevent any hostile attacks Haiti:- Americans in the Dominican Service.— The American bark against the Russian forts so long as their garrisons shall remain behind Alert, recently purchased by the Dominican Government, to be fitted as their intrenchments, and not molest the Turkish vessels which come from a vessel of war, has been got in readiness, and she mounts twenty 24.. | Sinope, Samsun, and Rizeh, to purchase young girls. A dozen slavers pounders, and two swivels of the same or greater calibre. She is have already come from Circassia since November; all were well laden, represented as being commanded by a “fine, young, cool, calm, and and were not in any way molested by the Russians. Every steamer which daring American, and a picked crew of fifty able and prime seamen." leaves Trebisond for Constantinople takes at least twenty, and frequently
a greater number, of these unfortunate creatures to be sold in the capital. SURINAM :-In consequence of a great scarcity of food in this colony,
The conduct of the Russian consul here is a certain proof that Russia the governor, R. F. Van Raders, issued an order on the 6th of January
of January has made this shameful concession. Formerly, when his spies informed last, granting permission to vessels from British North America to
him of the arrival of a slaver upon the Turkish coast, he hastened to the import food on the same terms with those from the United States.
Pasha to have the slave-merchant severely punished. Abdallah Pasha, so The order specifically alludes to "the existing scarcity of provisions,
haughty to all other Europeans, never dared refuse the Russian Consul principally for the poorer classes and slaves," as the motive for this
anything. When Messrs. Bell and Langworth returned from Circassia, relaxation of the existing law,
the vessels which brought them were burned by order of the Pasha, at the CUBA :-By recent advices from Cuba we have been put in possession demand, however, of Gersi. At the present time this very man, this same of a piece of information of a very singular and somewhat startling cha
Russian Consul, closes his eyes even when the slavers sail direct into the racter. After all the negotiation, trouble, waste of lives, and expenditure port of Trebisond. Upwards of twenty Turkish vessels have within the of treasure, which the British government has incurred for the suppression
last few weeks gone from this port to Circassia. They, no doubt, wish to of the slave-trade, and the extinguishment of slavery, we have the remark. | take advantage of the time that the Russians leave the field open to them. able fact that a number of Englishmen, and a very large amount of British
A fall in the price of Circassian girls in the Constantinople market must capital are employed in the island of Cuba in the encouragement of speedily follow. For many years past the rich proprietors of harems slavery and the slave-trade. The copper mines of Cuba are superintended have paid as much as 30,000 piastres for Circassian girls when embonpoint by Englishmen, and chiefly worked by English capital, and we find that according to the taste of the Turks. about 5000 slaves are worked night and day in these mines. Their owners PORTUGAL :-In our last number, we gave an extract from the speech receive twelve dollars per month for their hire, besides which they are of the Queen of Portugal relative to the slave-trade. The Chamber of Peers fed by the employer. What brilliant encouragement for the perpetuation in replying to it, congratulates Her Majesty“ on the happy result of the of slavery; what an exciting stipaulus for pushing the slave-trade, and I loval co-operation of the two nations (England and Portugal) for the securing the enormous revenue of 720,000 dollars, and all this by the
Hars, and all this by the repression of this infamous traffic—the scandal of religion, opprobrium of encouragement of British enter prize and British capital ! What the humanity, and principal cause of the deplorable decay of the population, government does, ber subjects undo; or in the words of a writer on the industry, and civilization of our vast and valuable African possessions.
We learn that a commission composed of several peers has been appointed,
Miscellanea. to report on the abolition of slavery. We shall be happy to learn par. ticulars. That the Portuguese Government is now giving its attention
THE SLAVE-TRADE.-The activity of the slave-trade, and the ineffi. to the suppression of the slave-trade, we have some reason to believe.
ciency of our efforts to destroy it by our cruising system, will be apparent
from the following facts. During the month of November the following The Portuguese papers give particulars of an encounter between the
vessels, captured by British cruisers, were sent to Sierra Leone for schooner Concelho and a slaver, in which the latter, by her superior sailing, managed to escape with 500 slaves on board. Another schooner, with
adjudication : a schooner, name unknown, fully equipped for the slave. the Nympha, escaped an English cruiser with a cargo of 300. Two
trade. The Brazilian brig Regenerado : this vessel was condemned in slavers were destroyed by their own crews to escape capture. In the
court of mixed commission, in April last, under the name of the Atala ; neighbourhood of Angola several seizures have been made by British
the Brazilian brig Uniao, fully equipped for slave-trading; the Brazilian
brig Isabella, with 354 slaves on board ; the Brazilian barque Princessa, cruisers ; and a slave-vessel (a steamer,) captured in the river Zaire.
