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nation that has carried on a war with disado them, we must border on each other for more vantage, and is unable to continue it, can be than fifteen hundred miles. The people that said, under such circumstances, to be indepen- inhabit the frontiers are generally the refuse dent; and while either side thinks itself in a of both nations, often of the worst morals and condition to demand an indemnification, there the least discretion; remote from the eye, the is no man in his senses, but will, cæteris pa- prudence, and the restraint of government. ribus, prefer an indemnification, that is a Injuries are therefore frequently, in some part cheaper and more effectual security than any or other of so long a frontier, committed on other he can think of. Nations in this situ- both sides, resentment provoked, the colonies ation demand and cede countries by almost are first engaged, and then the mother coun. every treaty of peace that is made. The tries. And two great nations can scarce be French part of the island of St. Christophers at war in Europe, but some other prince or was added to Great Britain in circumstances state thinks it a convenient opportunity to altogether similar to those in which a few revive some ancient claim, seize some advanmonths may probably place the country of tage, obtain some territory, or enlarge some Canada. Farther security has always been power at the expense of a neighbour. The deemed a motive with a conqueror to be less Aames of war, once kindled, often spread far moderate; and even the vanquished insist and wide, and the mischief is infinite. Happy upon security as a reason for demanding what it proved to both nations, that the Dutch were they acknowledge they could not otherwise prevailed on finally to cede the New Netherproperly ask. The security of the frontier of lands (now the province of New York) to us France on the side of the Netherlands was at the peace of 1674; a peace that has ever always considered in the negotiation, that be- since continued between us, but must have gan at Gertrudenburg, and ended with that been frequently disturbed, if they had retained

For the same reason they demanded the possession of that country, bordering seveand had Cape Breton. But a war, concluded ral hundred miles on our colonies of Pennsylto the advantage of France, has always added vania westward, Connecticut and the Massasomething to the power, either of France, or chusetts eastward. Nor is it to be wondered the house of Bourbon. Even that of 1733, at, that people of different language, religion, which she commenced with declarations of and manners, should in those remote parts her having no ambitious views, and which engage in frequent quarrels; when we find, finished by a treaty, at which the ministers of that even the people of our own colonies have France repeatedly declared, that she desired frequently been so exasperated against each nothing for herself

, in effect gained for her other, in their disputes abou:t boundaries, as Lorrain, an indemnification ten times the value to proceed to open violence and bloodshed. of all her North American possessions. In short, security and quiet of princes and states

2. Erecting forts in the back settlements, have ever been deemed sufficient reasons, almost in no instance a sufficient security when supported by power, for disposing of against the Indians and the French; but the rights; and such dispositions have never been possession of Canada implies every security, looked on as want of moderation. It has al- and ought to be had, while in our power. ways

been the foundation of the most general But the remarker thinks we shall be suffitreaties. The security of Germany was the ciently secure in America, if we raise Engargument for yielding considerable posses- lish forts at such passes as may at once make sions there to the Swedes: and the security of us respectable to the French and to the InEurope divided the Spanish monarchy by the dian nations.” The security desirable in partition treaty, made between powers who America may be considered as of three kinds. had no other right to dispose of any part of it. 1. A security of possession that the French There can be no cession that is not supposed shall not drive us out of the country. 2. A at least, to increase the power of the party to security of our planters from the inroads of whom it is made. It is enough that he has a savages, and the murders committed by them. right to ask it, and that he does it not merely 3. A security that the British nation shall to serve the purposes of a dangerous ambition. not be obliged, on every new war, to repeat

Canada, in the hands of Britain, will en- the immense expense occasioned by this, to danger the kingdom of France as little as any defend its possessions in America. Forts, in other cession; and from its situation and cir- the most important passes, may, I acknowcumstances cannot be hurtful to any other ledge, be of use to obtain the first kind of sestate. Rather, if peace be an advantage, this curity: but as those situations are far advanccession may be such to all Europe. The ed beyond the inhabitants, the expense of present war teaches us, that disputes arising maintaining and supplying the garrisons will in America, may be an occasion of embroiling be very great, even in time of full peace, and nations who have no concerns there. If the immense on every interruption of it; as it is French remain in Canada and Louisiana, fix easy for skulking-parties of the enemy, in the boundaries as you will between us and such long roads through the woods, to inter

