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for a peace are renewed, she will and wonderful things are reported, prove moderate in her demands. and expected from them. New The marriage of the Great Duke, reigns are generally vigorous in with a princess of Helle Darmstadt, their beginning; and as it is not and fifter to the Princess of Prullia, probable, that a prince at his first is of no other political consequence, coming out of a seraglio, in which than as it may be supposed to ope- he had been confined for forty rate in strengthening the connexion years, will have many opinions of between the courts of Petersburg his own upon public afiairs; it and Berlin. The confanguinity of may be imagined that he will for princes is, however, only produc- some time be guided by those, tive of effect, when their interests whom he finds already in their happen to draw in the fame line. poffeffion and management. By

The present year has been for- what has hitherto appeared, he is tunate to the Ottoman empire ; making such preparations, as indiand though the events of the war cate a prosecution of the war with have only afforded negative advan- redoubled vigour. tages, they are of such a nature as It would be a matter of no little to be of the greatest importance. difficulty, to form even any conjecThe abilities of a great minister, ture, upon the conduct of the two and the enterprizing spirit of a great Germanic powers. Their brave adventurer, have given a new incessant preparations for war, and colour to all their affairs. Egypt augmentation of their armies, withis recovered, Ali Bey no more, or out any apparent object, present us der restored in the coasts of the with a mystery, which can only be Lesser Afia, and their troops have unfolded by its effects. The great taken off their panic, and are at encampments formed by the Emlength taughi to behold an enemy peror, and the movements of his with a steady countenance. And troops on the Turkish frontiers, though the insurrection in Syria is made it imagined that he intended Atill kept alive by the Chiek Daher, to take an active part in the war it can now be attended with no upon the Danube; and it is not dangerous consequences ; and the impoflible that this apprehension face of things is so much changed had fome influence upon the confor the better, in the capital, the duct of the Ottomans in the course provinces, and the army, that it of the campaign. As no hoftilities may be supposed, it will not a lit- have taken place, it may not pertle contribute to the re-eltablih. haps be unreasonable to imagine,

that these motions were only inNo opinion can yet be formed, of tended to intimidate the Porte, and the effect that the death of the chereby induce it to enter into such Grand Signior (which took place terms of accommodation, as would soon after the close of the year) have answered the views of the may have upon public affairs. As court of Petersburg. It must at the little can be said as to the charac- same time be acknowledged, that ter of his successor. Princes are al- it is far from being a certainty, ways exalted beyond the condition that any such co-incidence of of humanity at their firft acceflion; friendship and sentiment, actually

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subsists between any two of the the States of Holland. This claim partitioning 'powers, except in what consists in a debt, of above a cenimmediately relates to their shares tury standing, and amounting to of Poland.

more than four millions of florins, Among the evils engendered by which is pretended to be owing the present age, there is no one from several of the cities belonging perhaps more fatal in its tendency, to the Republic, in the dutchy or contagious in its example, than of Cleves, to the house of Branthat which is now become fashion- denburgh. On the other fide it able in Gerinany and the North, was said, that this supposed debt, of reviving or setting up of obsolete with the titles on which it was and antiquated claims and titles, founded, had been expresly aboThe dangerous success which has lished by the treaty concluded in already attended this conduct, will August 1698, between the Elector extend the evil, if not timely and of Brandenburgh, Frederic the First, effeclually checked, to the loosen- and their High Mightinesses. As ing of all security, and the render- the demand for payment was howing all property precarious. A ever very pressing, it caused some claim of this nature, upon the city alarm in Holland; memorials were of Hamburgh, has lately been presented, and answers returned; started, and put in at Vienna, by but the affair does not yet seem to Count Schomberg. As the title of be determined. the Hamburghers to their liberties, An exchange of territory bas besides an original purchase several been much talked of, between the times acknowledged and confirm- King of Prussia and the Duke of ed, and a public declaration by the Mecklenburgh Schwerin, by which diet of the

