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groan, by way of assent to what was said, and laid dowr. three grains more. Smith was then entertained with another song and oration, the grain being laid down as before. All this continued till night, neither he nor they having a morsel of food. The Indians then feasted merrily upon all the provisions they could muster, giving Smith a good share of them. The ceremonies just described were repeated the two following days. Some maize meal which they strewed around him in circles, represented their country, they said ; the wheat, the bounds of the sea ; and something else was used to signify the country of the whites. They gave Smith to understand, that the earth was flat and round, like a trencher, themselves being situated, they said, precisely in the middle. After this they showed him a bag of English gunpowder, which they had taken from some of his men. They said they were going to preserve it carefully till the next spring, supposing it to be some new kind of grain which would yield them a harvest.

After an absence of seven weeks, Smith arrived at the colony just in season to prevent its abandonment; and it was with much difficulty that he could dissuade his companions from their determination to return to England. Pocahontas continued to display her partiality towards the whites, by furnishing the colony with supplies of provisions, till the arri. val of a vessel from the other side of the water. In the course of the year 1608, Smith made an exploring voyage up the Potomac. Here three or four thousand Indians, having a hint of his coming, lay in wait to kill him. They were frightened into peace, however, by a discharge of Smith's musketry, and even confessed that Powhatan had persuaded them to take up arms.

At the mouth of the Rappahannock river, Smith saw a fish, called the stingray, lying among the reeds near the bank. He struck at the fish with his sword, and received a severe wound in the wrist from the thorn in the tail of the stingray. The pain produced by the wound was so violent, that Smith's life was for a time despaired of. But he recovered, returned to Jamestown, and was chosen President of the colony the same

Smith made another voyage, of more than three thousand miles, along the coast and up the rivers, in August and September of this same year. He spent some time with the Susquehannock Indians, a tribe which knew nothing of Powhatan but his name. They had iron hatchets and other tools, which they had obtained from the French in Canada. These Indians are represented as giants in stature, the leg of one of them being three quarters of a yard round; but there was probably some mistake about this.

In 1609, Smith went to see the Indians again, and Powhatan endea. vored to get possession of his person; but his life was saved by Pocahon. tas, who came through the woods in the night, to his camp, and warned him of his danger. After this, Smith visited Opechancanough, the Indian King, at Pamunkey. They had agreed upon a place where they might meet to trade; but when Smith came there, he was beset by seven hundred savages. He boldly seized Opechancanough by the hair, and led him, trembling, into the midst of his people. The latter laid down their arms, and ransomed their prisoner by a large present of corn to


Smith. He left them the next day. At another time, as Smith was straying alone in the woods, he was attacked by the King Paspahey, a giant savage. After a violent struggle, Smith succeeded in getting him to the ground, bound him, and carried him on his shoulders to Jamestown.


Soon after this occurrence, Smith received a dangerous wound from an accidental explosion of some gunpowder, and was compelled to return to England for the purpose of obtaining medical assistance." It was natural,” observes the historian, Grahame, that he should abandon with regret the society he had so often preserved, the settlement he had conducted through difficulties as formidable as the infancy of Carthage or Rome had to encounter, and the scenes he had dignified by so much wisdom and virtue. But our sympathy with his regret is abated by the reflection, that a longer residence in the colony would speedily have consigned him to a very subordinate office, and might have deprived the world of that stock of valuable knowledge, and his own character of that accession of fame, which the publication of his travels has been the means of perpetuating.” Unfortunately, Smith never returned to Virginia, and his loss, as might have been anticipated, was a most lamentable circumstance for the colony. At the end of six months from the time of his departure, sixty only of five hundred colonists remained alive. They were soon after so disheartened that they embarked on board their vessels, with all their stores, and actually dropped down the James river as far as Mulberry island, with the intention of leaving the country forever. But, as they lay anchored at the island, a boat suddenly came in sight, which brought the news that Lord de la War was close at hand with an English feet, and a supply of stores. With this fleet the colonists returned to Jamestown.

Pocahontas afterwards married an Englishman, and went with her husband to his native country, where she was for several years an object of great curiosity and attention. She died at Gravesend, in 1616. The old King, Powhatan, died at a later period, at the age of nearly one hun

dred years.

In the year 1622, about sixteen months after the landing of the pil


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grims at Plymouth, Jamestown, and the smaller English settlements in Virginia, were simultaneously threatened with a general massacre. This wa on the 22d of March, the tribes round about having all been drawn together by Opechancanough, the brother of Powhatan. They had assembled from various parts of the country, marching secretly through the woods by night. The English were in perfect security, meanwhile, supposing the Indians to be friendly as ever. Opechancanough was so artful as to send presents of venison and wild fowl to the English on the morning of the fatal day. “ Sooner shall the sky fall,” said this deceitful old sachem, than the peace shall be violated on my part.”

But the terrible hour soon came. At mid-day the savages rushed out in immense numbers from the woods, all around the villages and houses of the whites, falling upon man, woman, and child, without mercy, mangling even the dead bodies of the murdered English, with the most ferocious cruelty. In one hour, three hundred and forty-seven of the English were killed. So sudden was the attack, that the people hardly knew who were their enemies, or where they had come from. It was mere chance that saved the colony from entire ruin. A Christian Indian, named Chanco, lived with one Richard Pace, and was kindly treated by him and his family. The night before the massacre, a brother of Chanco came and slept with him, told him the whole Indian plot, and directed him to undertake the murder of his master the next day. Poor Chanco was shocked, and the moment his brother had gone, disclosed the scheme to his master. Notice was immediately given in all directions among the English ; and thus Jamestown and some other places were saved. The Indians were severely punished for this massacre within a few years, and never after gave the colony much trouble.

