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The style of Ovid is easy and graceful, and his versification harmonious. His taste is in many respects inferior to that of Virgil and Horace. He is far too fond of antitheses, is often prolix where he should be concise, and fanciful when he should be passionate. Considerable allowance must indeed be made for these and other imperfections in the Metamorphoses, as this work never received its finishing touches; but in his other poems similar defects frequently appear. His most serious fault, however, is the flagrant licentiousness with which many of his writings are infected, and for which, though living in a very corrupt age, no adequate apology can be made. From the extracts contained in this volume, great care has been taken to exclude every thing of an immoral tendency.

As the lines in the extracts in this volume are numbered successively, without regard to such passages of the original work as are here omitted, the student will have frequent occasion to notice, that the verses cited or referred to in the Lexicon do not correspond numerically with those contained in the text which he is perusing. In the following notes the references are always made to the text of this edition.

The Lexicon referred to, when not otherwise specified, is Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin Lexicon.


The Introduction contains the announcement of the subject of the poem and an invocation of the gods.

1. Fert animus, i. e. meus animus

me fert, “my mind leads me, i. e. 5. I design, propose, intend," cf. Hor. Ep. 1, 14, 8. See also Andrews' edition of Freund's Lat. Lex. under fero, II. B. 10, fin. In nova-mutatas dicere formas corpora. A case of hypallage, or interchange of construction, instead of corpora in novas formas mutata. See Gr. ◊ 323, 4, (3.) 2. Di. Ovid here invokes the assistance of all the Gods, and not that of the Muses only, assigning as a reason why they should aid him, Nam vos mulastis et illas.-Et illas, "those also."


Quem dixere," which they called," Gr. 209, R. 2, (2.)--For the gender of quem see Gr. ◊ 206, (10.) Rudis-moles, sc. quod erat.


Nec quicquam," and nothing."Congestaque eodem, etc. The English order is, Discordiaque semina rerum non bene junctarum congesta eodem. Eodem, 'into the same place,' 'together.'

3. Aspirate, i. e. favete See aspiro in Lex. no. A. trop. p. 151.

4. Perpetuum, i. e. continuum.— Deducite. See deduco, in Lex. no. B. 2.


Ante mare et terras, "before the sea and the dry land;" i. e. before their separate existence.


Unus erat,' was one,' and the same, was uniform.' Tolo-in orbe, "in the whole world, in the universe." The expression orbis or orbis terrarum for "the earth" "world," implies that the earth is a circular plane.


9. Semina, "the first principles, | 20. elements."

10. Lumina, 66 rays or beams of light."-Titan. Sol, the sun, is called Titan, as being the son of Hyperion, one of the Titans. Hence, also, his sister Phabe or Luna, the moon, is sometimes 21. called Titania.

11. Reparabat cornua. Reparare, "to repair, restore, renew, fill again."

13. Ponderibus librata suis. The earth is here represented as a vast circular plane suspended in the air, and nicely balanced on every side. The central parts of this plane are dry land, around which, and consequently occupying the outer parts of the circle, the ocean is spread out.-Longo margine, "around the long margin," sc. of the land, Gr. 254, R. 3. So in the 45th line, Dextra-sinistrâ parte. The ablative of the place, where or in which without a preposition is common in the poets. 14. Amphitrite, the wife of Neptune, is here put by metonymy for the sea itself. This is a spondaic line, Gr. ý 310, 1. See note on l. 62.

16. Instabilis-innabilis, Gr. § 129,


17. Lucis egens,-" without, destitute of―," Gr. ◊ 220, 3.—Sua, Gr. § 208, (7.)—Manebat, was per



18. In uno," in one and the same.' 19. Frigida pugnabant calidis—

Pugnare,' to contend with, to oppose or resist,' is, in the poets, often construed with the dative instead of the ablative with cum, Gr. 223, R. 2. In this passage it has both constructions.

i. e. habentia pondus


Sine ponam iis quæ

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erant) sine pondere," things having weight (with things) without weight," Gr. ý 205, R. 7, (2.)


Deus, "a god, some god." See lines 32, 48 and 79.-Et melior natura. It is here explanatory, even," f. Book 3, 130.

