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little cleared, and there was plenty of those them, with which they have so many conanimals. The case is greatly altered now. nexions and ties of blood, interest, and affecThe beaver skins are not now to be had in tion, and which, it is well known, they all New England, but from very remote places love much more than they love one another? and at great prices. The trade is accordingly In short, there are so many causes that must declining there; so that, far from being able operate to prevent it, that I will venture to to make hats in any quantity for exportation, say, an union amongst them for such a purthey cannot supply their home demand; and pose is not merely improbable, it is impossiit is well known, that some thousand dozens ble. And if the union of the whole is imposare sent thither yearly from London, Bristol, sible, the attempt of a part must be madness; and Liverpool, and sold cheaper than the in- as those colonies that did not join the rebellion habitants can make them of equal goodness. would join the mother-country in suppressing In fact, the colonies are so little suited for es- it. When I say such an union is impossible, tablishing of manufactures, that they are con- I mean, without the most grievous tyranny tinually losing the few branches they acci- and oppression. People who have property dentally gain. The working brasiers, cutlers, in a country which they may lose, and priviand pewterers, as well as hatters, who have leges which they may endanger, are genehappened to go over from time to time and rally disposed to be quiet, and even to bear settle in the colonies, gradually drop the much, rather than hazard all. While the working part of their business, and import government is mild and just, while important their respective goods from England, whence civil and religious rights are secure, such subthey can have them cheaper and better than jects will be dutiful and obedient. The waves they can make them. They continue their do not rise but when the winds blow. shops indeed, in the same way of dealing; What such an administration as the duke but become sellers of brasiery, cutlery, pewter, of Alva's in the Netherlands might produce, hats, &c. brought from England, instead of I know not; but this I think I have a right being makers of those goods.
to deem impossible. And yet there were
two very manifest differences between that 5. The American colonies not dangerous case, and ours; and both are in our favour. in their nature to Great Britain.
The first, that Spain had already united the Thus much as to the apprehension of our seventeen provinces under one visible governcolonies becoming useless to us. I shall next ment, though the states continued independconsider the other supposition, that their ent: the second, that the inhabitants of those growth may render them dangerous.—Of provinces were of a nation not only different this, I own, I have not the least conception, from, but utterly unlike the Spaniards. Had when I consider that we have already four- the Netherlands been peopled from Spain, the teen separate governments on the maritime worst of oppression had probably not provoked coast of the continent; and, if we extend our them to wish a separation of government. It settlements, shall probably have as many might, and probably would, have ruined the more behind them on the inland side. Those country; but would never have produced an we now have are not only under different go- independent sovereignty. In fact, neither the vernors, but have different forms of govern- very worst of governments, the worst of poliment, different laws, different interests, and tics in the last century, nor the total abolition some of them different religious persuasions, of eir remaining liberty, in the provinces and different manners.—Their jealousy of of Spain itself, in the present, have produced each other is so great, that however necessa- any independency in Spain, that could be ry an union of the colonies has long been, for supported. The same may be observed of their common defence and security against France. their enemies, and how sensible soever each And let it not be said, that the neighbourcolony has been that of necessity; yet they hood of these to the seat of government has have never been able to effect such an union prevented a separation. While our strength among themselves; nor even to agree in re- at sea continues, the banks of the Ohio (in questing the mother-country to establish it point of easy and expeditious conveyance of for them. Nothing but the immediate com- troops) are nearer to London, than the remote mand of the crown has been able to produce parts of France and Spain to their respective even the imperfect union, but lately seen capitals; and much nearer than Connaught there, of the forces of some colonies. If they and Ulster were in the days of queen Elizacould not agree to unite for their defence beth. Nobody foretels the dissolution of the against the French and Indians, who were Russian monarchy from its extent; yet I will perpetually harassing their settlements, burn- venture to say, the eastern parts of it are aling their villages, and murdering their peo- ready much more inaccessible from Petersple; can it reasonably be supposed there is burgh, than the country on the Mississippi is any danger of their uniting against their from London; I mean, more men, in less own nation, which protects and encourages time, might be conveyed to the latter than
the former distance. The rivers Oby, Jene- and held: a world composed of above an hunsea, and Lena, do not facilitate the communi- dred languages, and sets of manners, different cation half so well by their course, nor are they from those of their masters. Yet this domihalf so practicable as the American rivers. To nion was unshakeable, till the loss of liberty this I shall only add the observation of Ma- and corruption of manners in the sovereign chiaval, in his Prince; that a government selo state overturned it. dom long preserves its dominion over those But what is the prudent policy inculcated who are foreigners to it; who, on the other by the remarker to obtain this end, security hand, fall with great ease, and continue inse- of dominion over our colonies ? It is, to parably annexed to the government of their leave the French in Canada, to “check” own nation : which he proves by the fate of their growth; for otherwise, our people may the English conquests in France. Yet with increase infinitely from all causes." We all these disadvantages, so difficult is it to have already seen in what manner the French overturn an established government, that it and their Indians check the growth of our was not without the assistance of France and colonies. It is a modest word, this check, for England, that the United Provinces supported massacreing men, women, and children ! The themselves: which teaches us, that
writer would, if he could, hide from himself 6. The French remaining in Canada, an from such a proposal, by couching it in ge
as well as from the public, the horror arising encouragament to disaffections in the British neral terms: it is no wonder he thought it a Colonies.-If they prove a check, that check“ subject not fit for discussion” in his letter; of the most barbarous nature.