cept and cut off our convoys, unless guarded militia, in such a country, we fird they can continually by great bodies of men.- The keep an army of ours in full employ for sevesecond kind of security will not be obtained ral years. We therefore shall not need to be by such forts, unless they were connected by told by our colonies, that if we leave Canada, a wall like that of China, from one end of our however circumscribed, to the French, “ we settlements to the other. If the Indians, when have done nothing;” we shall soon be made at war, marched like the Europeans, with sensible ourselves of this truth, and to our cost. great armies, heavy cannon, baggage, and I would not be understood to deny, that carriages; the passes through which alone even if we subdue and retain Canada, some such armies could penetrate our country, or few forts may be of use to secure the goods receive their supplies, being secured, all of the traders, and protect the commerce, in might be sufficienily secure; but the case is case of any sudden misunderstanding with widely different. They go to war, as they any tribe of Indians: but these forts will be call it

, in small parties; from fifty men best under the care of the colonies interdown to five. Their hunting life has made ested in the Indian trade, and garrisoned by them acquainted with the whole country, and their provincial forces, and at their own exscarce any part of it is impracticable to such pense. Their own interest will then inducc a party. They can travel through the woods the American governments to take care of even by night, and know how to conceal their such forts in proportion to their importance, tracks. They pass easily between your forts and see that the officers keep their corps full, undiscovered; and privately approach the and mind their duty. But any troops of ours settlements of your frontier inhabitants. They placed there, and accountable here, would, in need no convoys of provisions to follow them; such remote and obscure places, and at so for whether they are shifting from place to great a distance from the eye and inspection place in the woods, or lying in wait for an of superiors, soon become of little consequence, opportunity to strike a blow, every thicket and even though the French were left in possesevery stream furnishes so small a number with sion of Canada. If the four independent comsufficient subsistence. When they have sur. panies, maintained by the crown in New York prised separately, and murdered and scalped more than forty years, at a great expense, a dozen families, they are gone with incon- consisted, for most part of the time, of fagceivable expedition through unknown ways: gots chiefly; if their officers enjoyed their and it is very rare that pursuers have any places as sinecures, and were only, as a writchance of coming up with them. In short, er of that country styles them, a kind of mililong experience has taught our planters, that tary monks; if this was the state of troops they cannot rely upon forts as a security posted in a populous country, where the imagainst Indians; the inhabitants of Hackney position could not be so well concealed; what might as well rely upon the tower of London, may we expect will be the case of those, that to secure them against highwaymen and shall be posted two, three, or four hundred housebreakers.-As to the third kind of se- miles from the inhabitants, in such obscure curity, that we shall not, in a few years, have and remote places as Crown Point, Oswego, all we have done to do over again in America, Duquesne, or Niagara ? they would scarce and be obliged to employ the same number of be even faggots; they would dwindle to mere troops, and ships, at the same immense ex- names upon paper, and appear no where but pense, to defend our possessions there, while on the muster-rolls. we are in proportion weakened here : such Now all the kinds of security we have menforts I think, cannot prevent this. During a tioned are obtained by subduing and retaining peace, it is not to be doubted the French, who Canada. Our present possessions in America are adroit at fortifying, will likewise erect are secured ; our planters will no longer be forts in the most advantageous places of the massacred by the Indians, who, depending abcountry we leave them; which will make it solutely on us for what are now become the more difficult than ever to be reduced in case necessaries of life to them (guns, powder, of another war. We know by experience of hatchets, knives, and clothing) and having no this war, how extremely difficult it is to march other Europeans near, that can either supan army through the American woods, with ply them, or instigate them against us; there is its necessary cannon and stores, sufficient to no doubt of their being always disposed, if we reduce a very slight fort. The accounts at treat them with common justice, to live in the treasury will tell you, what amazing perpetual peace with us.

