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intention in ascending the river. The latter replied, that they were endeavoring to find and lay out some shorter and better road to Virginia than the present one travelled by the Carolina settlers. Such a road,
they said, would accommodate the Indians as much as the English.
The sachems were still dissatisfied. They complained much of the conduct of the Carolina colonies towards them, and charged Lawson, in particular, with having stolen their land. The result of this unfortunate affair was the execution of Lawson, and the detention of Graffenried.
Fears of punishment for this outrage led to still further cruelties on the part of the Indians. A plan of general massacre was laid, and car. ried into too successful execution. About Roanoke, one hundred and thirty-seven of the whites were slain in a single evening. The Indian force amounted to twelve hundred bowmen, dispersed in small bands through the settlements. North Carolina did not contain two thousand fighting men in all, at this time. An express, therefore, had been immediately dispatched to the southern province for assistance.
Governor Craven lost no time in sending a force, as requested. The Charleston Assembly voted four thousand pounds for the service of the war; and a body of militia, under Colonel Barnwell, marched against the savages.
Directly after, were sent two hundred and eighteen friendly Cherokee Indians, seventy-nine Creeks, forty-one Catabaws, and twenty. eight Yamassees, well furnished with arms, and commanded by five Carolinian captains. In this expedition, nearly one thousand of the enemy were slain. But the savages still continued to cause great alarm, and the settlers on the Neuse and Pamlico rivers were almost ruined by their incursions.
In 1719, South Carolina ceased to be governed by the Proprietors, and became a royal province, subject, like Massachusetts and most of the other colonies, only to the King, through the Governor by him appointed. Carolina was divided into Northern and Southern about the same time. This revolution was effected by the people, taking their own cause into their own hands. They were dissatisfied with the Proprietors, and abjur. ed their authority. The King afterwards sanctioned their doings, and declared the rights of the Proprietors forfeited. In 1715, South Carolina was devastated by an Indian war. Even in the large and fortified town of Charleston, they excited great apprehensions. Martial law was proclaimed there by the Governor, and all vessels were forbidden to leave the harbor. Agents were dispatched to Virginia and to England for assistance, and bills stamped for the payment of the troops, within a few days. Governor Craven marched out into the back country, at the head of the militia, against the largest body of savages.
Meanwhile, the more northern Indians had advanced to within fifty miles from Charleston. Thomas Barker, a militia captain, collected ninety horsemen, and advanced against the enemy. But he was led, unfortunately, by the treachery of an Indian guide, into an ambuscade, where a large party of savages lay concealed on the ground. He advanced into the midst of them without suspecting his danger. They then suddenly sprang up from the bushes all around him, raised the war whocp, and fired upon his men. The captain and several more of the whites fell at the first onset, and the remainder retreated in disorder. In this war four
hundred Carolinians were massacred, and the loss of the Indians was very considerable.
GEORGIA—as well as what are now Mississippi and ALABAMA, both which have been cut off from it into separate States—was included in the patent granted to the Proprietors of Carolina. It was not till June 9, 1732, indeed, that a separate charter was granted by King George II. to a company of twenty-one English gentleman, entitled "" Trustees for establishing the colony of Georgia in America.”
James Edward Oglethorpe, one of the trustees, was among the emi. grants. So also was Mr. Herbert, an Episcopal English clergyman, and an Italian, engaged by the trustees to instruct the colonists in the art of
winding silk. They left England, November 16, 1732, in the ship Anne, Captain Thomas, and arrived at Charleston, January 13th of the next year. There Oglethorpe and his colony were very kindly treated, and furnished with all possible aid. Many of the Carolinians sent them provisions and hogs and cattle, to begin their stock. The Assembly roved to furnish them one hundred and four head of breeding cattle, trez:r-ere hogs and twenty barrels of rice. Some scout boats were als ordered, with a body of rangers, to protect the new adventurers from the snages in Georgia, while they should be preparing houses, or exploring the Georgian coast.
lethorpe now set sail again from Charleston, and landed, in a few dars Bear Famacraw blud. Here he tarried to examine the country; and being pleased with the high spot of ground just named, situated on a large rargate river, he fired on it for his new settlement. He marked out a trace the land, from the Indian name of the river which raas ni Saranmah.
Tie ceair for the enement of Georgia was incorporated by George II. Exen els part of America, free of expense, families laboring ezer eresoonerty. The design was laudable, but the ereengines ax ime" Canaged. Impolitic restrictions laid
in a stor from which their affairs never Rrrbread to be proprietary. In 1752, the charter was kirg and be gorernment modelled according to
SETTLEMENT OF THE NORTHERN STATES
Queen Mary the Catholic ascended the throne of England in 1553, and in less than six years, two hundred and seventy persons were burned, and more than twelve thousand Protestant or Puritan clergy. men were driven from their pulpits. The persecuted religion, however, still found thousands to profess it; for there never was a creed or faith which has not flourished from being trampled on. A congregation of two hundred persons were in the habit of holding their meetings in the very heart of London. These assemblies were held in secret, and under the cover of night. No secresy, however, could elude the vigilance of the Catholics, and the meeting was discovered. The house in which it was held, overhung the Thames, and it was watched only on the land side. This circumstance saved the congregation. A seaman belonging to it discovered the danger, leaped into the river, and procured
a boat, in which the Puritans were in a few hours conveyed to a place of safety.
When the spirited and absolute Elizabeth succeeded to the crown, she persecuted vast numbers for refusing to conform to the ceremonies of the English church. In 1602, a large company of those who refused to obey these rites, determined to leave England, for the Netherlands. They assembled, for this purpose, at a place near Boston, the capital of Lincolnshire, and a seaport. Their intended enterprize was discovered, and prevented by the interposition of public authority. In the following
year, a number of them resolved upon a second trial, and agreed with a Duich captain to carry them to Holland. After various accidents, they reached the place of their destination, and after remaining a year at Amsterdam, they removed to Leyden. Here they remained twelve years, when they procured a patent for land of the Virginia company in England, and on the 5th of August, 1620, set sail for the New World. They intended to settle at the mouth of the river Hudson, but as was supposed, through the connivance of the captain, they were carried much further north, and on the 11th of November, anchored in the harbor of Cape Cod. The very day they landed, an armed party was sent to make discoveries. They returned at night, having found nothing but water, woods, and sand hills. The next day was the Sabbath, and they all rested. On Monday, the men went on shore to refresh themselves; the women to wash, attended by a guard; and the carpenter began to repair the shallop for the purpose of coasting. On Wednesday, Captain Miles Standish took a party of sixteen men, well arined, and went to make further discoveries. About a mile from the sea, they saw five In. dians who fled. They pursued them ten miles; but, night coming on, they stationed sentinels, kindled a fire, and rested quietly around it.
On Wednesday, the 6th of December, the pilgrims sent out a fourth expedition. The ground was now covered with snow; and the cold wind froze the salt water on the clothes of the men, like coats of mail. Having landed, they made a fire, and slept in the woods the first night. The next day, they discovered an Indian burying-yard, surrounded by palisadoes. Many of the graves were staked around with a circle of wood. At five in the morning of the next day, there was a cry of "In dians ! Indians !” by the guard they had set, and a shower of arrows fell
in among them, followed by horrible yells. But the noise of the Eng. lish guns was still more terrible to the savages. They thought the report a sort of thunder and lightning, and fled in great fear. Their ar.