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He then, as the authorized Governor, proposed and delivered three laws, to be in force immediately; by the first, public worship was established according to the church of England ; by the second, the attempting of any thing prejudicial to her Majesty's title was declared treason; by the third, if any person should utter words to the dishonor of her Majesty, he should lose his ears, and have his ship and goods confiscated. When the proclamation was finished, obedience was promised by the general voice, both of Englishmen and strangers. Not far from the place of meeting, a pillar was afterwards erected, upon which were engraved the arms of England. For the better establishment of this possession, several parcels of land were granted by Sir Humphrey, by which the occupants were guaranteed grounds convenient to dress and dry their fish, of which privilege they had often been debarred, by those who had previously entered the harbor. For these grounds they covenanted to pay a certain rent and service to Sir Humphrey Gilbert, his heirs or assigns, for ever, and to maintain possession of them, by themselves or assignees. This formal possession, in consequence of the discovery by the Cabots, is considered the foundation of the right and title of the crown of Eng. land to the territory of Newfoundland, and to the fishery on its banks. Gilbert, intending to bring the southern parts of the country within his patent, the term of which had now nearly expired, hastened to make farther discoveries before his return to England. He therefore embarked from St. John's harbor with his little fleet, and sailed for the Isle of Sable, by the way of Cape Breton. After spending eight days in the navigation from Cape Race towards Cape Breton, the ship Admiral was cast away on some shoals, before any discovery of land, and nearly one hundred persons perished; among those was Stephen Parmenius Budeius, a learned Hungarian, who had accompanied the adventurers, to record their discoveries and exploits. Two days after this disaster, no land yet appearing, the waters being shallow, the coast unknown, the navigation dangerous, and the provisions scanty, it was resolved to return to England. Changing their course accordingly, they passed in sight of Cape Race on the 2d of September, but when they had sailed more than three hundred leagues on their way home, the frigate commanded by. Sir Humphrey Gilbert himself, foundered in a violent storm, at midnight, and every soul on board perished.
SETTLEMENT OF THE SOUTHERN STATES.
TERRIBLE as was the fate of Gilbert and his associates, the ardor of Raleigh was not daunted, nor his energies depressed. High in favor with Elizabeth, he found no difficulty in procuring a patent similar to that which had been granted to his unfortunate brother. 'Prompt in the execution, as intrepid in the projection of his plans, he speedily equipped two small vessels, under Amadas and Barlow, to obtain further information of the coasts, the soil, and the inhabitants of the regions he designed to colonize. Approaching America by the Gulf of Florida, they touched first at the island of Ocakoke, which runs parallel to the greater part of North Carolina, and then at Roanoke, near the mouth of Albemarle sound. In both they had some intercourse with the natives, whom they found to be savages, with all the characteristic qualities of uncivilized life-bravery, aversion to labor, hospitality, a propensity to admire, and a willingness to exchange their rude productions for English commodities, especially for iron, or any of the useful metals of which they were destitute. After spending a few weeks in this traffic, and in visiting some parts of the adjacent continent, Amadas and Barlow returned to England, and gave a most fervid description of the country they had been sent to explore. Their own words, as contained in their report to Sir Walter Raleigh, will convey a better idea of the mode of narrative adopted, and the effect produced, than any language of ours. “ The soile,” say they, " is the most plentifull
, sweete, fruitfull and wholesome of all the worlde; there are above fourteene severall sweete smelling timber trees, and the most part of their underwoods are bayes and such like; they have those okes that we have, but farre greater and better. After they had bene di. vers times aboord our shippes, myselfe, with seven more, went twentie mile into the river that runneth towarde the citie of Skicoak, which river they call Occam; and the evening following, we came to an island, which they call Raonoak, distant from the harbor by which we entered seven leagues; and at the north end thereof was a village of nine houses, built of cedar, and fortified round about with sharpe trees to keep out their enemies, and the entrance into it made like a turnpike, very artificially; when we came towardes it, standing neere unto the waters' side, the wife of Granganimo, the king's brother, came running out to meete us very cheerfully and friendly ; her husband was not then in the village; some of her people shee commanded to drawe our boate on shore for the beating of the billoe, others she appointed to cary us on their backes to the dry ground, and others to bring our oares into the house for feare of stealing. When we were come into the utter roome, having five roomes in her house, she caused us to sit downe by a greate fire, and after tooke off our clothes and washed them,' and dried them againe ; some of the women plucked off our stockings, and washed them, some washed our feete in warm water, and she herself tooke great paines to see all things ordered in the best manner she could, making great haste to dresse some meate for us to eate. After we had thus dryed ourselves, she brought us into the inner roome, where shee set on the boord standing along the house, some wheate like furmentie ; sodden venison and roasted ; fish, sodden, boyled and roasted; melons, rawe and sodden ; rootes of divers