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treasury, are a full proof of the competency of the national resources, for any emergency, as they are of the willingness of our fellow citizens to bear the burdens, which the public necessities require. The vast amount of vacant lands, the value of which daily augments, forms an additional resource of great extent and duration. These resources, besides accomplishing every other necessary purpose, put it completely in the power of the United States to discharge the national debt af an enriy period. Peace is the best time for improvement and preparation of every kind; it is in peace that our commerce flourishes most; that taxes are most easily paid, and that the revenue is most productive."
He then remarked on the necessity of a faithful disbursement of the public money, and expressed his determination to do all in his power to secure the utmost economy and fidelity in this important branch of the administration. The absence of all foreign hostilities, and the return of domestic harmony, formed other gratifying topics of reflection. The speech concludes with a few observations on the instructive and useful examples presented by the administrations of his illustrious predecessors, and with the fervent hope that the Almighty would graciously continue that protection to the Republic, which He had already displayed so conspicuously in its favor.
On the conclusion of his address, the oath of office was administered to the President by the Chief Justice of the United States. A signal gun having been fired, salutes were given from the navy yard, the battery, Fort Warburton, and from a corps of artillery. The day was delightful, and the crowd of spectators, including numerous American and foreign functionaries, was estimated at from six to eight thousand.
Among the early appointments of President Monroe, was that of Mr. John Quincy Adams as Secretary for the department of State ; of Mr. William H. Crawford for the department of the Treasury; and Mr. Isaac Shelby,* of Kentucky, for the department of War. Mr. Čalhoun was afterwards appointed to the War department, and Mr. B.W. Crowninshield to the Navy. About the first of June, the President left Washington to commence his tour through the States; which gave occasion to so many speculations among newspaper politicians, and which elicited a most general expression of kindness, respect, and courtesy.
The President arrived at Baltimore on Sunday, the 1st of June, visited the field where the British general Ross received his fatal wound, reviewed a brigade of militia, visited various public works, received and answered a congratulatory address from the Mayor and City Council, and on Tuesday continued his journey as far as New-Castle. His reply to the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore was in the following words:
“Fellow CITIZENS,—The sentiments which you have cominunicated, have afforded me very great satisfaction. They are just, as to the objects adverted to, and to me they are generous and kind.
" It was impossible for me to approach Baltimore, without recollecting,
* Mr. Shelby did not accept the apointment.
with deep interest, the gallant conduct of her citizens, in the late war, and the happy results attending their exertions. The glorious victory which was achieved by her, and in which her citizens bore so distinguished a part, at a very important epoch, not only protected this patriotic city, but shed a great lustre on the American name.
Experience has shown our dangers, and admonished us as to the means of averting them. Congress has appropriated large sums of money, for the fortification of our coast, and inland frontier, and for the establishment of naval dock-yards, and building a navy. It is proper that those works should be executed with judgment, fidelity, and economy. Much depends, in the execution, on the Executive, to whom extensive
power is given, as to the general arrangement; and to whom the superintendence usually belongs. You do me justice in believing, that it is to enable me to discharge these duties, with the best advantage to my country, that I have undertaken this tour.
“From the increased harmony of public opinion, founded on the successful career of a government, which has never been equalled, and which promises, by a further developement of its faculties, to augment, in an eminent degree, the blessings of this favored people, I unite with you in all the anticipations which you have so justly suggested.
" In performing services, honestly and zealously intended for the benefit of my fellow citizens, I shall never entertain a doubt of their generous and firm support. Incapable of any feelings distinct from those of a citizen, I can assume no yle, in regard to them, different from that character; and it is a source of peculiar delight to me, to know that, while the Chief Magistrate of the United States acts fully up to this principle, he will require no other guard than what may be derived from their confidence and affection."*
On Wednesday the President proceeded up the Delaware, and arrived at the navy-yard in Philadelphia between three and four o'clock on Thursday, in the barge of the Franklin seventy-four, in which Commodore Murray and Captain Stuart had gone down to Wilmington to receive him. Every respectful attention was paid to him in this city.
* In the previous address of the Mayor was a passage which afforded the editor of the New York Post an opportunity for the following pleasant sally.
"Among other topics,” says the Post, “ of which this famous speech was composed, the following pompuus and important passage presents itself :
“That a city which bore so conspicuous a part in the national defence should first be honored with the presence of the Chief Magistrate of the Union, is as flattering as it is natural.'
