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posed to the full shot of the enemy; or to sail down the waterfalls, with almost a certainty of being overwhelmed. Putnam did not hesitate, and jumped into his boat at a fortunate instant; for one of his companions, who was at a little distance, was a victim to the Indians. His enemies soon arrived, and discharged their muskets at the boat, before he could get out of their reach. No sooner had he escaped this danger, through the rapidity of the current, but death presented itself under a more terriffic forrn. Rocks, whose points projected above the surface of the water; large masses of timber, that nearly closed the passage ; absorbing gulfs, and rapid descents for more than a quarter of a mile, left him little hope of escape. Putnam, however, directed the helm with the utmost tranquillity. His companions saw him with admiration, terror, and astonishment, avoid with the utmost address the rocks and threatening gulfs, which they every instant expected to devour him. He disappeared, and rose again, till be at length gained the even surface of the river, at the bottom of this dreadful cascade. The Indians considered it a miracle. They looked upon Putnam as invulnerable ; and they feared to offend the Great Spirit, by attempting the life of a man so visibly under his immediate protection.
BEFORE the two armies, American and English, had begun the general action of Monmouth, two of the advanced batteries commenced a very severe fire against each other. As the warmth was excessive, the wife of a cannonier constantly ran to bring him water from a neighboring spring. At the moment when she started from the spring, to pass the post of her husband, she saw him fall, and hastened to assist
him; but he was dead. At the same moment she heard an officer order the cannon to be removed from its place, complaining that he could not
fill his post by as brave a man as had been killed. “No,” said the intrepid Molly, fixing her eyes upon the officer, “ the cannon shall not be removed for the want of some one to serve it; since my brave hus. band is no more, I will use my utmost exertions to avenge his death.” The activity and courage with which she performed the office of cannonier during the action, attracted the attention of all who witnessed it
, finally of General Washington himself, who afterwards gave her the rank of Lieutenant, and granted her half-pay during life. She wore an epaulette, and every body called her Captain Molly.
MAJOR BURNET'S CUE.
In the battle of Germantown, Major Burnet, the aid-de-camp of General Greene, wore a long cue after the fashion of the times, and as he turned round to attend to a dismounted cannon, his cue was cut off by a
musket ball from the enemy. * Don't hurry, my dear Major," cried Greene, laughing; "pray dismount and get that long cue of yours , don't be ina haste.
GENERAL VIEW OF THE UNITED STATES.
The chief agricultural occupations in the eastern States are grazing and the dairy. The middle States are principally devoted to the cultivation of wheat and maize; the southern to that of tobacco, cotton, sugar, and rice ; and the western to maize and wheat. Slavo labor is chiefly employed in the southern States, and in some of the middle and western. The following are among the most important articles of the growth of the United States in 1840 : Bushels of wheat,
108,298,060 Pounds of cotton,
The imports into the United States for the year ending 30th September, 1840, amount ed to one hundred and seven millions, one hundred and forty-one thousand, five hundred and nineteen dollars. The exports of domestic produce for the same time, to one hun. dred and thirteen millions, eight hundred and ninety-five thousand, six hundred and thirty-four dollars ; of foreign produce, to eighteen millions, one hundred and ninety thousand, three hundred and twelve dollars. Total exports, one hundred and thirty-two millions, eighty-five thousand, nine hundred and forty-six dollars. The most important exports are those of cotton, Aour, rice, tobacco, beef, pork, lumber, cattle, and horses. New Orleans has the greatest export trade, and New York the greatest imports. Most of the shipping is owned in the New England States and New York.
The value of the most important manufactures in 1840, was as follows: Manufacturde of wool, $20,696,999; manufactures of cotton, $46,350,453; mixed manufactures, $6,545,503; manufactures of tobacco, $5,819,568; of hats, caps, &c., $8,704,312;
of leather, $33,134, 403; of glass, $2,890,293 ; of refined sugars, &c., $3,250,700 ; of paper, $5,641,495 ; of cordage, $4,078,306 ; of carriages and wagons, $10,897,887. The total amount of capital invested in manufactures in 1840, was $267,726,579. In addition to the large establishments, it is estimated that two-thirds of the clothing worn by the agricultural population are the product of domestic manufactures. The greater portion of American manufactures are designed for internal consumption ; yet, in 1840, there were exported from the United States manufactured articles to the value of twelve millions, eight hundred and forty-eight thousand, eight hundred and forty dollars.