he recommends it as “a point that should If the visionary danger of independence be the constant object of the minister's atin our colonies is to be feared ; nothing is tention!" But if Canada is restored on this more likely to render it substantial than the principle, will not Britain be guilty of all the neighbourhood of foreigners, at enmity with blood to be shed, all the murders to be comthe sovereign governments, capable of giv- mitted, in order to check this dreaded growth ing either aid,* or an asylum, as the event of our own people? Will not this be telling shall require. Yet against even these disad- the French in plain terms, that the horrid barvantages, did Spain preserve almost ten pro- barities they perpetrate with Indians on our vinces, merely through their want of union; colonists are agreeable to us; and that they which indeed could never have taken place need not apprehend the resentment of a goamong the others, but for causes, some of vernment, with whose views they so happily which are in our case impossible, and other's concur? Will not the colonies view it in this it is impious to suppose possible.
light? Will they have reason to consider The Romans well understood that policy, themselves any longer as subjects and chilwhich teaches the security arising to the dren, when they find their cruel enemies halchief government from separate states among
upon them by the country from whence the governed; when they restored the liber. they sprung; the government that owes them ties of states of Greece (oppressed but united protection, as it requires their obedience ? Is under Macedon) by an edict, that every state not this the most likely means of driving them should live under its own laws. They did into the arms of the French, who can invite not even name a governor. Independence of them by an offer of security, their own goeach other, and separate interests (though vernment chooses not to afford them? I would among a people united by common manners, not be thought to insinuate, that the remarker language, and I may say religion; inferior wants humanity. I know how little many neither in wisdom, bravery, nor their love of good-natured persons are affected by the disliberty, to the Romans themselves ;) was all tresses of people at a distance, and whom the security the sovereigns wished for their they do not know. There are even those, sovereignty. It is true, they did not call them- who, being present, can sympathize sincerely selves sovereigns; they set no value on the with the grief of a lady on the sudden death title; they were contented with possessing of a favourite bird ; and yet can read of the the thing. And possess it they did, even sinking of a city in Syria with very little conwithout a standing army: (what can be a
If it be, after all, thought necessary to stronger proof of the security of their posses- check the growth of our colonies, give me sion ?) And yet by a policy, similar to this leave to propose a method less cruel. It is a throughout, was the Roman world subdued method of which we have an example in
Scripture. The murder of husbands, of wives, *An idea was current during the war of independence, of brothers, sisters and children, whose pleasthat the revolt would not have taken place if the French ing society has been for some time enjoyed, had been left possessed of Canada at the peace of 1763. affects deeply the respective surviving relature independence considered the surrender by the tions; but grief for the death of a child just French as promoting it. Canada, during the war of born is short, and easily supported. The me1812–15 was so heavy a weight on the United States, thod I mean is that which was dictated by that in case of a future war it must be looked to.
the Egyptian policy, when the “ infinite in- ent ; and though I am far from thinking we crease" of the children of Israel was appre- have sugar-land enough, I cannot think Guahended as dangerous to the state.* Let an daloupe is so desirable an increase of it, as act of parliament then be made, enjoining the other objects the enemy would probably be colony midwives to stifle in the birth every infinitely more ready to part with. A country, third or fourth child. By this means you may fully inhabited by any nation, is no proper keep the colonies to their present size. And possession for another of different languages, if they were under the hard alternative of manners, and religion. It is hardly ever submitting to one or the other of these schemes tenable at less expense than it is worth. for checking their growth, I dare answer for But the isle of Cayenne, and its appendix, them, they would prefer the latter.