22. Cælo terras abscidit, Gr. ◊ 242. 23. Liquidim—cælum, "the pure ether," cf. l. 67 and 68.

Quae. the elements just mentioned postquam evolvit, Gr. $259, R. 12,) (d.)—Cæco acervo,


from the dark or chaotic mass. Dissociata locis, Gr. § 250; see note on l. 173.

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34. Ab omni parte," in every part,
on every side." This notion of the
necessity of maintaining a certain
balance in the solid parts of the
earth has continued, in some mea-
sure, to the present time.
35. Magni speciem glomeravit in
orbis. In poetry the preposition
is often thus placed after its noun
and before a genitive depending
on that noun. See Gr. § 195, R. 1;
and ( 323, 4, (1.)

36. Freta, "the sea, the ocean."—
Diffudit, "spread abroad."
39. Obliquis, "winding."-Cinxit,
"inclosed, shut in, confined."-
Declivia, sloping downwards,

40. Quæ, sc. flumina.-Diversa
locis, "being separate in their
places, occupying different situa-

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33. Ubi-secuit, Gr. § 259, R. 1, (2.)
(d.) The English order of this pas-
sage is, Ubi (ille,) risquis deorum
ille fuit, secuit congeriem sic dispos-
itam, redegitque (eam sic) sectam in
membra, principio, etc.-Conge- 44.
riem, "the chaotic mass."-Secuit 45.
sectamque. A species of paregme-
non, (Gr. 324, 24,) very common
in Ovid. See l. 402; 4, 349, 7, 97,
and 116; 8, 107 and 108; and 9,
58 and 59.-In membra, "into
parts or portions," as specified
above, W. 21-31.

43. Jussit et extendi campos. The
passive in a middle or reflexive
sense, "should extend them-
selves, should spread themselves
out." See Lex. under extendo, no.
I. So tegi, l. 44.
Fronde, "foliage.”

Dua-zona, i. e. the temperate and the frigid zones. Cf. 2,



Quinta, i. e. the torrid.-Et ut are understood before quinta, "and as."

Onus inclusum, "the inclosed
burden," i. e. the earth, which is
enfolded, as it were, in the heav-

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tes," hereafter to disturb frighten;" for mankind were not yet created. Motura, cf. 9, 48. 56. Et cum fulminibus, &c., instead of et fulmina et frigora, &c. -Frigora, Gr. 98. The ancients regarded lightning as produced by concussion of the clouds. Cf. 15, 11.

57. His, sc. ventis.-Non passim, fc., i. e. they are not permitted to occupy promiscuously such part of the heavens as they may choose, but have each his quarter assigned to him.

58. Aëra, Gr. § 80, I. & R. So 7.62, Persida, and 1. 68, æthera.- Vix nunc obsislitur illis," scarcely now is resistance made to them,"quin lanient," so but that they tear in pieces," i. e. "scarcely are they prevented from tearing in pieces." See Quin in Andrews' Dictionary of Cæsar.

60. Fratrum. The winds were represented as brethren, the sons of Astræus and Aurora. Cf. 14, 37. 61. Eurus.-In this enumeration no winds are mentioned except those occupying the four cardinal points. Eurus is opposed to Zephyrus and Boreas to Auster.Nabataea was a district in the eastern part of Arabia Petræa. Nabatea regna are put by synecdoche for the East. 62. Radiis juga subdita matutinis. The mountains of India are denoted by this expression. A spondee in the fifth foot is not uncommon in the Metamorphoses, especially at the end of a sentence and in proper names; cf. 2, 243; 5, 247; 11, 5; 4, 215, and 14, 196. 63. Quæ littora, i. e. ea littora, quæ. 64. Scythiam. The Romans com

prehended under this indefinite name all the high northern regions of the eastern continent. Septemque triones, i. e. et septentriones. See Septentriones in Lex. and cf. Virg. G. 3, 381.


Nubibus assiduis pluvioque madescit ab Austro. The conjunction here connects the animate with the inanimate agent.


Hac super, i. e. above the earth, the water, and the air. 69. Ea-omnia, sc. the earth, water, air and æther.


