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while their masters have endea. This has been sufficiently shewn voured by negociation and new ar since the conclusion of those treaties, rangements, to obviate the fatal by the late conduct of the Prussians confequences of their collifion.
with regard to Dantzick. And It must however be acknowledg- though the other two partitioning ed, that those heavy clouds which powers have not yet taken any steps overhung the political horizon are of the same nature, there is little far from being dispersed, and that room to doubt that in proper time whenever they burst it must be with and season they will follow the exa dreadful violence. The extraor- ample. Indeed the measures they dinary power and uncommon ac have all taken for a continual intivity of some of the continental terference in the affairs and governprinces, the jealousy of others, and ment of Poland, fufficiently explain the ambition of all, are ill calcu- the nature of their future designs. lated for the preservation of the Distracted and torn as this unpublic - tranquillity. Nations are happy country continues, it has now become soldiers, and must find not during this year presented those employment. Like the ancient shocking scenes of calamity, which Marauders of the Northern Hive, had long made it a spectacle, as their countries are become too nar much of horror, as of compassion. row for the support of so many The vaft armies with which it was armed men. The present state of covered, having rendered all opquiet, or rather of inaction, is position impracticable, the premore to be attributed to mutual tences for cruelty were taken away; diftruft and apprehension, and a and the multitude of spectators, sagacious caution, that waits for 'composed of different nations, and favourable circumstances or acci. under different commands, being a dents, than to a love of peace, or mutual check upon the 'enormities regard for justice.
of each other, the rage for blood The state of Poland is ftill unde- dwindled into regular oppreffion. termined. A diet indeed has been Upon the whole, the condition held, delegates appointed, and of Poland is not worse than it has treaties of cestion and dismember- been ; are the possibilities ment ratified ; and yet it would be fewer, in its favour. difficult to fhew that any thing has The fortune of Russia has not at been really concluded.
all been predominant this year with fide, the losers are obliged to fub- respect to the war. Their enemies mit to an inevitable present necef- become daily more habituated to fity, still hoping that some unex arms, and have been beaten into pected intervention of fortune, may order and discipline. Distance and enable them to reclaim their rights; fituation were also much against on the other, the demands of the them; and they have been taught by armed claimants, seem to increase experience the difficulties of a Bulwith their acquisitions and the fa- garian campaign ; a service, which cility of obtaining them. Thus can scarcely be carried on with a they both continue in their former probability of success, without the situation ; the one having ohtained affiftance of such a feet, as can no additional security in his new, maintain a superiority on the Blacknor the other in his old poffeffions.
Sea. The rebellion in the Crimea, whether the new acquisitions in and apprehensions of danger nearer Poland, or the influence gained in home, prevented, however, some of that country by the court of Petersthe exertions that might otherwise burg, be equivalent to the lofs, exhave been made in the war upon pence, and danger of such a war. the Danube.
There will be found upon examinIt still remains to be seen, whe- ation, to be very inadequate to such ther it was a wise policy in Russia, a price. If Poland still continued to attempt increasing the bulk of to be, what it long was, a great that vast empire, by adding new and powerful nation, under the conquelts to those boundless and ill- conduct of illustrious princes, and cultivated regions which she already guarded by a, nobility famous for poffeífes; and which are perhaps their prowess and military virtues, at present too large for the graip such an extension of frontier would of any single government. It may be a matter of real moment, and poslibly hereafter be thought, that carry with it great additional the immense waste of treasure and security. In the present instance blood, which has been fo lavishly these circumstances totally squandered in this pursuit, would changed. Rufia had nothing to have been much better applied to apprehend from Poland, and much the great purposes of population to gain by it. She has now oband internal improvement; and tained a large accession of territory that the glare of fruitless viétories, in Lithuania, of the same nature are a poor recompence for the dif- with respect to foil and climate, orders excited by the consequent and much in the same state as to oppressions of the people, and the cultivation, with those wide-exreal weakness that must ensue, tended, but half-desart countries, from so long, and so violent an which the had already possessed in exertion.