ceptured in the act of shipping 800 slaves. This is the same barque which A serious charge is brought against the Governor of Angola, P. A. da Cunha for connivance at the slave-.trade, which will no doubt engage the
sailed from Sierra Leone, a few days before, having been sent thither attention of the Government.
from Mozambique without clearance. In the month of December, we
learn that the Styx, steamer, was at the island of Ascension, having Egypt.—The Darfour caravan has recently arrived at Siout, the capital
captured three slavers, the Regenedavere and Ezpiza, (empty), and the of Upper Egypt, and brought 1,200 slaves, 1,000 cwt. of elephants' teeth,
Isabel, with 352 slaves on board. Cape of Good Hope papers state that and a large quantity of ostrich feathers and gum arabic. They were four
were four a small barque called the Diana, suspected of slave-trading, had been months on their way, and at the last stage between the Great Oasis and
brought into Table Bay. From Java we learn that Major Djacka had Siout a great number of slaves and camels were lost from the effects of
taken a piratical prow. Twenty-one persons were found on board this cold, scarcity of water, and by wandering out of the proper tract. The
vessel, in a most deplorable condition, who were set at liberty. . duty levied by the Pacha on all slaves arriving in Egypt varies from
From the columns of La Réforme we learn, that the illegal practice of £3. 10s. to £6 each, according to age and quality.
deporting suspected slaves from the French colonies to Puerto Rico, It is confidently expected that Egypt will derive great benefit from
where they are sold for the benefit of their owners, is still carried on with Ibrahim Pacha's visit to Europe, and that he will introduce many improve
the connivance of the authorities. A case of this kind took place at Mar. ments in the country on his return. After inspecting the sugar refinery
tinique recently; three slaves, one of whom, a female, charged with being of the Marquis Forbin Jansan, at Marseilles, finding, on inquiry, that the
a poisoner, was sent thither, notwithstanding every attempt to prevent it. per centage of refined sugar obtained there was greater than that obtained
In the case of the woman, an ineffectual effort was made to purchase her at his own works at Rhoda, his Highness wrote to order an investigation
freedom, but the authorities obstinately refused. It does not appear that of the cause to be made, and also engaged three Frenchmen to superintend
either of the slaves deported were tried before any competent tribunal, or the pressing and refinery. Ibrahim Pacha's sugar manufactory at Rhoda,
convicted of any crime. Surely the French government will not allow so in Upper Egypt, produces annually about 700 tons of sugar which is all
great an abuse as this to continue. consumed in the country, and his Highness is now setting up a second
The law passed last session for ameliorating the condition of slaves in one at Farchout, near Keneh, which he expects will produce the same
the French colonies is a dead letter. The same journal gives a 'striking quantity, A fine species of dark cane from Jamaica has lately been
illustration of this. That law amongst other things provided that the introduced into Egypt and thrives remarkably well. Times, Feb. 9.