“We cannot but accede to the truth of the observation, that it was natural that the President in his journey to the eastward, should visit Baltimore before he did Philadelphia, situated a hundred miles further on his route, nor enough admire the mgenuity that could turn such a circumstance into a flattering compliment to the former city. We should not have been surprised if the President, when he heard this, had cut Mr. Stiles as short, by expressing his entire satisfaction, as Henry IV. cut the French mayor, who came out to meet him on a similar occasion, and began a speech which he had prepared, containing ten reasons why they had not saluted his Majesty's approach with the discharge of cannon, the first of which was that they had no cannon, when the King interrupted him, and told him he might spare himself the trouble of giving the other nine."
While here the members of the Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati paid their respects to him and presented the following address :
· SiR-Embracing the occasion which your attention, as Chief Magistrate, to the military defence of the United States has afforded, it is with peculiar pleasure that the members of the Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati, a portion of the surviving few who were your associates in arms during the war of the revolution, approach to renew their personal intercourse, and to assure you of their cordial support to the firm and impartial administration of the government, which, by combining in its measures domestic tranquillity with the respect of foreign nations, they confidently anticipate, will promote the best interests of the United States, and insure to our citizens the advantages of social harmony and individual happiness.
" That you may participate those blessings, and enjoy the grateful esteem of a happy people, is the sincere wish of
" Your faithful friends, and respectful fellow citizens.” To which the President made the following reply:
“Fellow CITIZENS—In attending to the military and naval defence of the United States, nothing can be more gratifying to me than to meet the surviving members of my associates in arms, who distinguished themselves in our revolutionary contest. I can never forget the dangers of that great epoch, nor be indifferent to the merit of those who partook in them.
“ To promote tranquillity at home, and respect abroad, by a firm and impartial administration, are among the highest duties of the Chief Magistrate of the United States. To acquit myself in the discharge of these duties with advantage to my fellow citizens, will be the undeviating object of my zealous exertions. Their approbation will be the highest recompense which I can receive.”
It is the province of biography and memoir writing to record matters too trifling for the dignity of history. With this impression we scatter through our pages descriptions of manners and ceremonies, too unim, portant, apparently, to warrant any minute details, but yet interesting, as depicting those every-day fashions and changes, about which we are all naturally curious. With these observations we would preface the following account of the President's costume, and the extracts in the note*
“Mrs. Monroe is an elegant, accomplished woman. She possesses a charming mind, and dignity of manners, which peculiarly fit her for her elevated station. Her retired domestic habits will be much annoyed by what is called here society, if she does not totally change the etiquette (if it may be called so) established by Mrs. Washington, Adams, and Madison-a routine which her feeble constitution will not permit her to encounter; to go through it, she must become a perfect slave to the sacrifice of her health. The president, secretaries, senators, members, foreign ministers, consuls, comptrollers, auditors, accountants, officers of the navy and army of every grade, farmers, merchants, parsons, priests, lawyers, judges, notaries, auctioneers, office-hunters, brokers, clerks, stay-tape and buckram gentry, speculators, and nothingarians—all with their wives, and some with their gawking offspring crowd to the President's every Wednesday evening-some in shoes, most in boots, and many in spurs some snuffing, others chewing, and many longing for their cigar and whiskey punch left at homesome with powdered heads, others frizzled and
from a letter from Washington, dated previously to the inauguration of Mr. Monroe in his new office.
The barge fitted up for the reception of the President at Philadelphia, was lined and trimmed with crimson velvet, and rowed by sixteen oarsmen, dressed in scarlet vests, white sleeves and trowsers. The President was dressed in a dark blue coat, buff vest, doe-skin buff-colored breeches and top boots; he wore a military cocked hat of the fashion of the revolution, and a black bowed ribbon of the same fashion as a cockade.
