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west of Greenwich with the thirty-seventh parallel of latitude; running thence south to its point of intersection with the thirty-second parallel of latitude; thence west on this parallel to its intersection with the Rio Grande; thence southerly down the main channel of the Rio Grande to its point of intersection with the boundary line between the United States and Mexico; thence with this boundary to its intersection with the thirty-second meridian of longitude west from Washington; thence north along this meridian to the thirtyseventh parallel of latitude, and east along that parallel to the place of beginning.

The enabling act for the admission of New Mexico to the Union, dated June 16, 1906, included also provisions for the admission of Oklahoma and Arizona, the boundaries of each to be " as at present described.” 62 Further provisions for the admission of New Mexico were made by the act of June 20, 1910,63 and by the joint resolution of August 21, 1911,64 which required the acceptance of the Texas-New Mexico boundary line as described in the joint resolution of February 16, 1911 (p. 154). The proclamation by the President declaring New Mexico's admission to statehood in effect was dated January 6, 1912.

For reference to the survey and marking of the New Mexico-Texas boundary see Texas, pages 154-155. For reference to the northern boundary see Colorado, pages 200–201.

The line between New Mexico and Arizona was surveyed in 1875 under the direction of the General Land Office on a meridian determined by reference to a peak named The Needles, located by the Wheeler Survey in 1874, the latitude and longitude of which were taken as 36° 41' 40.3'' and 108° 50' 26.1", respectively. 85

This line intersected the south boundary of Colorado as marked hy Darling in 1868 (see p. 200) 1 mile 45 chains east of the mark established by him for the southwest corner of that State. The new corner established in 1875 is a sandstone post 7 feet by 12 inches by 6 inches, set 3 feet in the ground (see p. 201) and surrounded by a pile of stone. From this point the line was extended south with marks at mile intervals (most of them small stones inscribed "ARIZ” on the west side and "N MEX” on the east) a measured distance of 391 miles 48.31 chains to an intersection with the United States and Mexico boundary line. This intersection was marked by the 1891-1896 Mexican boundary survey with monument No. 71, the position of which is given as latitude 31° 19' 56.35'' longitude 109° 02' 56.82" (approximate North American datum).

34 Stat. L. pt. 1, 267.

36 Stat. L. pt. 1, 557. 37 Stat. L. pt. 1, 39. "The position given in Tables of geographic positions from data gathered by parties of the U. S. Geographical Surveys West of the One-hundredth meridian, p. 32, Washington, 1885, is latitude 36° 41' 28.0, longitude 108° 50' 18.1".

29313-23-14

BOUNDARY

1859

CLARK

MEX.

For a description of the south boundary see page 32. (See fig. 20.)

Suit was instituted in the United States Supreme Court in the October term, 1920 (No. 5, Original), by New Mexico against Texas to have the boundary between the two States south of latitude 32° fixed at the mid-channel of the Rio Grande as it flowed in 1850, when New Mexico was made a Territory, the claim being made by New Mexico that prior to an avulsion which occurred in 1864 the river was in many places east of its present position.

UTAH. Utah was established as a Territory by act of September 9, 1850, and included part of the area acquired from Mexico by the treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. (See fig. 21.) Its limits are given in the

following extract from the act by which it was created : 66

All that part of the territory

of the United States included S.E.COR. NEW

within the following limits, to

wit : bounded on the west by the NEW

State of California, on the north MEXICO

by the Territory of Oregon, and TEXAS

on the east by the summit of the Rocky Mountains, and on the south by the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude, be, and the same is hereby, created into a temporary government, by the name of the Territory of Utah.

This area was reduced by FIGURE 20,-Marks on the tablet at the southeast corner of New Mexico.

the formation, in 1861, of

the Territories of Nevada (see p. 207) and Colorado (see p. 199) and in 1864 and 1866 by the extension eastward of the limits of the State of Nevada.

The present boundaries of Utah are by statute as follows: Commencing with the intersection of the forty-second parallel of latitude with the thirty-fourth meridian of longitude west from Washington; running thence south on this meridian to the forty-first parallel of latitude; thence east on this parallel to the thirty-second meridian of longitude; thence south on this meridian to its intersection with the thirty-seventh parallel of latitude; thence west upon this parallel of latitude to its intersection with the thirty-seventh meridian of longitude; thence north on this meridian to its intersection with the forty-second parallel of latitude; thence east on the forty-second parallel of latitude to the place of beginning.

UNITED

ENNE

1911.

REESTABLI
STATES

GENERAL

COMMISSION

LAND

OFFICE
ENT

BOUNDARY

9 Stat. L. 453.

The enabling act for Utah, approved July 16, 1894, fixed its boundaries “as at present described."87 The admission to statehood was declared in effect by the President's proclamation of January 4, 1896.

The Utah-Idaho line was surveyed and marked in 1871 under the direction of the General Land Office. The initial point was fixed by reference to an astronomical station near Bear River. The position for the terminal mark was determined by a long series of observations for latitude with a zenith telescope. The initial mark was a wooden post 8 1/2 feet by 12 inches by 7 inches, marked " 34° W L” on the east, “UTAH” on the southwest, “IDAHO” on the north

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west, and “ 42 L 1871 ” on the north, which was surrounded by a large pile of stones. From this point a line was run due west a measured distance of 153 miles 56 chains to a point where an 8-foot cedar post was set in a mound of rocks and suitably marked for the common corners of Nevada and Utah on the Idaho line. A mark set in 1870 for these corners was destroyed, the new mark being placed 1 mile 12 chains farther south.