slaves who undertook to feed themselves should have the Saturday of FRANCE.-The following abridged statement of proceedings in the every week given to them for that purpose. It appears that two gangs of Chamber of Deputies, is made from the columns of our contemporary slaves belonging to two planters of the names of Deslandes and Mareil, the Morning Chronicle :-
of Martinique, instead of working in their gardens hired themselves to a The new convention for the suppression of the right of search has M. Delapalun, who employed from 150 to 200 of them, at 2 fr. 50 cts. given rise to a long debate in the Chamber of Deputies. After clamour. the men, and 2 fr. the women for the day. Now, it happens that M. De. ing for six months for the merit of having forced the Government to put lapalun is considered to be a dangerous man, from the fact of his being an end to the treaties of 1831 and 1833, and after repeated declarations
a declared abolitionist, and from his refusing to employ any other than on the part of its organs that the new convention was all that was required free labour in the manufacture of his sugar. He is, moreover, a mulatto. to vindicate the honour of France, the opposition in the French chambers The two planters referred to determined that their slaves should not work has all of a sudden discovered that by the new convention, France is in a for him ; but they having persisted in doing so, application was made to worse position than before, and that the treaties of 1831 and 1833 were the mayor of the district, M. Delatouche, to grant them the assistance of infinitely to be preferred to that of 1845. It is not difficult to explain a body of police, as they were resolved to punish them for disobedience of these changes of opinion. The clamour originally raised against the right orders. The police were accordingly placed at their disposal, and the of search came entirely from the party (unhappily a considerable one in whole of these negroes, men and women, were cart-whipped to the extent France) which still supports slavery and the slave trade, and endeavours of twenty-nine lashes each ! to defend the practice of this blot upon humanity. The result has, We learn from La Réforme, that on several occasions, negroes from however, not answered the expectations of the slavery party. The con- Dominica, who have gone to Guadaloupe to sell fish, have been seized by vention of 1815, by merely substituting the plan of verifying the flag, for the authorities, and compelled to work as slaves on the royal domains. that of searching the vessel, has not entirely destroyed the means of de- | Lately, the director of the interior, M. Billecocq, gave one of these tecting the trade in slaves, though it has impared it. The slaveholders negroes, called Louis Denys, to the treasurer of the island who made and advocates of slavery are disappointed in their expectations, and they him work in his cane-fields without wages. Happily for this poor fellow, are now getting up a new crusade against the convention of 1845, on the he found a friend in one of the magistrates, M. Robert, who received his plea that it does not fulfil the wishes of the chamber, which was that the complant, and who has secured to him his liberty. national flag of France should be again placed under the exclusive surveil. lance of its own officers. M. Billault, who was the first to complain of
DONATIONS AND SUBSCRIPTIONS. the right of search ; M. Dupin, the paid agent and advocate of tha slaveholders of Guadaloupe ; M. Levasseur, and M. Vivien, are accordingly
The following contributions have been received since our last, and are the foremost in the battle. The desire for place draws others into the
hereby thankfully acknowledged :
Donations. Subscriptions. same course, and we are sorry to see M. Thiers among the number. M. London-Alsop, Robert, jun. .................
110 Thiers ought not to forget that it was only last session he himself declared Rochester-Tatum, William...
100 that he thought the right of search necessary, and that he had no wish to
Bristol and Clifton-Ladies' Anti-Slavery Society 11 0 0
- 1 10 see the treaties of 1831 and 1833 altered. The result of the division was
2 0 0 not very encouraging to the hopes of the opposition. The amendment of Charlbury-Anonymous ....
0 15 0 M. Billault, which was to the effect “ that the wish of the Chamber would Wootton Bassett-J. Mackness ..............
010. O have been fulfilled, if, while protecting the rights of humanity, the Convention had more surely placed out of the reach of attack the national
CONTENTS : fag," — was rejected by the largest majority that has appeared during the
The West Indies.......
Advertisements ........ present session in favour of the ministry. The number who voted against
Memorial to the right honourable the amendment was 217, and for it 144, leaving a majority of 73. The William Ewart Gladstone, &c.
POB.LRY:-The Slave Ship ...... Legislation in Trinidad .......... 95
Trade in Colonial and Tropical Prodiscussion on the Address in the Deputies went on to-day as usual. The Legislation in British Guiana...... sixth paragraph, relating to the slave trade treaty, was at length adopted,
Coolie Immigation:- Its immoral
FORBIGX INTELLIGBNCR ..... with the words “infamous traffic substituted, on the motion of M. de The complete Abolition of Slavery
MISCELLANEA ................ in Tunis ..
Subscriptions and Donations ... Tracy, for those originally introduced, vix., 'odious traffic.'
PAGB ....... 33
duce ......... COLONIAL INTELLIGENCE
rrated DY JACOB UXWIX, of 93. Dowgate Hill. in the City of London. at his Printing Office, 31. Bucklersbury, in the parish of St. Stephen Walbrook, in the City
London, and published by PETER JONES BOLTox, of No. 8, Kennington Terrace, Kennington Lane, in the county of Surrey, at No. 27, New Broad Street, in the Parish of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, in the City of London. MONDAY, MARCH 2, 1846.