Equinoctial-France, having but very few inBut aŭ this debate about the propriety or habitants, and these therefore easily removed, impropriety of keeping or restoring Cana- would indeed be an acquisition every way da is possibly too early, We have taken suitable to our situation and desires. This the capital indeed, but the country is yet far would hold all that migrate from Barbadoes, the from being in our possession; and perhaps Leeward Islands, or Jamaica. It would cernever will be: for if our ministers are persuad- tainly recall into an English government in ed by such counsellors as the remarker, that which there would be room for millions) all the French there are " not the worst of neigh- who have before settled or purchased in Marbours,” and that if we had conquered Canada, tipico, Guadaloupe, Santa Cruz, or St John's; we ought, for our own sakes, to restore it, as except such as know not the value of an Enga check to the growth of our colonies; I am lish government, and such I am sure are not then afraid we shall never take it. For there worth recalling. are many ways of avoiding the completion of But should we keep Guadaloupe, we are the conquest, that will be less exceptionable told it would enable us to export 300,0001.in and less odious than the giving it up. sugars. Admit it to be true, though perhaps 7. Canada easily peopled, without draining might stop most of it here,—to whose profit is
the amazing increase of English consumption Great Britain of any of its inhabitants.
this to redound? To the profit of the French The objection I have often heard, that if inhabitants of the island : except a small part, we had Canada we could not people it, with that should fall to the share of the English out draining Britain of its inhabitants, is purchasers, but whose whole purchase money founded on ignorance of the nature of popu- must first be added to the wealth and cirlation in new countries. When we first be- culation of France. I grant, however, much gan to colonize in America, it was necessary of this 300,0001. would be expended in British to send people, and to send seed-corn; but it is manufactures. Perhaps too, a few of the landnot now necessary that we should furnish, for owners of Guadaloupe might dwell and spend a new colony, either one or the other. The their fortunes in Britain (though probably annual increment alone of our present colo- much fewer than of the inhabitants of North nies, without diminishing their numbers, or America.) I admit the advantage arising to requiring a man from hence, is sufficient in us from these circumstances (as far as they ten years to fill Canada with double the num-go) in the case of Guadaloupe, as well as in ber of English that it now has of French in- that of our other West India settlements. Yet habitants. Those who are protestants among even this consumption is little better than that the French will probably choose to remain of an allied nation would be, who should take under the English government; many will our manufactures and supply us with sugar, choose to remove, if they can be allowed to and put us to no great expense in defending sell their lands, improvements, and effects: the place of growth. But though our own the rest in that thin-settled country will in colonies expend among us almost the whole less than half a century, from the crowds of produce of our sugar, can we, or ought we to English settling round and among them, be promise ourselves this will be the case of Guablended and incorporated with our people both daloupe ? One 100,0001. will supply them in language and manners.
with British manufactures; and supposing we 8. The merits of Guadaloupe to Great can effectually prevent the introduction of Britain over-valued yet likely to be paid much those of France (which is morally impossible
in dearer for, than Canada.
a country used to them) the other 200,0001.
will still be spent in France, in the education In Guadaloupe the case is somewhat differ- of their children and support of themselves; * And Pharaoh said unto his people, behold the peo- or else be laid up there, where they will alple of the children of Israel are more and mightier than ways think their home to be. we; come on, let us deal wisely with them, lest they
Besides this consumption of British manu. multiply, and it come to pass, that when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies and fight factures, much is said of the benefit we shall against us, and so get them up out of the land. And have from the situation of Guadaloupe ; and the king spake to the Hebrew midwives, &c.—Exodus, chap. 1.