Effervescere, "to sparkle, twinkle." The figure is derived from the bubbling up of boiling fluids. 72. Neu regio ulla, " and that no region." Suis animantibus, "its living beings, its inhabitants."


Astra. The constellations are represented by the poets as having life. See 2, 77.-Cœleste solum, "the soil of heaven," i. e. "the heavenly vault." Forma deorum, "the forms of the gods," i. e. "the gods," e. g. the Sun and Moon.


Cesserunt, "fell to," i. e. became the possession of. Cf. 4, 213, and 5, 206.-Habitanda, Gr. Ø 274, R. 7.

76. Mentisque capacius alta, "and possessing higher intellectual pow ers."

77. Deerat, a synæresis, Gr. ◊ 306, (1.)-Quod--posset, i. e. tale ut id posset, Gr. 264, 5.-Cetera, sc. animalia. 79. Ille opifex rerum, cf. ll. 21 and 48.-Origo, i. e. "the maker,



Cognati, "kindred, having a common origin."


Quam, sc. tellurem.-Satus Iapeto, i. e. Prometheus, the son of

Iapetus, who was fabled to have | 100. Mollia peragebant otia, "enjoyed calm repose." -Secura, "free from care."

formed man of earth tempered
with water.-Mixtam fluvialibus
undis, Gr. ý 245, II., 2.
83. Moderantum. This participle
can be translated by a relative
clause, " who govern," Gr. ◊ 274,
3, and Andrews' First Latin Book,
Less. 122.

101. Immunis, "without compul-
sion, free."
Per se,


"of itself, sponta


84. Prona-animalia.

Cf. Sall.

Cat. 1.

103. Contenti, sc. homines.— Nullo cogente, no one compelling,” i. e. without compulsion, without cultivation. Cf. Virg. G. 1, 128; 2, 10, 106. Jovis arbore. The oak was sacred to Jupiter. See Phaedrus, 3, 17, 2.-Glandes, cf. Virg. G. 1, 7, and 148.

87. Sic, i. e. in consequence of the creation of mankind.-Sine imagine, "without form, shapeless." Cf. l. 26.

88. Ignotas, "(previously)

un- 108. Mulcebant, "lightly touched,
gently fanned."
110. Nec renovatus ager,
" and the
unfallowed field."

111. Flumina-ibant,-" flowed."
113. Saturno tenebrosa in Tartara
misso. Saturn, during whose
reign the golden age occurred, is
said to have been deprived of his
kingdom by his son Jupiter, and
banished to Tartarus; though
others represent him as retiring
privately to Latium.
114. Sub, "under," i. e. "subject
to,"-Subiit, "succeeded."
last syllable of subiit is lengthened
by cæsura, Gr. 309, 2. See note
on 10, 15, and cf. 5, 297; 15, 4; and
13, 443. Proles, "generation,




89. Prima, Gr. ◊ 205, R. 15.-Sata
est, was produced, began."
Vindice nullo, "though there was
no avenger of crimes," Gr. ◊ 257,
R. 7, and R. 1.

91. Fixo are, 66 upon the fastened
The Roman laws were
engraven upon plates of brass
which were affixed to the Capitol
or to some other public place,
that they might be read by the

92. Legebantur. Loers has ligabantur.-Turba timebat-sed eranttuti, Gr. ( 209, R. 11, (1.) and ý 205, R. 3.-Supplex turba, i. e. persons accused or prosecuted and their friends, who were wont to appear in court meanly clad and apparently overwhelmed with grief. 95. Pinus. The pine was anciently



much used in the construction of
ships. Cf. 14, 22, and 2, 184.
98. Directi, "straight."- -Flexi,

118. Spatiis, "intervals, seasons.'
211, R. 6.—Exegit, com-
pleted, terminated."
120. Canduit, cf. l. 435.—Adstricta,
'hardened, congealed."



99. Sine militis usu, "without the 123. Semina Cerealia, "the seeds aid of soldiers." bestowed by Ceres," i. e. corn.

116. Contraxit. In the golden age

spring was perpetual. See l. 107, 117. A line ending with three spondees.

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