Sold by W. Everett, 14, Finca Lane, and 17, Royal Exchange.
America. Shortly after the declaration of American independence, there REASONS FOR WITHDRAWING FROM OUR TRADING
was much ground to hope that slavery would not long exist in the Union. CONNECTION WITH THE AMERICAN SLAVE
The tide of public opinion, which had already led to acts for the abolition HOLDER: AND A PLAN OF DOING SO SUG- of slavery, in several of the Northern States, was directed, with con. GESTED.
siderable force, against it. There were, at that time, few articles of We hail with sincere satisfaction every effort, both in this
export produced by slaves, in the States, of great pecuniary value. In
1790, the number of slaves was 657,000, and the cotton exported, country and in others, to put an end to slavery and the slave-trade,
189,000 lbs. In 1843, the number of slaves was estimated at 2,847,810, by means which, in their nature, are legitimate and peaceful. For
and the cotton exported was 1,081,919,000 lbs.; and unless the most some time past the attention of the British and Foreign Anti
vigorous means be used to stay this mighty evil, it is impossible to cal. slavery Society has been turned to the necessity of meeting the
culate what may be its future extension.” American cotton planter in the British market, by an adequate
| But it is in his exertions to “perpetuate and extend” his slave
But it is in his exertions to o supply of cotton-wool, grown by free labour, whether in Hindostan
system, that the American slaveholder has made that system one or elsewhere. Our readers will remember an elaborate article
of peculiar enormity. published in the Anti-slavery Reporter, on the growth of cotton
To “perpetuate" it, he has enacted laws to stupify and brutalize wool in British India, which we know has attracted much attention
the negroes,-by keeping their minds in a state of the grossest in influential quarters. We now present our readers with an im
darkness. And we have a statement of this fact in the letter above portant paper, which has been recently printed in Manchester, the
named, which says: great seat of our cotton manufactures, and shall be delighted to
"The slaves are debarred from an acquaintance with even the rudiments find that a society, such as that recommended by its writer, is
of knowledge, lest they should thereby become acquainted with their formed in that important town. It will be an important auxiliary
wrongs, and learn how to escape from them. To teach a slave to read, to the Anti-slavery movement, and will realize one of the objects
is punishable with severe penalties ; and, in one slave State, (Lousiana,) which the Anti-slavery Committee has always had in view. We
DEATH is the legal penalty for a second offence.” need scarcely say, such a Society will have our best advocacy.
To extend this slave system, and to increase the number of his Our great trading connection with the American slaveholder is
slaves, the American slaveholder has had recourse to the most in the article of Cotton–a trade which had its beginning rather |
immoral means,-in what is termed the “ Breeding System.” Of more than fifty years ago. It increased rapidly from year to
this, we have the following account, in Messrs. Chambers' Tract year. In 1836 it had already become a trade of immense extent;
on American Slavery. 80 extensive, indeed, that a commercial gentleman, in Manchester,
“ In Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, now of great celebrity, speaking of it in one of his publications
Tenessee and Missouri, the breeding of slaves is carried on professionally. of that date, said :—“More than a million of our population
Slave breeding is the principal trade within the state, and all means depend upon the due supply of this cotton wool for the labour of
are employed to render it as productive as possible. The basest passions every succeeding day, and for the regular payment of their weekly
are elevated to the character of a pursuit. Compulsory unions of negroes wages;” requiring the “punctual arrival, from the United States, and negresses are made by their 'proprietors; and if such arrangements of a quantity of raw cotton, averaging fifteen thousand bales prove unsatisfactory, the parties are separated, without any regard for weekly, or more than two thousand bales a day,''-"a precious decency or feeling. It is impossible, however, to refer with minuteness flood of traffic,”—“a golden stream of trade, on which floats not to the practices which prevail, – it is sufficient to state, that the whole only the wealth, but the hopes and wishes of a great community”- system is an outrage on religion and morals." “a commerce unparalleled in magnitude.” And yet, unprece | And Mr. Featherstonhaugh, in his “ Excursion through the dently great as the trade certainly was, when it was spoken of in Slave States,” expresses his apprehension, that the increased culture such terms of admiration, it has now become far greater ; so that of cotton, in the new State of Texas, may cause a great extension the number of our population dependent upon it has increased to of this “ Breeding System.” He says: two millions, at the least, including almost the whole of the great
“The occupation of Texas by the Americans, where there are so many manufacturing community, in and around Manchester. And this
millions of acres of the most fertile cotton lands, will convert the old slavewonderful increase of the trade is a proof how truly it may be said, holding part of the United States into a disgusting nursery for young to have been to this community “a golden stream."