we are told of a trade to the Caraccas and
Spanish Main. In what respect Guadaloupe sures, that must necessarily have an effect is better situated for this trade than Jamaica, the direct contrary of what we have been inor even of our other islands, I am at a loss to dustriously taught to fear; and that Guadaguess. I believe it to be not so well situated loupe is, in point of advantage, but a very for that of the windward coast, as Tobago and small addition to our West-India possessions ; St. Lucia; which in this, as well as other re- rendered many ways less valuable to us, than spects, would be more valuable possessions, and it is to the Freneh, who will probably set which, I doubt not, the peace will secure to more value upon it, than upon a country (Ca
Nor is it nearly so well situated for that nada) that is much more valuable to us than of the rest of the Spanish Main as Jamaica. to them. As to the greater safety of our trade by the There is a great deal more to be said on possession of Guadaloupe, experience has con- all the parts of these subjects; but as it vinced us, that in reducing a single island, or would carry me into a detail
, that I fear even more, we stop the privateering business would tire the patience of my readers, and but little. Privateers still subsist, in equal if which I am not without apprehensions I have not greater numbers, and carry the vessels done already, I shall reserve what remains into Martinico, which before it was more con- till I dare venture again on the indulgence of venient to carry into Guadaloupe. Had we the public. all the Caribbees, it is true, they would in those parts be without shelter. Yet, upon the whole, I suppose it to be a
PLAIN TRUTH; doubtful point, and well worth consideration, Or, Serious Considerations on the present whether our obtaining possession of all the state of the city of Philadelphia, and proCaribbees would be more than a temporary vince of Pennsylvania. By a Tradesman benefit; as it would necessarily soon fill the of Philadelphia. French part of Hispaniola with French inhabitants, and thereby render it five times more mortales, vos ego apello. qui semper domos, villas, sig
Capta urbe, nihil fit reliqui victis. Sed, per deos imvaluable in time of peace, and little less than na, tabulas vestras, tantæ estimationis fecistis; si ista, impregnable in time of war, and would pro- si voluptatibus vestris olium præbere vultis expergis bably end in a few years in the uniting the mini aliquando, et capessite rernpublicam. Non agitur whole of that great and fertile island under a
nunc de sociorum injuriis; liberias et anima nostra in
dubio est. Dux hostium cum exercitu supra caput est. French government. It is agreed on all Vos cunciamini etiam nunc, et dubitatis quid faciatis ? hands, that our conquest of St. Christophers, Scilicet, res ipsa aspera est, sed vos non timetis eam. and driving the French from thence, first fur- Imo vero maxime ; sed inertia et mollitia animi, alius
alium expectantes, cunctamini; videlicit, diis iinmor nished Hispaniola with skilful and substantial talibus confisi, qui hanc rempublicam in maximis peri. planters, and was consequently the first oc culis servavere non votis, neque suppliciis mulieribus,
aurilia dcorum parantur: vigilando, agendo, bene concasion of its present opulence. On the other sulendo, prospere omnia cedunt. Ubi socordiæ rete at. hand, I will hazard an opinion, that valuable que ignaviæ tradideris, nequicquam deos implores; as the French possessions in the West Indies irati
, infestique sunt. are, and undeniable as the advantages they
It is said, the wise Italians make this proderive from them, there is somewhat to be verbial remark on our nation, viz. The Engweighed in the opposite scale. They cannot lish feel, but they do not see. That is, they at present make war with England, without are sensible of inconveniences when they are exposing those advantages, while divided present, but do not take sufficient care to preamong the numerous islands they now have, vent them: their natural courage makes much more than they would, were they pos- them too little apprehensive of danger, so that sessed of St. Domingo only; their own share they are often surprised by it, unprovided of of which would, if well cultivated, grow more the proper means of security. When it is too sugar than is now grown in all their West- late, they are sensible of their imprudence; India islands.
after great fires, they provide buckets and I have before said, I do not deny the utili- engines: after a pestilence, they think of keepty of the conquest, or even of our future pos- ing clean their streets and common sewers : session of Guadaloupe, if not bought too dear. and when a town has been sacked by their The trade of the West Indies is one of our enemies they provide for its defence, &c. most valuable trades. Our possessions there This kind of after-wisdom is indeed so comdeserve our greatest care and attention. So mon with us, as to occasion the vulgar, though do those of North America. I shall not enter very significant saying, When the steed' is into the invidious task of comparing their due stolen, you shut the stable door. estimation. It would be a very long, and a But the more insensible we generally are very disagreeable one, to run through every of public danger, and indifferent when warned thing material on this head. It is enough to of it, so much the more freely, openly, and our present point, if I have shown, that the earnestly, ought such as apprehend it to speak yalue of North America is capable of an im- their sentiments; that, if possible, those who mense increase, by an acquisition and mea- seem to sleep may be awakened, to think of
M. POR. CAT. IN SALUST.
some means of avoiding or preventing the ites it seems were at this time not very ormischief, before it be too late.