Nearly all the fisheries are carried on by the New England States. The whale fishery alone employs three hundred ships, averaging three hundred and forty tuns each. The products of the American fisheries in 1840, were as follows : 773,947 quintals dried and smoked fish ; 472,359 barrels pickled fish ; 4,764,708 gallons spermaceti oil; 7,536,778 gallons whale and other fish oil. The amount of capital invested in the fisheries is 816,429,620. The mackerel and herring fishery is pursued along the northern coast, and the cod fishery on that of Labrador and the Newfoundland banks
The national domain, or public lands, consists of tracts of territory ceded to the General Government by the several States ; of the lands in the Territory of Louisiana, pur. chased of France; and those in Florida, acquired by treaty from Spain. A vast portion of this land is occupied by the Indians, who are considered as proprietors of the soil till the government extinguish their title by purchase. A General Land Office, at Washing. ton, directs the sale of these territories. All the lands are surveyed before sale ; they are divided into townships of six miles square, which are subdivided into sections of one mile square, containing each six hundred and forty acres, and sold in sections, half, quar. ter, and all-quarter e ctions. The minimum price is fixed by law at a dollar and a quarter. All sales are made for cash. Salt springs and lead mines are reserved, but may be sold hy special orders from the President. One section of six hundred and forty acres is reserved in each township, as a fund for the perpetual support of schools. By the act of Congress of 1841, the annual proceeds of the sales of the public lands are to be divided in equitable portions among the States, according to their representative population, after deducting expenses of sales, and certain reservations granted for the benefit of the States in which the lands are situated. By a proviso in the act, however, the proceeds of the lands are to revert to the treasury whenever the duties on imports are made to exceed a tariff of twenty per cent.
The revenues of the United States have hitherto been derived from the customs, sales of lands, lead mines, the post-office, and stock held in the Bank of the United States. The only reliable source of revenue is now that derived from the customs. The totai revenue from all sources, for the year 1840, was thirty millions, four hundred and ten thousand, one hundred and sixty-seven dollars. The expenditure for the same year, in. cluding interest on public loan, and interest and principal on treasury notes, thirty-two millions, twenty-five thousand, and seventy dollars. The amount of the public debt er isting in 1842, is about ten millions in treasury notes outstanding, and seventeen millions of authorized bjan, making a total of about twenty-seven millions of dollars.
The army consists of two regiments of dragoons, four regiments of artillery, and eight regiments of infantry, under the command of one Major-General and two Brigadier. Generals. The numerical force, according to the returns of 1841, presents a total of 12,537. The navy consists of eleven ships of the line, fifteen frigates of the first class, two frigates of the second class, twenty-one sloops of war, four brigs, eight schooners, and five steam vessels. This estimate includes those upon the stocks, and the Home Squadron, established in 1841.
POST-OFFICE. The post-roads in the United States amount to one hundred and fifty-five thousand, seven hundred and thirty-nine miles ; and the yearly transportation of the mail is equal to thirty-six millions, three hundred and seventy thousand, seven hundred and seventy-six miles ; namely, twelve millions, one hundred and eighty-two thousand, four hundred and forty-five miles by horse and sulky; twenty millions, two hundred and ninety-nine thou. Band, two hundred and seventy-eight miles by stage and coach; and three millions, eight hundred and eighty-nine thousand, and fifty-three miles by railroad and steamboat. The number of post-offices in the United States is thirteen thousand six hundred and thirtyeight. The expenses of the post-office department in 1840 were four millions, seven hundred and fifty-nine thousand, one hundred and ten dollars. Receipts, four millions, five hundred and thirty-nine thousand, two hundred and sixty-five dollars.
MINT. The Mint of the United States commenced operations at Philadelphia, in 1793, and the branches in North Carolina, Georgia, and Louisiana, in 1838. Coinage of gold and silver bullion is performed free of expense to the owners. Statement of the Coinage at the Mint of the United States, for each successive period of
ten years, from the commencement of its operations until December 31st, 1840.
No. of Pieces.
Number of Pieces.
1793 to 1800 1801 to 1810 1811 to 1820 1821 to 1830 1831 to 1840
134,842 596,671 633,302 393,111 3,938,409
3,250,742:50 3,166,510.00 1,903,092.50 17,786,405.00
1,852,545 7,663,066 13,445,962 39,956,669 78,664,217
3,569,165-25 5,970,810.95 16,781,046.95 26,344,454:00
No. of Piecos.
Number of Pieces.
1793 to 1800 8,233,462 1801 to 1810 17,416,446 1811 to 1820 19,147,427 1821 to 1830 15,836,220 1831 to 1840 34,639,821
79,391.82 151,246.39 191,158:57 151,412:20 342,322:21
10,220,849 25,676,183 33,226,691 56,186,000 117,242,437
2,534,136.57 6,971,144:14 9,328,479:52 18,835,551.65 44,473,181.21