And with regard sums we have necessarily spent in the expe- to France, she cannot, in case of another war, ditions against two very trifling forts, Du- put us to the immense expense of defending quesne and Crown Point. While the French that long extended frontier; we shall then, retain their influence over the Indians, they as it were, have our backs against a wall in can easily keep our long extended frontier in America ; the sea coast will be easily protectcontinual alarm, by a very few of those peo- ed by our superior naval power : and here ple; and with a small number of regulars and “our own watchfulness and our own strength VOL. II. ... 2 B


will be properly, and cannot but be success- foundation than this have they been supposed fully employed. In this situation, the force the authors of a war, carried on for their adnow employed in that part of the world, may vantage only. It is a great mistake to imabe spared for any other service here or else- gine that the American country in question where; so that both the offensive and defen- between Great Britain and France is claimed sive strength of the British empire, on the j as the property of any individuals or public whole, will be greatly increased.

body in America ; or that the possession of it But to leave the French in possession of by Great Britain is likely, in any lucrative Canada, when it is in our power to remove view, to redound at all to the advantage of them, and depend (as the remarker proposes) any person there. On the other hand, the on our own á strength and watchfulness” to the bulk of the inhabitants of North America prevent the mischiefs that may attend it, are land-owners, whose lands are inferior in seems neither safe nor prudent. Happy as value to those of Britain, only by the want of we now are, under the best of kings, and in an equal number of people. It is true, the the prospect of a succession promising every accession of the large territory claimed before felicity a nation was ever blessed with; hap- the war began (especially if that be secured py too in the wisdom and vigour of every by the possession of Canada) will tend to the part of the administration; we cannot, we increase of the British subjects faster, than if ought not to promise ourselves the uninter- they had been confined within the mountains : rupted continuance of those blessings. The yet the increase within the mountains only safety of a considerable part of the state, and would evidently make the comparative poputhe interest of the whole, are not to be trust- lation equal to that of Great Britain much ed to the wisdom and vigour of future admi- sooner than it can be expected, when our nistrations; when a security is to be had people are spread over a country six times as more effectual, more constant, and much less large. I think this is the only point of light expensive. They, who can be moved by the in which this account is to be viewed, and is apprehension of dangers so remote, as that of the only one in which any of the colonies are the future independence of our colonies (a concerned.—No colony, no possessor of lands point I shall hereafter consider) seem scarcely in any colony, therefore, wishes for conquests, consistent with themselves, when they sup- or can be benefited by them, otherwise than pose we may rely on the wisdom and vigour as they may be a means of securing peace of an administration for their safety.— I should on their borders. No considerable advantage indeed think it less material whether Canada has resulted to the colonies by the conquests were ceded to us or not, if I had in view only of this war, or can result from confirming the security of possession in our colonies. 1 them by the peace, but what they must enjoy entirely agree with the remarker, that we in common with the rest of the British peoare in North America “a far greater conti- ple; with this evident drawback from their nental as well as naval power;" and that on- share of these advantages, that they will nely cowardice or ignorance can subject our co- cessarily lessen, or at least prevent the inlonies there to a French conquest. But for the crease of the value of what makes the princisame reason I disagree with him widely upon pal part of their private property -their another point.

land. A people, spread though the whole 3. The blood and treasure spent in the and secured by Canada in our hands, would

tract of country, on this side the Mississippi, American wars, not spent in the cause of the probably for some centuries find employment colonies alone.

in agriculture, and thereby free us at home I do not think, that our “ blood and trea- effectually from our fears of American manusure has been expended," as he intimates, factures. Unprejudiced men well know, that “ in the cause of the colonies," and that we all the penal and prohibitory laws that were are “ making conquests for them;" yet I be- ever thought on will not be sufficient to prelieve this is too common an error. I do not vent manufactures in a country, whose inhasay, they are altogether unconcerned in the bitants surpass the number that can subsist event. The inhabitants of them are, in com- by the husbandry of it. That this will be the mon with the other subjects of Great Britain, case in America soon, if our people remain anxious for the glory of her crown, the extent confined within the mountains, and almost of her power and commerce, the welfare and as soon should it be unsafe for them to live befuture repose of the whole British people. yond, though the country be ceded to us, no They could not therefore but take a large man acquainted with political and commershare in the affronts offered to Britain; and cial history can doubt. Manufactures are have been animated with a truly British spi- founded in poverty: it is the multitude of rit to exert themselves beyond their strength, poor without land in a country, and who must and against their evident interest. Yet so work for others at low wages or starve, that unfortunate have they been, that their virtue enables undertakers to carry on a manufachas made against them; for upon no better ) ture, and afford it cheap enough to prevent