thodox in their religion, and their spies met Believing therefore, that it is my duty, I with a certain idolatrous priest of their own shall honestly speak my mind in the follow- persuasion, ver. 3, and they said to him, Who
brought thee hither? What makest thou in War, at this time, rages over a great part of this place ? And what hast thou here? (Would the known world; our newspapers are weekly to God no such priests were to be found among filled with fresh accounts of the destruction us.] And they said unto him, ver. 5.- Ask it every where occasions. Pennsylvania, in- counsel of God, that we may know, whether deed, situate in the centre of the colonies, our way which we go shall be prosperous : has hitherto enjoyed profound repose; and and the priest said unto them, Go in peace; though our nation is engaged in a bloody war, before the Lord is your way wherein you go. with two great and powerful kingdoms, yet, [Are there no priests among us, think you, defended, in a great degree, from the French, that might, in the like case, give an enemy as on the one hand, by the northern provinces, good encouragement? It is well known, that and from the Spaniards, on the other, by the we have numbers of the same religion with southern, at no small expense to each, our those, who of late encouraged the French people have, till lately, slept securely in their to invade our mother-country.] And they habitations.
came, verse 7, to Laish, and saw the people There is no British colony, excepting this, that were therein, how they dwelt CARELESS, but has made some kind of provision for its de- after the manner of the Zidonians, quiet and fence; many of them have therefore never SECURE. They thought themselves secure, been attempted by an enemy; and others, that no doubt; and as they never had been diswere attacked, have generally defended them- turbed, vainly imagined they never should. selves with success. The length and diffi- It is not unlikely, that some might see the culty of our bay and river have been thought danger they were exposed to by living in that so effectual a security to us, that hitherto no careless manner; but that, if these publicly means have been entered into, that might dis- expressed their apprehensions, the rest recourage an attempt upon us, or prevent its proached them as timorous persons, wanting succeeding.
courage or confidence in their gods, who (they But whatever security this might have been might say) had hitherto protected them. But while both country and city were poor, and the spies, verse 8, returned, and said to their the advantage to be expected scarce worth the countrymen, verse 9, Arise, that we may go hazard of an attempt, it is now doubted, whe-up against them; for we have seen the land, ther we can any longer safely depend upon it. and behold it is very good! And are ye
still! Our wealth, of late years much increased, is Be not slothful to go. Verse 10, when ye one strong temptation, our defenceless state go, ye shall come to a people secure: (that another, to induce an enemy to attack us; is, a people that apprehend no danger, and while the acquaintance they have lately gain- therefore have made no provision against it; ed with our bay and river, by means of the great encouragement this!) and to a large prisoners and flags of truce they have had land, and a place where there is no want of among us; by spies which they almost every any thing. What could they desire more? where maintain, and perhaps from traitors Accordingly we find, in the following verses, among ourselves; with the facility of getting that sir hundred men only, appointed with pilots to conduct them; and the known ab- weapons of war, undertcok the conquest of this sence of ships of war, during the greatest part large land; knowing that 600 men, armed of the year, from both Virginia and New York, and disciplined, would be an over-match perever since the war began, render the appear- haps for 60,000, unarmed, undisciplined, and ance of success to the enemy far more pro- off their guard. And when they went against mising, and therefore highly increase our it, the idolatrous priest, verse 17, with his danger.
graven image, and his ephod, and his seraThat our enemies may have spies abroad, phim, and his molten image, (plenty of superand some even in these colonies, will not be stitious trinkets) joined with them, and, no made much doubt of, when it is considered, doubt, gave them all the intelligence and asthat such has been the practice of all nations sistance in his power; his heart, as the text in all ages, whenever they were engaged, or assures us, being glad, perhaps for reasons intended to engage, in war. Of this we have more than one. And now, what was the fate an early example in the book of Judges (too of the poor Laish! The 600 men being arpertinent to our case, and therefore I must beg rived, found, as the spies had reported, a peoleave a little to enlarge upon it) where we ple QUIET and SECURE, verse 20, 21. And are told, Chap. xviii. 2. That the children they smole them with the edge of the sword, of Dan sent of their family five men from and burnt the city with FIRE; and there was their coasts to spie out the land, and search no DELIVERER, because it was far from Ziit, saying, Go, search the land. These Dan-don.-Not so far from Zidon, however, as