empire in the year 1510, the latter resigns his paincipality, by which Hamburgh was acknow- and receives the King's part of the ledged a free and imperial city, dutchy. of Cleves in return. Tho' was strengthened by a prescription it may be highly eligible to a weak of five hundred years ftanding, prince, to get out of the talons of such an attempt at any other pe an overgrown neighbour, who surriod, would only have afforded rounds, oppresses, and overwhelms matter for mirth or ridicule. The him upon every occasion, and that case is now however very different; the value of the equivalent is not and the Hamburghers having un- so much considered in such a fitu.. derstood, that a neighbouring mo- ation, as the immediate ease and narch was in treaty to purchase the. security that attend it; yet such an Count's title, and had probably exchange, in the present state of urged him to the setting up of the affairs, would establish a most danclaim, the fate of Dantzick, struck gerous precedent in Germany. them in all its terrors, and has Proposals would soon be made to given them no insufficient cause for other weaker princes, to induce the most grievous apprehenfions. them to accept of equivalents, and

A claim in some degree of the such means would be taken with same nature, though not attended those who were not compliable, to with the same terror, has been render their inheritances uneasy and made by the King of Prusia upon of no use to them, that in a little

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rime they would deem it a happi As there seems to be a fashion ia ness to obtain

any exchange. all things, even in virtues and Such measures are probably the vices, to it appears in nothing firit that will be taken, to prepare more remaškably, than in ecclethe way for a total change of syf fiaftical affairs. While it was the tem in Germany.

mode of the times, to confer hoIndeed that empire seems to be nours, power, and possessions upon in as precarious a situation, as it the church, ihe was overwhelmed has been at any time since its foun with them; piety degenerated into dation. The equilibrium is en a vice; and private men ruined tirely overthrown, and it must be their families, and kings their only' by a series of the most extra- countries, only to make her too ordinary events, that it can be re- rich, and too potent. When this ftored. The fate of the venal and unnatural power and grandeur, arbitrary Polish nobility, presents had produced the distempers incia mirror to the German princes, dent to them, and it was thought which they could not too long nor neceffary to pluck off the adventitoo attentively study.

tious plumage, the side of fashion The total abolition of the Jesuits, took the contrary course with equal after they had for above two huna rapidity, and seems now to prodred years made so much noise, ceed with an eagerness, that threatand by their intrigues created fo ens to leave only the skeleton bemuch confusion in the world,

hind. though it has been so long expected, The great commercial failures, is fo remarkable an event, that it which threw such a damp last year will. ftamp the present year as a upon all bufiness in this country, diftinguished æra. The reduction arrived at their utmost extent, of the ecclefiaftical power, is now about the beginning of the present become so general in all the Ro. in Holland ; and were of so alarmman Catholic states, that it is no ing a nature, and so extensive in longer a particularity in any one;

their influence, as to threaten a and those encroachments which a mortal blow to all public and prifew years ago, would have made vate credit throughout Europe. the greatest noise, and have been These failures were the effect of an considered as maiters of the moft artificial credit, and of great spealarming nature, are now past over culative dealings in trade, as well in silence as things of course. Even as in the public funds of different the ecclesiastical princes are follow countries; and though attended ing the example of the secular, and with an immense loss to indivithe Bishop of Liege having met duals, of not less perhaps than ten with fome opposition, in his at- millions sterling, took nothing out tempts to secularize a convent of of the general stock, neither money monks in his own territories, has nor goods being thereby lessened. appealed to the Emperor, as Lord They would however, by lessening Paramount, upon that occafion. the value of those commodities, The event, with respect to the have been as pernicious in their monks, is not doubted.

effects, as if the loss had been real,

and

and nothing but the most judicious wanting the plainest and most comand timely remedies, could prevent mon necessaries of life. France, this fatal confequence.