the importation of the same kind from abroad, / spent in this war, as spent in “the cause of and to bear the expense of its own exportation. the colonies" only; and that they are "absurd -But no man, who can have a piece of land and ungrateful,” if they think we have done of his own, sufficient by his labour to subsist nothing, unless we “ make conquests for his family in plenty, is poor enough to be a them," and reduce Canada to gratify their manufacturer, and work for a master. Hence, “ vain ambition," &c. It will not be a conwhile there is land enough in America for quest for them, nor gratify any vain ambition our people, there can never be manufactures of theirs. It will be a conquest for the whole ; to any amount or value. It is a striking ob- and all our people will, in the increase of servation of a very able pen,* that the natu- trade, and the case of taxes, find the advan. ral livelihood of the thin inhabitants of a tage of it. Should we be obliged at any forest country is hunting; that of a greater time, to make a war for the protection of our number, pasturage : that of a middling popu- commerce, and to secure the exportation of lation, agriculture ; and that of the greatest, our manufactures, would it be fair to repremanufactures ; which last must subsist the sent such a war, merely as blood and treabulk of the people in a full country, or they sure spent in the cause of the weavers of must be subsisted by charity, or perish. The Yorkshire, Norwich, or the West; the cutextended population, therefore, that is most lers of Sheffield, or the buttonmakers of Biradvantageous to Great Britain, will be best mingham ? I hope it will appear before I end effected, because only effectually secured, by these sheets, that if ever there was a national the possession of Canada.

war, this is truly such a one: a war in which So far as the being of our present colonies the interest of the whole nation is directly in North America is concerned, I think indeed and fundamentally concerned. Those, who with the remarker, that the French there are would be thought deeply skilled in human not“ an enemy to be apprehended ;"—but nature, affect to discover self-interested views the expression is too vague to be applicable everywhere, at the bottom of the fairest to the present, or indeed to any other case. the most generous conduct. Suspicions and Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, unequal as they charges of this kind meet with ready reception are to this nation in power and numbers of and belief in the minds even of the multitude, people, are enemies to be still apprehended : and therefore less acuteness and address, than and the highlanders of Scotland have been the remarker is possessed of, would be suffiso for many ages, by the greatest princes of cient to persuade the nation generally, that Scotland and Britain. The wild Irish were all the zeal and spirit, manifested and exerted able to give a great deal of disturbance even to by the colonies in this war, was only in queen Elizabeth, and cost her more blood and their own cause,” to “make conquest for treasure than her war with Spain. Canada, themselves,” to engage us to make more for in the hands of France, has always stinted the them, to gratify their own “ vain ambition.” growth of our colonies, in the course of this But should they now humbly address the war, and indeed before it, has disturbed and mother-country in the terms and the sentivexed even the best and strongest of them; ments of the remarker; return her their has found means to murder thousands of their gratefiul acknowledgments for the blood and people, and unsettle a great part of their treasure she had spent in “their cause;" country. Much more able will it be to starve confess that enough had not been done “for the growth of an infant settlement. Canada them;" allow that “ English forts, raised in has also found means to make this nation proper passes, will, with the wisdom and spend two or three millions a year in America; vigour of her administration,” be a sufficient and a people, how small soever, that in their future protection ; express their desires that present situation, can do this as often as we their people may be confined within the mounhave a war with them, is, methinks, “an ene- tains, lest, if they be suffered to spread and my to be apprehended.”

extend themselves in the fertile and pleasant Our North American colonies are to be country on the other side, they should “inconsidered as the frontier of the British em- crease infinitely from all causes," “ live pire on that side. The frontier of any do wholly on their own labour" and become inminion being attacked, it becomes not mere- dependent; beg therefore that the French ly " the cause” of the people immediately may be suffered to remain in possession of attacked (the inhabitants of that frontier) but Canada, as their neighbourhood may be use. properly “the cause” of the whole body. ful to prevent our increase, and the removing Where the frontier people owe and pay obe-them may " in its consequences be even dandience, there they have a right to look for gerous :" — I say, should such an address from protection: no political proposition is better the colonies make its appearance here (thorigh, established than this. It is therefore invidi- according to the remarker, it would be a most ous, to represent the "blood and treasure" just and reasonable one) would it not, might * Dr. Adam Smith, who had not at this time printed

it not with more justice be answered :-We his Political Economy.