slaves ; because the black crop will produce more money to the propri. But, it is not in the beneficial effects, above described, that we etors than any other crop they can cultivate." can find any reason for withdrawing from our trading connection. But the extension of American slavery has called forth, besides with the American slaveholder. It is in another effect, and one a “Breeding System," an " Internal Slave Trade.” Of this latter in the highest degree prejudicial. It is in an effect produced in iniquity, we have an account in a work written by William Jay, America upon the community which grows the cotton.
an American Judge, and entitled, “ Slavery in America." I.-By this connection, the American slaveholder has been sti "The ordinary evils of slavery are in this country greatly aggravated
mulated to perpetuate and extend the system of American slavery; by a cruel and extensive slave trade. Various circumstances have of and, in so doing, he has made that system one of peculiar late years combined to lesson the demand for slave labour in the more enormity.
northern, and to increase it in the more southern and western portions To the fact of this deplorable effect of our connection with the
of the slave region ; while the enlarged consumption of sugar and cotton
is enhancing the market value of slaves. The most profitable employment American slaveholder, we have had testimony given us in a letter,
of this species of labour is unfortunately found in those states which, published in the “ Anti-slavery Reporter,” of the first of January
from their recent settlement, possess immense tracts which are still to be last, and bearing the signatures of Messrs. J. J. Gurney of Nor- brought into cultivation, and in which, consequently, there now is, and wich and others. In this letter there is the following passage :- I will long continue to be, an urgent demand for slaves. Hence has arisen
“We have already stated, in concurrence with the testimony of some a prodigious and annually increasing transportation of slaves to the south of the most eminent friends of the slave in the United States, and un- and west." deniable facts, that the demand for the cotton of that country in Great “There are no official data from which the amount of this transpor. Britain has been a chief means of perpetuating and extending slavery in | tation can be ascertained; but from facts that have transpired, and from
estimates made at the south, there is reason to believe that it exceeds manufacturing community,—and so, indeed, the nation itself. We 30,000 a year! One of the peculiar abominations of this trade is, that ought, therefore, to withdraw from our trading connection with the its victims are almost exclusively children and youths. Instead of American slaveholder, because it is a connection involving us in removing whole families, and gangs of negroes, the dealers for the most his guilt. part, according to their own advertisements, select individuals of both
| We will now briefly notice one reason more.. sexes, from twelve to twenty-five years." The above account was written in the year 1835, and the trade
III.-By our not making any effort to withdraw from this conhas since then become much more extensive. In Chambers's Tract,
nection, we dishonour the Christian Religion. published last year, the annual transportation is estimated at 80,000 In the Southern States of America, the Christian religion is to 90,000!
fearfully dishonoured by the conduct of the various religious This “Internal Slave Trade” and “ Breeding System” were denominations in reference to this iniquitous slave system. Most spoken of in the following eloquent and indignant language, by of the Christian churches there acquiesce in it, and share in its the Right Hon. T. B. Macauley, in the parliamentary debate on profits. In the Christian Observer for November, 1845, there is the sugar question, Feb. 26th, 1845:
an article under the head of “The American Churches the Bulwark " But that a civilized man, a baptized man, a man proud of being, a of Slavery,” and an extract is therein given from the “ History of citizen of a free state, a man frequenting a Christian church, should breed the Protestant Episcopal Church, in the United States,” by Dean slaves for exportation, and, if the whole horrible truth must be told, even Wilberforce, now Bishop of Oxford. In this extract Dean Wilberbeget slaves for exportation,-should see children, sometimes his own force says—“What witness, as yet, has been born by the church children, gamboling around him from infancy, should watch their growth, in those States, against this almost universal sin? How has she should be familiar with their faces, and should then sell them for four fulfilled her vocation? She raises no voice against the predominant or five hundred dollars a-head, and send them to lead in a remote country, l evil; she palliates it in theory; and in practice she shares in it." a life which is a lingering death, a life about which the best thing that There is also testimony enough that this is equally the case with can be said is that it is sure to be short, -this does, I own, excite a
other denominations. horror exceeding even the horror excited by that slave trade which is the
But we, also, are connected with this American slave system, curse of the African coast. And mark !.I am not speaking of any rare
and may indeed be said to share in its profits. And what is our case, -of any instance of eccentric depravity,--I am speaking of a trade
conduct in reference to it? Is not the Christian religion dishonoured as regular as the trade in pigs between Dublin and Liverpool, or the trade
by us, if, amidst our professions of Christianity, we can behold our in coals between the Tyne and the Thames."