kindes; and divers fruites. Their drinke is commonly water, but while the grape lasteth, they drinke wine, and for want of caskes to keepe it, all the yere after they drink water, bui it is sodden with ginger in it, and black sinamon, and sometimes sassa phras, and divers other wholesome and medicinable hearbes and trees. We were entertained with all love and kindnesse, and with as much bountie, after their maner, as they could possibly devise. We found the people most gentle, loving, and faithfull, voide of all guile and trason, and such as live after the manner of the golden age. The people onley care howe to defend themselves from the cold in their short winter, and to feed themselves with such meat as the soile affordeth ; their meat is very well sodden, and they make broth very sweete and savorie ; their vessels are earthen pots, very large, white, and sweete; their dishes are wooden platters of sweete timber. Within the place where they feede was their lodging, and within that their idoli, which they worship, of whom they speake incredible things. While we were at meate, there came in at the gates two or three men with their bowes and arrowes from hunting, whom, when we espied, we beganne to looke one towardes another, and offered to reach our weapons; but as soone as shee espied our mistrust, shee was very much mooved, and caused some of her men to runne out, and take away their bowes and arrowes and breake them, and withall, beate the poore fellowes out of the gate againe. When we departed in the evening, and would not tarry all night, she was very sory, and gave us into our boate our supper half dressed, pottes and all, and brought us to our boate side, in which we lay all night, removing the same a prettie distance from the shoare; shee perceiving our jealousie, was much grieved, and sent divers men and thirtie women to sit all night on the banke-side by us, and sent us into our boates five mattes, to cover us from the raine, using very many wordes to intreate us to rest in their houses; but because we were fewe men, and if we had miscarried the voyage had bene in very great danger, we durst not adventure any thing, although there was no cause of doubt, for a more kinde and loving people there cannot be found in the worlde, as far as we have hitherto had triall.”
Delighted with the prospect of possessing a territory so far superior to any hitherto visited by her subjects, Elizabeth was pleased to honor both the newly discovered country and herself, by bestowing upon it the title of Virginia.
Soon after the return of the two ships, Sir Walter Raleigh was elected a member of Parliament from Devonshire. He was also knighted by
the Queen ; and his patent was confirmed by an act of Parliament. Seven ships were immediately prepared for a second expedition, and placed under the command of Ralph Lane and Sir Richard Granville. This little squadron reached the American coast on the 26th of July, 1585, and dropped their anchors outside of the bar, at Wococon. Lane and Granville, with fifty 'or sixty officers and men, immediately crossed the sound in boats, to explore the country.
Under the guidance of Mantee, an Indian who had sailed for England • rith the first expedition, and now returned, they made several excursions upon the coast, and discovered some Indian villages. They next ventured about eighty leagues, as they supposed, to the southward. In this direction, the utmost limits of their
discoveries was an Indian place called Socotan, near the present site of Beaufort, where they were civilly entertained by Wingini, an Indian chieftain. Here the water became so full of flats and shoals, that the English pinnaces could go no further. As they had but one small boat, and this could carry but four oars and fifteen men, with provisions for a few days, they concluded to turn back. Some of the party proceeded to Wococon by the shortest course ; but Granville, with the rest, returned to Aquascosack, a town on the waters of the Neuse. His object there was to demand a silver cup, which was stolen from him when he had first visited that town on his late circuit. He obtained he promise of its return, but the promise was not kept; and the Indians, apprehending danger, in consequence of his expected anger, fled to the woods. This drew upon them the indiscriminate vengeance of the English commander. The town of Aquascosack was burnt, and the standing corn and other crops utterly destroyed. This was a rash proceeding, to speak of it in the mildest terms; and it afterwards cost the English settlers very dear, by enraging the natives.
After this outrage, Granville sailed to the island of Roanoke, where he left behind him one hundred and eight persons, as the foundation of a colony. Mr. Lane was appointed Governor; and Armidas, one of the captains in the former voyage, was appointed Admiral. Thomas Heriot, a famous mathematician, and particular friend of Sir Walter Raleigh, also remained with the colony.
On the 18th of September, Granville arrived at Plymouth, bringing in with him a rich Spanish prize, which he had the good fortune to take
passage. The chief employment of the colony at Roanoke, meanwhile, was to explore the country for the purpose of acquiring a knowledge of its geography and its productions. Governor Lane made various excursions along the coast during the fall and winter. He was accompanied by Mr. Wythe, a skilful English painter, sent out by Raleigh, to take sketches of the situation of the country, and the figures and fashions of the natives. To the north, Lane advanced as far as the territories of the Chesapeakes, an Indian nation seated on a small river, now called Elizabeth, which falls into the great bay of Chesapeake, below Norfolk. To the north-wesi, he went up Albemarle sour he river Chowan, more than one hundred miles, to the settlements of a nation of Indians called the Chowanokes. These lived a little beyond the fork of the river, where one branch now takes the name of Nottoway, and the other of Meherrin