understand you, gentlemen, perfectly well:

you have only your interest in view: you , with Canada in our possession, our people in
want to have the people confined within your America will increase amazingly. I know,
present limits, that in a few years the lands that their common rate of increase, where
you are possessed of may increase tenfold in they are not molested by the enemy, is dou-
value ! you want to reduce the price of labour, bling their numbers every twenty-five years,
by increasing numbers on the same territory, by natural generation only; exclusive of the
that you may be able to set up manufactures accession of foreigners.* I think this increase
and vie with your mother-country! you would continuing would probably, in a century more,
have your people kept in a body, that you may make the number of British subjects on that
be more able to dispute the commands of the side the water more numerous than they now
crown, and obtain an independency. You are on this; But,
would have the French left in Canada, to
exercise your military virtue, and make you nies should cease being useful to the mother-

4. Not necessary that the American colo-
a warlike people, that you may have more
confidence to embark in schemes of disobedi- country. Their preference over the West-

Indian colonies stated. ence, and greater ability to support them! You have tasted too, the sweets of two or I am far from entertaining on that acTHREE MILLIONS sterling per annum spent count, any fears of their becoming either useamong you by our fleets and forces, and you less or dangerous to us; and I look on those are unwilling to be without a pretence for fears to be merely imaginary, and without kindling up another war, and thereby occasion- any probable foundation.—The remarker is ing a repetition of the same delightful doses ! reserved in giving his reasons; as in his opiBut, gentlemen, allow us to understand our nion this " is not a fit subject for discussion." interest a little likewise: we shall remove -I shall give mine, because I conceive it a the French from Canada, that you may live subject necessary to be discussed; and the in peace, and we be no more drained by your rather, as those fears, how groundless and chiquarrels. You shall have land enorgh to cul- merical soever, may by possessing the multitivate, that you may have neither necessity tude, possibly induce the ablest ministry to nor inclination to go into manufacture for you, conform to them against their own judgment; and govern you.

and thereby prevent the assuring to the Bri. A render of the Remarks may be apt to tish name and nation a stability and permasay, if this writer would have us restore Ca- nancy, that no man acquainted with history nada, on principles of moderation, how can durst have hoped for, till our American poswe, consistent with those principles, retain sessions opened the pleasing prospect. The Gaudaloupe, which he represents of so much remarker thinks, that our people in America, greater value !- I will endeavour to explain finding no check from Canada, would extend this, because by doing it, I shall have an op- themselves almost without bounds into the portunity of showing the truth and good inland parts, and increase infinitely from all sense of the answer to the interested applica- causes.” The very reasons he assigns for tion I have just supposed: the author then is their so extending, and which is indeed the only apparently and not really inconsistent true one (their being “invited to it by the with himself. If we can obtain the credit of pleasantness, fertility, and plenty of the counmoderation by restoring Canada, it is well: try,") may satisfy us, that this extension will but we should, however, restore it at all continue to proceed, as long as there remains events ; because it would not only be of no any pleasant fertile country within their use to us; but “ the possession of it (in his reach. And if we even suppose them confinopinion) may in its consequences be dange- ed by the waters of the Mississippi westward, rous.” As how? Why, plainly, (at length it and by those of St. Laurence and the lakes to comes out) if the French are not left there to the northward; yet still we shall leave them check the growth of our colonies, “ they room enough to increase, even in the manner will extend themselves almost without bounds of settling now practised there, till they into the inland parts, and increase infinitely, amount to perhaps a hundred millions of from all causes; becoming a numerous, hardy, souls. This must take some centuries to fulindependent people; possessed of a strong * The reason of this greater increase in America country, communicating little or not at all than in Europe is, that in old settled countries, all with England, living wholly on their own la trades, farms, offices, and employments are full: and bour, and in process of time knowing little and opening, in which they can settle themselves, with a inquiring little about the mother-country.” America, it being easy to obtain land. which, with In short, according to this writer, our present moderate labour will afford subsistence and something colonies are large enough and numerous to spare, people marry more readily and earlier in life, enough ; and the French ought to be left in pulation of those countries. It is a common error, that

whence arises a numerous offspring and the swift po. North America to prevent their increase, lest we cannot fill our provinces or increase the number of they become not only useless, but dangerous them, without draining this nation of its people. The to Britain. I agree with the gentleman, that I both those purposes. Written in 1760.]


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