yearly increasing connection with the American slaveholder, be We have the following summary of the system of American
cognizant of its stimulating effect in perpetuating, extending, and slavery, given us in the before-named work of William Jay, the
rendering more atrocious the system of American slavery, be American judge:
convinced of its involving us in guilt and yet make no effort to “Such is American slavery-a system which classes with the beasts of
withdraw from it? the field, over whom dominion has been given to man, an intelligent and
But, although there be the most serious and weighty reasons accountable being, the instant his Creator has breathed into his nostrils
for withdrawing from our trading connection with the American the breath of life. Over this infant heir to immortality no mother has
slaveholder, we must remember that it is a question which has a right to wateh-no father may guide his feeble steps, check his wayward appetites, and train him
passed without public regard for more than fifty years, and that for future usefulness, happiness, and glory. Torn from his parents and sold in the market, he soon finds himself
it is one which affects the subsistence of almost the whole of a great labouring amongst strangers, under the whip of a driver, and his task
community. The consequence is that an immediate withdrawal
r after would be found impracticable, and if attempted on a large scale, year, he is driven to the cotton or sugar field, as the ox to the furrow.
would be productive of much suffering and crime. A method of No hope of reward lightens his toil—the subject of insult, the victim of gradual withdrawal seems to be the only one which can now be brutality, the laws of his country afford him no redress; his wife, such adopted. It may be well, therefore, to have only in name, may at any moment be dragged from his side ; his children
A PLAN SUGGESTED. heirs only of his misery and degradation, are but articles of merchandise; his mind, stupified by his oppressor, is wrapped in darkness; his soul,
There is a plan recommended, “as one means of discounteno man careth for it; his body, worn with stripes and toil, is at length nancing slavery,
nancing slavery,” by Messrs. J. J. Gurney, of Norwich, and
by committed to the earth, like the brute that perisheth."
others, in the letter from which quotations have already been made. The foregoing extracts may perhaps be considered sufficient to prove, that by our trading connection the American slaveholder has “Shall we then continue to uphold and furnish an inducement for the been stimulated to perpetuate and extend the system of American
maintenance of this vast system of crime and misery which we profess slavery; and that in so doing he has made that system one of
to deplore and abhor ? Humanity, justice, and religion forbid us so to peculiar enormity. We have here, then, a strong reason for our
do ; and we therefore confidently cherish the hope that, as one means of withdrawing from this connection.
discountenancing slavery, many of our countrymen and countrywomen We may now proceed to notice another reason, and a most
will now be found willing and determined, as far as in them lies, to relinserious reason, too, for our withdrawal from this trading con
quish the use of American slave-grown cotton." nection.
Whatever effect, however, this plan might have in discounteWe have seen the highly prejudicial effect it has produced, and
and nancing slavery, it would be totally inefficient for the accomplishwhich is so totally contrary to the proper and beneficial effects of
ment of our object. Our cotton trade is principally an export commerce. This may lead us to suspect there is something in it
trade; and for us to refuse to use American cotton for our own different from an ordinary and lawful commercial intercourse. And
individual consumption at home, whilst our spinners and manu. we shall find, on further examination, that such is the fact. The
facturers are using it in such immense and yearly increasing American slaveholder is a person who obtains his cotton by the
quantities for exportation, could certainly bave no perceptible perpetration of crime, by carrying on a criminal system. This we
effect in enabling us to withdraw from our connection with the know; and, knowing it, our trading connection with him cannot
American slaveholder. be right.
Our efforts must be directed to our supply of cotton.