though in a lesser degree, has been It is not to be wondered at, that a considerable sharer in this mif. the Republic of Holland, so long fortune ; and the distresses of the the emporium of trade, should people have occasioned riots and have pursued the wiseft measures disturbances in several of the proupon this occafion; and that in a vinces. Nor has the taking off of country of merchants, a number the bounty on exportation in Enof private men, from their long gland, with all the other measures acquaintance in nonied matters, that have been adopted to answer and knowledge of the vicissitudes the same purpose, been fufficient attending commerce, should have to remedy the evils, proceeding acted a manly, spirited, and gene- from inclement skies, and unusual rous part, for the support of public seasons. and private credit. But it was par No equal period of time, since ticularly fortunate, that without navigation and commerce have any time for pre-concert, fimilar brought diftant nations acquainted measures should have been adopted with the affairs of each other, has by most of the other trading na- presented such a number of 'earthtions; by which means the fatal quakes, in remote and different, consequences that were apprehend- parts of the world, as the present ed, were in a great degree pre- year. From the arctic regions to vented, and the mischief restrained the center of Africa,' and from the from becoming fo general as it extreme eaftern, to the western Inwould otherwise have done. Of dies, the globe was every where fome of these particulars we shall convulsed, and nature feemed take notice in their proper places. ftruggling in fome doubtful crisis.

The dearth, which has so long It has however pleased providence, afficted different parts of Europe, that the mischiefs have in no dehas this year been grievoufly felt gree corresponded with the appain several countries. Germany, rent danger, and have been infiBohemia, and Sweden, have pre- nitely greater at seasons, when the sented scenes of the greatest cala- shocks have been few in number, mity, and multitudes have perished and confined in their extent. in that miserable extremity, of

CH A P.

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Fruitless isue of the negociations for a peace at Bucharest. Nature of the

war on the Danube. Wile conduct of the Grand Vizir. State of the army under General Romanzow. Rufians pass the river; engagement ; nature of the country: difficulties on the march to Silistria. Attack on the Turkish encampment. Retreat from Siliffria. General Weisman killed. Ruffians repass the Danube. State and inaction of both armies. Latter campaign in Bulgaria. Turks defeated in different engagements. Attempt upon Varna; the Ruffians repuljed. Siege of Siliftria; brave defence; the fiege raised, and the Russians again obliged to repass the Danube. Hossein Bey. War in the Crimea, Russian operations in the Levant; alliance and connection with Ali Bey and the Chiek Daher; unsuccessful attempts: conduct with respect to the Venetians ; observations on the Media terranean War.

pre.

THI

HE negociations carried on land, to adjust difficult points with

at Bucharest for a peace, the other partitioning powers, to were as fruitless in the issue, as the observe the countenance borne by congress at Foczani had been be the rest of Europe upon so extraora fore. It seems probable that this dinary an innovation, and to 'ne. event, was equally foreseen and gociate loans, and recruit its arintended by each of the contending mies for the renewal of the war. parties; and that each had its di. No authentic account of these Ilinct motives, for gaining so long negociations has yet been laid bea pause, in the midst of a war that fore the public, nor would the decalled forth all its attention and tail be very interesting. The great, powers : either thereby to provide or ostensible bar to an accommodathe better for its renewal, or to'tion, is said to have been, the make use of that time in the ad- tended independency infifted upon justment of other difficult arrange. by kusia for the Crimca, at the ments, which could not be so well same time, that she also infifted attended to in the din and hurry upon the keeping of two strong

fortified garrisons in it, which from Thus the views of each of the their nature and situation, must belligerent powers were in a certain render the inhabitants of that pedegree answered. The Porte had nintula totally dependent on her, time to get rid of Ali Bey, to re and cut them off from their natural ftore order and obedience, in a and hereditary friends and allies. It considerable degree, in its di- is also said, that the Turks had in fracted dominions, and by the this, as well as in the former neestablishment of discipline to re- gociation, laid it down as a funftore confidence to its troops. On damental principle never to be des the other hand, the court of Pe- parted from, to preserve the indetersburg thereby gained time to pendency of Poland, and the union settle the new arrangements in Po. of all its parts inviolate. This

of arms.

seems.

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