After the massacre just related, nothing of great interest occurred ir. Virginia till the period of the revolutionary struggle. The settlements increased, village after village sprung up in the wilderness, and the colony became rich and powerful; the Indians gradually retired to the interior, as the white people encroached upon their hunting grounds, and, after many years, there were only a few scattered remnants of the nighty tribes who once threatened to drive the English emigrants away from the country.


The final and effectual settlement of Carolina originated with the Earl of Clarendon, and other courtiers of Charles II. On their application for a charter, he granted them all the lands lying between the thirty-first and thirty-sixth degrees of north latitude, to hold in absolute proprietor. ship, only reserving the sovereign dominion to the crown The first grant was made in 1663. A second and more definite charter was given to them in 1665, at which date there were two settlements within what is now North Carolina. The principal one was located a little north of Albemarle sound. The other was a small colony, which had removed from Massachusetts in 1660, and settled on what is now called Oldtown creek, near the south side of Clarendon river. They deserted their habitations in less than two years, and returned home, leaving many hogs and neat cattle in the hands of the Indians. The latter had quarrelled with them, and killed and stolen their cattle, for having sent off a few of their Indian children, to be educated in Massachusetts, as the colonists said, but as the Indians suspected, for the purpose of making them slaves. The loss of this colony was soon supplied by another of English planters from the island of Barbadoes. These planters, wishing to settle on the American continent, employed one Captain Hitten to explore the coast, in a small vessel, with a crew of fifteen or twenty men. He was ordered to be particular in examining the lands which the Massachusetts people had just left. In September, 1663, he landed within Cape Fear, and proceeded up Clarendon river with his boat, till his progress was stopped by floating logs. Soon after this, he purchased from the Indians a large tract of land, for which he paid them in kettles and beads.

Proprietary governments have seldom been known to flourish. Several colonies were established in different parts of the country, and various regulations were made for their management; and it is worthy of remark, that a Constitution of an aristocratic character, framed by the celebrated John Locke, was found to be entirely impracticable. In 1680, Charleston was founded, and emigration to Carolina from different parts of Europe became frequent; but by the neglect and incapacity of the Governors, the affairs of the colony were often involved in confusion.

The colonists of Carolina suffered but little from the Indians, till about the year 1703. At that time Governor Daniel stipulated by the treaty with the Indian chiefs, that no rum should be sold to an Indian by any trader. The young Indians, however, complained of this, as a restraint upon their natural liberty. Some time afterwards, they demanded and obtained the usual supply of rum, unawed by the great havoc which strong drink had occasioned among the tribes.

The Chowanoke Indians, who could bring three thousand bowmen into the field in Smith's time, were now reduced to fifteen men, and lived in a single miserable village on Bennett's creek. The Mangoacks had equally diminished in strength, and the powerful Muatocks had wholly disappeared. Fifteen hundred volunteers, living on the north side of Albemarle sound, had assembled at Dasamonquipo, in 1585, for the massacre of the English colony on Roanoke island ; but all the tribes to which these Indians belonged, were now reduced to forty-six fighting men.

In fact, the Tuscaroras, who lived on the Neuse river, were now the only powerful tribe in North Carolina ; they could muster one thousand two hundred fighting men; the Waccon Indians one hundred and twenty; and about a dozen other tribes together might muster half as many more. These Indians had observed, with natural indignation, the encroach. ments of the whites upon the reserved squares of the various tribes. Their temper was soured, to, by the frequent impositions of fraudulent traders.

The first white man who fell a sacrifice to their jealousy, was one John Lawson, well known among them as Surveyor-General of the province of North Carolina. He had marked off some of their lands, and among the rest, a tract of five thousand acres, and another of ten thousand, had been lately surveyed for Graffenried. Soon after this, Lawson and Graffenried, together, undertook to explore the waters of the Neuse. They took a small boat at Newbern, and ascended the river. In the evening of the first day, they stopped at Coram, an Indian village, where they intended to lodge. Here they met two Tuskaroras, though Lawson had assured Graffenried, that the banks were uninhabited. These two were soon after joined by a great number more, well armed. The Baron now grew uneasy. He whispered to Lawson, that they had better proceed up the river. Lawson assented, not liking the looks of the Indians himself; and they began to move off from the fire they had made, towards the river. They had no sooner reached their boats, however, than such a press of the savages followed close after them, that it became impossible io keep them off. They took the arms and provisions of the two travel


ers, and then stripped them of every thing else. The Indians afterwards

compelled them to accompany them to an Indian village, at a considerable • distance from the river. There the two captives were delivered to the

sachem of the village, who immediately called a council, at which one of the Indians delivered a long and violent speech. The question was then put, whether the whites should be bound : this was decided in the negative. The reason given was, that the guilty should always have an opportunity to defend and explain their conduct.

The next morning, the captives, anxious as to their fate, desired to know what the Indians intended to do with them. They were told, that the sachem would that evening invite a number of neighboring sachems to an entertainment, who would also assist in the trial, and the decision of the prisoners' fate. In the evening, accordingly, upwards of two hundred Indians collected, forty of whom were chiefs or leading men. By these forty, the prisoners were interrogated very closely, as to their

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