We must endeavour, earnestly and unceasingly endeavour, to II.-It is a Connection involving us in Guilt. .
obtain from some other and less polluted source, a supply of cotton It seems clear that, in this case, we must apply the same moral cheaper than the American, and of suitable quality. rule that should be applied to a trading connection with the Nothing like a general and vigorous attempt to do this has ever smuggler or the thief, or with any one that is known to keep up yet been made by us. Some Government experiments to improve his stock-in-trade by criminal means. If, however, we purchase our supply of free labour cotton from India, have been going on goods, knowing them to be smuggled or stolen, we become aiders for the last five years. And yet this community has manifested and abetters of the principal, and participators with him in the scarcely the slightest interest in them. True it is, that five years crime. In like manner, if we purchase American cotton, knowing | ago, a few gentlemen met the East India Directors, in Manchester, the wretched system under which it is produced, we become aiders to witness an improved mode of cleaning Indian cotton; and two and abettors of the American slaveholder, and participators with years ago, a memorial from the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, him in the criminality of the system of American slavery. And urging the improvement of Indian cotton, was sent to Sir Henry in the consequences of this criminality, not only the merchant, the Hardinge, on his appointment as Governor General; and also, spinner, and the manufacturer must participate, but our whole three months ago, a deputation from the Manchester Commercial Association went to London, to have an interview with the East. We have the prospects of war before us. But if war arise, an India Directors, to obtain information about the cotton experiments; | insurrection of the states may be expected, then where will be bat these are all the efforts that have been publicly made by this the cotton of the United States, and what will be the condition of community, during the last five years, to improve our supply of our trade at home? But enough our present gloomy prospects free labour cotton from India.
only render more apparent the important truth, that, “our duty And yet, we are not without encouragement to exert ourselves, and interest in every instance coincide." even so far as relates to India. The chairman of directors, and Dr. Royle, their home botanist, gave the Manchester deputation
Manchester, March, 1848. favourable accounts. And still more favourable accounts have been published since. In the “ Economist,” of the 21st ultimo, there appeared the following extract from a letter of Dr. Wight,
THE WEST INDIES. the superintendent of the Government Cotton Farm, at Coimbatore, dated 6th December last, and addressed to Dr. Royle, in London. The following article presents a condensed view of the progress
“We have in the South Western Talooks of Coimbatore, perhaps, of the emancipated classes in the Island of Barbadoes, drawn from little short of 800, or perhaps, 1000 square miles of country, partaking, the papers and presented to the House of Commons on the more or less, of both Monsoons, and over the whole of which our sowings subject. may commence in June, with the almost certain prospect of having
BARBADOES. showery weather until September, and, with a moderate degree of cer
The supply of labour in this colony is superabundant. The rate tainty of having rains again from the north east in October and November. All over that tract of country, whatever its extent, be it five hundred or
of wages varies from “25 to 30 cents (1s. Ofd. to 1s. 3d.) per day
for able-bodied labourers; the second class labourer gets from 15 five thousand square miles, the American cotton can be most successfully
to 20 cents per day.” This is the rate of wages paid to the and profitably cultivated, by merely taking advantage of the season, and sowing it at the latter end of June, or early in July,- later than that does
labourers unattached to the properties-the highest rate, viz.im not answer near so well."
ls. 3d. being paid to those engaged in manufacturing operations. Dr, Wight adds, that they had
They are remarkably industrious in their habits. “All their “Already collected 250 lbs. per acre off one of these early sown fields;
labourers' allotments are kept in the highest state of cultivation. and it does not look as if a single pound had come off it; while others,
The industry of the labourers is highly praiseworthy; they evince sown in August, can hardly, judging from present appearances, give as a strong desire to possess land.” Nor can this be wondered at much as that for their whole crop. The first sown fields will continue to since the wretched system still prevails in Barbadoes of making the yield cotton until the setting-in of the south-western Monsoon, in June occupancy of a hut dependent on labour for the estate, and not on next, producing, in the course of that long period, probably not fewer rent. Since emancipation, there has been an increasing improvethan 1000lbs. per acre.”