On Thursday, the 12th of June, the President visited the fortifications and navy-yard at New-York, amidst salutes of cannon. On the following day he was publicly initiated as a member of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New York, when the President of the Association, Mr. De Witt Clinton, delivered an address. The reply of President Monroe to the address of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty of the city of New York, is one of the happiest specimens of the parade day oratory required for such an occasion. It is concise, vigorous, and eloquent:
"Fellow CITIZENS—In performing a duty enjoined on me by the constitution and laws of the United States, I cannot express the satisfaction which I derive from the intercourse to which it leads with so many of my fellow citizens; and from the opportunity it affords, to behold in person the blessings which an all gracious Providence has extended to them. In executing the laws which Congress have wisely adopted for the national desence, the Atlantic and inland frontiers of this State, by their exposed situation, are entitled to particular attention. I am aware, too, that this
oiled, with some whose heads a comb has never touched, half hid by dirty collars, reaching above their ears, as stiff as pasteboard. “Mrs. President, this is my wife' -Ma'am, this is my daughter—Mr. President, this is my Dick, a hopeful youth, "just freed from college rules," and light as the vapor he puffs from Havana's best.'
“How distressing to every man who feels for the honor and dignity of his government. Mrs. Madison feels all this, while she is harassed to death by these boobies, She must feel greatly relieved by her prospect of retirement. She is justly adored by all parties. This estimable woman, in “stooping to conquer, has carried her amiability and affability as far as to return the visits of all those who have called on her. It oug not to be expected that the wife of the President should return visits. Our nation is increasing so fast, and there is such an influx of foreigners here (particularly at this season of the year) that a stop ought to be put to it, and some rules adopted for the presentation of strangers to the Chief Magistrate and his family; otherwise his valuable time will be absorbed in ridiculous visits from the idle and curious. In the drawing-room no one ought, in my opinion, to be admitted, without a previous introduction to the President by some respectable member of the government; and if those members were not discreet in the characters and numbers of these introductions, they ought to be told of it. All judicious, sensible persons see now the necessity of such arrangements.
“These foreign ministers and agents, too, are far too intimate at the President's and with the different branches of the government. Towards them the same etiquette ought to be adopted, as is known to exist at their own courts. This they would not complain of. There is a respect due to our sachems, which this vulgar state of things diminishes. We allow our generals and commanders of ships to establish formalities at their posts, and on their quarter-decks; and will you not allow the President to form ceriain rules for the government of his house and the distribution of his time ?"
populous and flourishing city presents, in time of war, a strong teniptation to the cupidity of an invading foe. It is in the spirit of the laws which I am called to execute, it is in the spirit of the people whom I represent, to provide amply for the security of every part, according to the danger to which it is exposed. In performing this duty, I shall endeavor to be their faithful
organ. “The present prosperous condition of our country is, as you justly observe, the best proof of the excellence of our institutions, and of the wisdom with which they have been administered.
" It affords, too, a solid ground on which to indulge the most favorable anticipations as to the future. An enlightened people, educated in the principles of liberty, and blessed with a free government-bold, vigorous, and enterprising in the pursuit of every just and honorable attainment united by the strong ties of a common origin, of interest, and affectionpossessed of a vast and fertile territory—improving in agriculture, in the arts and manufactures-extending their commerce to every sea-already powerful, and rapidly increasing in population—have every inducement and every means whereby to perpetuate these blessings to the latest posterity.
"The honorable termination of the late war, whereby the rights of the nation were vindicated, should not lull us into repose-the events attending it show our vulnerable points; and it is in time of peace that we ought to provide by strong works for their defence.
“ The gallantry and good conduct of our army, navy, and militia, and the patriotism of our citizens, generally, so conspicuously displayed in that war, may always be relied on. Aided by such works, our frontiers will be impregnable.
“Devoted to the principles of our government from my earliest youth, and satisfied that the great blessings which we enjoy are, under Divine Providence, imputable to that great cause, it will be the object of my constant and zealous efforts to give to those principles their best effect Should I, by these efforts, contribute in any degree to the happiness of my fellow citizens, I shall derive from it the highest gratification of which my mind is susceptible."
While in New York the President was elected a member of the Society for the encouragement of American Manufactures; he attended a meeting of that Society, and avowed his desire to promote the object of their institution. John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison were elected members at the same time.
The President was received in a similar style of respectful hospitality, at New Haven, Hartford, Middletown, Springfield, and Boston. On reaching the southern entrance of Boston, he was met by the Committee of Arrangements, and received with a few words of welcome from the Honorable Mr. Otis : “Sir—You are now arrived within the limits of Boston, and these gentlemen are a Committee appointed to welcome your approach, and escort you to your lodgings. Upon your arrival there, they will avail themselves of your permission, to express to you in a more formal and respectful manner than can be done here, the assurances of the unfeigned satisfaction which the citizens of Boston realize in the honor