The Utah-Arizona boundary, on the thirty-seventh parallel of latitude, was surveyed and marked in 1901. The mark set in 1870 for the southwest corner of Utah was destroyed, as observations for latitude showed that it was 1 mile 31.51 chains too far north. A new corner-mark was established 7.88 chains south of the threehundredth mile mark of the Nevada boundary survey of 1870. This mark consisted of a sandstone post 6 feet by 16 by 12 inches, set in a pile of stones and marked “NEVADA” on the northwest, “UTAH” on the northeast, “ ARIZONA” on the southeast, and “ 37 N L 1901" on the southwest.

28 Stat. L. 107.

The line was run thence due east, checked by five latitude stations, a measured distance of 277 miles 5.18 chains, and intersected the post at the southwest corner of Colorado, set in 1875. The mark for each mile of this line is a stone post or iron pipe. Between the one hundred and fifty-second and one hundred and fifty-third mile marks the line passes over the top of a sandstone butte, the summit of which rises about 1,000 feet above the plain. (See Pl. VI, B.)

For reference to the survey of the west boundary of Utah see Nevada, pages 208–209, and for reference to the east boundary see Colorado, page 201. All these lines were run under the direction of the General Land Office.

ARIZONA.

Arizona was organized as a Territory by act of February 24, 1863, from the western part of the Territory of New Mexico (fig. 19) with boundaries described as follows: 68

That all that part of the present Territory of New Mexico situate west of a line running due south from the point where the southwest corner of the Territory of Colorado joins the northern boundary of the Territory of New Mexico to the southern boundary line of said Territory of New Mexico be, and the same is hereby, erected into a temporary government by the name of the Territory of Arizona.

In 1866 the area north of the middle of Colorado River and west of the thirty-seventh meridian west from Washington was added to Nevada.69

The admission of Arizona to the Union was provided for in acts of June 16, 1906,"o and June 20, 1910," and in a joint resolution approved August 21, 1911,72 and was declared in effect by proclamation dated February 14, 1912.

The present boundaries of Arizona are described as follows: Beginning at the point of intersection of the thirty-seventh parallel of latitude with the thirty-second meridian of longitude west from Washington; thence south along this meridian to its intersection with the boundary line between the United States and Mexico; thence with this boundary to Colorado River; thence up the middle of the main channel of Colorado River to its point of intersection with the thirty-seventh meridian of longitude; north on this meridian to its intersection with

ES 12 Stat. L. 665.
90 14 Stat. 43.
70 34 Stat. L. 267, pt. 1.
71 36 Stat. L. 570, pt. 1.
72 37 Stat. L. 39, pt. 1.

the thirty-seventh parallel; and eastward along the thirty-seventh parallel to the place of beginning.

For reference to surveys of the boundaries see pages 33, 203, 205206, and 208–209.

NEVADA, Nevada, as organized by act of March 2, 1861, consisted of territory taken from Utah. (See fig. 21.) The following are the boundaries as described in the act.73 beginning at the point of intersection of the forty-second degree of north latitude with the thirty-ninth degree of longitude west from Washington; thence running south on the line of said thirty-ninth degree of west longitude, until it intersects the northern boundary line of the Territory of New Mexico; thence due west to the dividing ridge separating the waters of Carson Valley from those that flow into the Pacific; thence on said dividing ridge northwardly to the forty-first degree of north latitude; thence due north to the southern boundary of the State of Oregon; thence due east to the place of beginning.

It will be observed that the limits thus described included a small area to be taken from the State of California. It was therefore

Prorided, That so much of the Territory within the present limits of the State of California shall not be included within this Territory until the State of California shall assent to the same.

The State of California having refused to cede the territory west of the one hundred and twentieth meridian, Congress by act of July 14, 1862,74 added to Nevada a strip of land more than 50 miles wide. west of the thirty-eighth meridian from Washington and extending from the north line of New Mexico to the forty-second parallel of latitude.

The boundaries, as described in the enabling act of March 21, 1864, were as follows: 75

That the said state of Nevada shall consist of all the territory included within the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing at a point formed by the intersection of the thirty-eighth degree of longitude west from Washington with the thirty-seventh degree of north latitude; thence due west along said thirtyseventh degree of north latitude to the eastern boundary line of the state of California ; thence in a northwesterly direction along the said eastern boundary line of the state of California to the forty-third degree of longitude west from Washington; thence north along said forty-third degree of west longitude and said eastern boundary line of the state of California to the forty-second degree of north latitude; thence due east along the said forty-second degree of north latitude to a point formed by its intersection with the aforesaid thirty-eighth ilegree of longitude west from Washington; thence due south down said thirtyeighth degree of west longitude to the place of beginning.

Nevada became a State by presidential proclamation dated October 31, 1864.

13 12 Stat, L. 209. 14 12 Stat. L. 575. 3 13 Stat. L. 30.

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