and which will ftill It was evident from the nature require the time and labour of ages and fituation of the countries, and to be peopled and cultivated. Both the consequences of former wars the old and the new poffeßions prowith the Turks, that conquests in duce the same commodities, have Moldavia, Wallachia, or Bessara- the same wants, require the same bia, and victories on the Pruth or degrees of improvement, and are the Danube, were not likely to be incapable of being of any use or attended with much benefit to affiftance to each other. Russia. The gaining of a port upon With respect to frontier, for the the Black Sea, was indeed an ob- neighbourhood of ihe peaceable, ject of the utmost importance; but indolent, and impotent Pole, Russia of such a nature as to be attended has now extended her boundaries almoft with insuperable difficulties; into contact with those of her jeaboth from the fatal aspect which it lous, watchful, and enterprizing muft bear to the Otioman empire, rivals; and has thereby laid the and the jealoufy which it muii ex foundation (if the preient system cite in several of the European continues) for such endless alterpowers.
cation and disputes, as must keep It fill remains to be enquired, Germany and the North in a con
tinual state of warfare and confu- which Nature has placed between fion. The wisest and most bene- those empires, their distance, situvolent statesman could not have ation, and vait extent, the extreme wished for a happier barrier than difference of climate, and in the Poland, to prevent the clathing of manners, customs, and religions of the German and Muscovite em the inhabitants, are insuperable pires ; nor could the demon of bars to their coalesceing; and rendisord have thrown out bitterer der it as impossible for Petersburg feeds of contention, than it is now to rule the Ottoman empire, as it likely to produce.
would be for Conftantinople to goAs to the obtaining or preserv- vern the Russian. ing of an influence in Poland, her The war in the Mediterranean, late measures have been attended has this year been attended with with as little advantage in that re-, little honour, and with no other spect, as in any other. Russia be- advantage than what proceeded fore, solely guided and directed the from the taking of prizes. As a councils of that country, nor could war of this nature is always very the have been deprived of the great prejudicial to commerce, and has fecurity and advantage which she in this case been particularly fo to derived from that unbounded in- the French merchants, it has given fluence; but by the most mistaken much umbrage to the two great conduct and falsest policy. She branches of the house of Bourbon. now divides her authority with the And as the death of Ali Bey, and other members of the triumvirate, the return of Egypt to its duty, has who will be sufficiently careful that cut off one of the principal sources the does 'not retain more than her of advantage that could be expected share; nor will her dividend in a from it, and that the passage of the future partition of the remains of Dardanelles seems no longer to be that republic, be in any degree thought practicable, it may still be an equivalent for the advantages a matter not unworthy of confiderwhich she has foregone, in losing ation, how much farther it may be that supreme influence and direc- consistent with prudence, to irritate tion by which the guided the the resentment of those princes ; whole.
and whether any advantages now Those schemes which were trum to be expected from a continuance peted throughout Europe, of to of the war, in the Levant, are equitally conquering and subverting the valent to the risque of a rupture Ottoman empire, however they with France and Spain. This fleet might have been held out to flatter however, has been lately reinforcthe imaginations of the people, or ed, and it is said will be rendered to answer purposes in negociations formidable in the ensuing summer. for loans, could not liave been se The cession of the dutchy of riously adopted by any ilatesman. Holstein to Denmark, is to be If the practicability of such an considered in no other light, than event, were even admitted, it could as a facrifice to the present war, answer no good purpose, and would and is therefore to be brought as a probably be highly pernicious to discount, on any future acivantages Rullia. The eternal boundaries that Rusia may obtain by it. At
the same time, nothing can be a this cession removes a bone of endclearer demonftration of the appre less contention from between those henfions which the latter had con itates. ceived, with respect to the designs. The despotism of the Russian goof a near northern neighbour, than vernment, can only secure obethe great price which she has upon dience, while the rods and the axes this occasion paid for the friendihip are immediately before the eyes of of the former.