ment in the condition of the labouring classes. They are more Another letter also from Dr. Wight, dated Coimbatore, January comfortable in their houses, more courteous in their manners, and 20th, 1846, appeared in the “ Morning Chronicle” of the 13th more expensive in their dress. Under the provisions of the new inst., in which letter he says
Franchise Act, some of the emancipated class “voted at the last “I am now enabled to state, as the result actually obtained in the election of members for the general assembly.” Only one magiscourse of our experiment during two consecutive years, and neither of trate has given an unfavourable report of the labourers, which is these favourable ones, that our lands, when sown at the proper season, thus alluded to by the Governor, Sir. C. E. Grey :
.. ., are capable of yielding from 1000 to 1200lbs. of seed cotton per acre. The
1 “ These reports, with the sole exception of the first paragraph of that proper selection of the sowing season seems to make all the difference
of Dr. Bascom, the magistrate of St. Andrew's, are of a favourable and between very full and very light crops. Several fields appertaining to the
encouraging description, as to the condition of the people and the hope of
encouraging description, as to the co Government experimental farms, sown at the right season, having already,
their improvement. before the harvest is half completed, yielded between 600 and 700 lbs.
“In an island of only 110,000 acres, with a population of at leas per acre."-"As regards the quality of Indian grown American cotton, | 130,000 persons, there is an abundance of all that is necessary for the I believe that the crop now picking is not inferior to any New Orleans
sustenance and animal comfort of life. The mass of the people consists, grown on the banks of the Mississipi ;'' _"these examples go far to show
of able-bodied labourers in agriculture, who having lost the dislike for that the sources of past disappointment are at length discovered, and the | field labour which slavery had produced, are now a willing, active, and elements of future success known, and that, if duly encouraged by the industrious class, contented with a rate of money-wages which does not cotton trade of England, the culture of that description of cotton, which
on the average exceed 7s. a week, and yet having heart and soul enough is now taking root in India, will probably spread so fast as to render it
to wish for independence and to aim at the acquisition of property. impossible at this time to estimate the extent of ground which in a few Amongst the consequences are a small increase of freeholders, a more years will be covered by it."
general one of ratepayers; and that what is called the renting system, on This quantity of 1000 to 1200 lbs. of seed cotton per acre, is the leasing of tenements with small portions of land attached, is obtaining equal to the average produce of the cotton land of the United a footing in the island. States. Moreover, it would be certain to be produced cheaper than “By the returns of the inspectors of prisons, taken in conjunction the cotton grown in America, because it would have the advantage with the reports of the magistrates, your lordship will perceive that of being produced by free labour.
amongst this crowded and rapidly increasing population there has been no There is, therefore, much encouragement for our efforts, even
increase, either in the number of persons committed to prison, or in the as far as relates to India ; and there are other countries which cases of established crime. There is almost an entire absence of the might also be found capable of supplying us with free labour
more atrocious crimes. More than three years have passed since my cotton.
arrival in the island, without a single instance of sentence of death having
been passed by the Judge of the Criminal Court. There has been no In order, however, to unite the efforts of individuals, a society
indictment for murder ; no conviction for rape ; nor any sentence, I should be formed for the encouragement of free labour cotton; and the proper place for such a society is Manchester,—the centre of
believe, exceeding the punishment of two years' imprisonment and hard
labour." our cotton manufacture. By a society, is not intended a Cotton Company, a trading concern; but a society whose mode of operation
There can be no doubt, with such a population as this, Barwould, of course, be different, and whose first proceedings would, 1 badoes must have greatly advanced in prosperity. probably, be in the direction of India.
It is conceived that the present pamphlet has adduced ample reasons for withdrawing from our trading connection with the
AMERICAN SLAVERY. American slaveholder,-reasons that must commend themselves to the conscience of every enlightened Christian, and to every one
TO THE LONDON DIVISION OF THE PROVISIONAL COMMITTEE of moral and humane feeling ; and if the plan herein suggested be
OF THE PROPOSED EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE, approved of, it is hoped that it will be speedily adopted, and Gentlemen,-The Committee of the British and Foreign Antivigorously carried into effect.
Slavery Society trust that no apology will be deemed necessary on There is yet another reason which might be enlarged upon, their part, for introducing to your serious attention a subject of and which will strike most minds who give the subject a serious great practical importance, in connexion with the object you have, thought, and that is the uncertainty of our continuing at peace | for some time past, been endeavouring to realize. with the United States, and the probability of our connection being You are probably aware, gentlemen, that, at this moment, there terminated suddenly.
exist in thirteen of the states of the United States of North America