the people; but as soon as distance, It was one of the most favourite or any other circumstance, screens and darling projects with Peter the them from the immediate exertion Great, to obtain, at any expence, of power, all discipline, order, and and by any means, a German prin- submission are at an end, and those cipality, with a vote in the diet of who were immediately before its the empire. The watchful, and most abject flaves, become at once prudent jealousy, with which even the moit arrogant contemners of his neareft allies regarded this de- all laws and obligations. To this fign, prevented its accomplishment. untoward disposition, (which, where They readily joined him in ftrip- religion does not rivet the chains, ping Sweden of its plumes, and is the inseparable attendant of deadorned themselves with a part of spotism) the Ruffians owe a new them; but prudently declined the war, which has this year broken honour of his becoming a nearer out in the Crimea; where the Don neighbour. This object, of which Cofracks, with others of their subhe was disappointed in himself, he jects, having revolted, and joined however wished to obtain for his with the Tartars, and those few successors, and it accordingly in Turks who were left in the counfluenced his conduct in the mar try, have become so formidable as riages of his children, in confe- ' nearly to matter the whole, and quence of which, the late unfortu- thus have rendered abortive, all nate Emperor, Peter the Third, their former successes in that peunited in his own person, the ninsula. dutchies of Sleswick and Holstein, A rebellion of a more dangerous with the empire of Russia.
nature has lately broken out in the Such is the vanity of human de- borders of the kingdom of Casan, signs and wisdom, that this object owing, it is said, to the extraorof so much care and solicitude, dinary impofitions laid on for the though his original paternal inhe- support of the war, and the contiritance, venerable for its antiquity, nual draughts of men carried off and of some consideration for its for the supply of the armies. For value and extent, is relinquished this purpose, notwithstanding the by the present fucceffor without any great improvements in knowledge equivalent ; Delmenhorit, and the and science which have taken place county of Oldenburgh, being in no in Ruffia, it was not yet thought degree to be considered as such. It too late, to raise a new Demetrius must however be acknowledged, from the dead. A Coffack, whose that these dutchies are of infinitely name is Pugatscheff, has assumed greater consequence and value to the name and character of the late Denmark than to Ruflia ; and that unfortunate Emperor Peter, the
Third. He pretends that he made termined, the particular detail will his efcape, through an extraordi- appear in its proper place upon a nary intervention of Providence, future occasion. from the murderers who were de. It is not probable that these reItined for his destruction; and that bellions will be attended with any the report of his death, was only a extraordinary confequences; they fiction coined by the court, to com however shew the precarious state pole the minds of the people, and of power in that empire: and it is reconcile them to the pretent un remarkable that they are the eflawful government, by being cut fects of a war, which was probably off from all hopes of a better. undertaken to prevent such com
This impofor, who pretends to motions. the greatest fanctity, allumes the The campaign this year upon garb of a patriarch, and beflows the Danube, though not produchis benedictions on the people, tive of advantage, mult, from its with the air of a new apoftle. He nature and dittance, have been more · declares that he has no views for expensive to Ruinia than any two his own intereft, he being entirely of the preceding. Upon the whole, weaned from the vanities of the in whatever light this war is conworld, and the remainder of his fidered, when separated from the life devoted whoily to piety; and glare of its victories, whether with that as soon as he has placed his respect to the waste of treasure, to dear fon upon the throne, he will depopulation, to the loss of Holagain retire to lead the life of a stein, to internal disturbances, or hermit. Notwithstanding the grofs- with regard to the removing of anness of this im poliure, the pitiable- cient landmarks and boundaries, ness and marvellous circumsances and overthrowing the established of the tale, operating upon the dif- fyliem of the North, thereby fet. content and ignorance of the peo- ting a precedent for the future ple, procured him an infinite num- breach of all faith and alliance, ber of followers, among whom, it is and forming precarious, unhatural, faid, were many of the nobility of and dangerous arrangements and the government of Oremberg, where connexions, in every point of view, the troubles began, as well as of it appears to have been highly the adjoining countries. This mat- ruinous and deftrucive to Rullia';
ier was regarded in fo and that no probable success or adDec. 23d, serious a degree in Pe- vantage to be hoped from it, will 1773
tersburg, that a mani. in any degree compenfate for the fefto was published againf Pugatf- evils which it has already brought, cheff, and his adherents, in which and the greater, which it is likely the reason of the people was appeale to entail upon that empire. ed to, for their guard againit such Upon a review of the genera} delufions. General Bibikow, and state of affairs at present, it seems several bodies of troops have also probable, that a speedy and final been sent to suppress the insurrec- conclusion of the war, cannot be tion; but as this matter only ori- unacceptable to the court of Petersginated near the close of the pre- burg; and it may be reasonably fent year, and is not yet finally de- imagined, that if the negociations