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300 MILES BOB FIGURE 17.-Historical diagram of Nebraska.

For plat showing the changes see General Land Office files, Nebraska township plats, volume 9. This change was approved by Nebraska by act of February 9, 1871.

In 1882 an act was passed transferring to this State from Dakota a small area lying between Keyapaha River and the forty-third parallel of latitude. The following is an extract from this act.28

That the northern boundary of the State of Nebraska shall be, and hereby is, subject to the provisions hereinafter contained, extended so as to include all that portion of the Territory of Dakota lying south of the forty-third parallel of north latitude and east of the Keyapaha River and west of the main channel of the Missouri River.

By act of March 1, 1905, Congress approved the compact between Nebraska and South Dakota, fixing the boundary south of Union County, S. Dak., in the middle of the main channel of Missouri River as it then existed.

The north boundary of Nebraska from the center of the Keyapaha westward was surveyed in 1874, after the proper position for the forty-third parallel had been found from an astronomic station near the east end of the line. In 1893 this line was retraced, and 7-foot cut-stone posts were placed at each mile and half-mile corner on the line as established in 1874. The stone set in 1869 for the northwest corner of the State was also replaced by one of the 7-foot posts. The reported length of this line was 224 miles 12.13 chains.

The United States Geological Survey, in 1891, located milepost 1844 in latitude 43° 00' 01.8”, longitude 103° 16' 25.5", and the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, in 1912, located milepost 222; in latitude 43° 00' 06.54", longitude 104° 00'02.46". Both positions refer to North American datum.

In 1893 the north boundary from Keyapaha River eastward was surveyed and marked with 7-foot cut-stone posts, and the distance was given as 57 miles 72.70 chains to a terminal mark 72.82 chains from high-water mark on the west bank of Missouri River.

The west boundary of Nebraska, including the part along the forty-first parallel, was surveyed in 1869 under the direction of the General Land Office. The initial astronomic station was at Julesburg, Colo., the position of which was taken as latitude 40° 59' 01.56" and longitude 25° 18' 30.90" west of Washington. From this station a line was measured due north 89.65 chains to the computed position of the forty-first parallel, thence due east 16 miles 10.47 chains to the computed position of the twenty-fifth degree of longitude west from Washington, where a 6-foot limestone corner post was established. From this point a random line was run due south to the calculated position of the fortieth parallel and the correct position was determined by astronomic observations. At the point thus found a limestone post 6 feet long by 1 foot square at top, appropriately marked, was set in a mound of earth, from which the line was run north, with marks (most of them wooden posts) set for each mile, a distance of 68 miles 79.59 chains to the forty-first meridian mark.

* 22 Stat. L. 35.

From the Julesburg meridian mark on the forty-first parallel the line was run west to the intersection with the twenty-seventh meridian, a total distance on the parallel of 104 miles 72.07 chains. The correct position of the twenty-seventh meridian was found from a telegraphic determination of longitude at a station 8 miles 49.45 chains east. From the intersection of the forty-first parallel and the twenty-seventh meridian, where a 6-foot stone post was set, the line was run northward on the twenty-seventh meridian to the northwest corner of Nebraska.

The Nebraska-Wyoming line was retraced in 1908 and re-marked with granite posts 6 feet long and 10 inches square at the top, each set 3 feet in the ground, and marked "WYO” on the west, “NEB” on the east, and the mile number on the south. The measured length of this line was 139 miles 22.43 chains.

KANSAS.

The Territory of Kansas was organized on May 30, 1854, from a part of Missouri Territory. (See Pl. VII.) The following clause from the act of organization defines its limits : 29 all that part of the Territory of the United States included within the following limits, except such portions thereof as are hereinafter expressly exempted from the operations of this act, to wit: beginning at a point on the western boundary of the State of Missouri, where the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude crosses the same; thence west on said parallel to the eastern boundary of New Mexico; thence north on said boundary to latitude thirtyeight; thence following said boundary westward to the east boundary of the Territory of Utah, on the summit of the Rocky Mountains; thence northward on said summit to the fortieth parallel of latitude; thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the State of Missouri; thence south with the western boundary of said State to the place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby, created into a temporary government by the name of the Territory of Kansas.

A portion of this area was given up to Colorado Territory in 1861. (See Colorado, p. 199.)

Kansas was admitted into the Union on January 29, 1861, with its present boundaries, which are thus defined in the enabling act: the said State shall consist of all the territory included within the following boundaries, to wit: beginning at a point on the western boundary of the State of Missouri, where the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude crosses the

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same; thence west on said parallel to the twenty-fifth meridian of longitude west from Washington; thence north on said meridian to the fortieth parallel of latitude; thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the State of Missouri; thence south with the western boundary of said State to the place of beginning.

The southern boundary of Kansas was surveyed in 1857. The initial point on the thirty-seventh parallel was found from astronomic observations on the Kansas-Missouri boundary line in longitude 94° 40' 26.3" and was checked by observations at 10 other astronomic stations. Marks were left at irregular intervals.

From the one hundred sixty-sixth mile to the two hundred twentysixth mile this line was resurveyed in 1872 and from the two hundred seventh mile to the two hundred sixty-eighth mile in 1873 by the General Land Office.

Two boundary stones were located by triangulation in 1902 on the Kansas-Oklahoma line-No. 160, a sandstone post 5 by 12 by 20 inches, projecting about 9 inches above ground, marked "160" on top, “K” on the north side, and “IT” on the south side, in latitude 36° 59' 54.98", longitude 97° 54' 01.98''; and No. 163, a stone marked as above described except that “163” is the number on top, in latitude 36° 59' 54.73", longitude 97° 57' 16.45", 31

The United States Geological Survey 82 in 1906 determined the position of the southeast corner of Kansas as latitude 36° 59' 55.2", longitude 94° 37' 03.3''.

The survey of the boundary between Kansas and Nebraska, which is also the base line for land surveys in the two States, was begun in 1854, and 108 miles of line west of Missouri River was run and marked; the marks with few exceptions were small wooden posts or stones. The initial position for the fortieth parallel was found by calculation and measurement from an astronomic station (latitude 40° 01' 10.3'') on the east side of the Missouri about 27 miles southeast from the mouth of the Big Nemaha. An initial monument of cast iron for this line was set up in 1855 at a point 52.55 chains west of the right bank of the Missouri, the marks on which are “NEBRASKA" on the north, "1854" on the east, “40° N LAT” on the west, and “KANSAS” on the south. This line was resurveyed and re-marked in 1855–56, and the marks on the former line were destroyed. From the 108th mile the line was extended west to the Rocky Mountains in 1858–59 as a base line of the land survey.

For the eastern boundary, see Missouri (pp. 177–178).

The western boundary of Kansas was surveyed in 1872 and from the 174th milepost south to the Oklahoma line was reestablished in

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*U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Rept. for 1903, p. 885. *U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 440, p. 490, 1910. * See General Land Office files, Kansas exterior plats, vol. 4, p. 2.

1908 by the General Land Office. Most of the marks left were small stones. Several marks on this line have been connected with triangulation stations, giving the following results:

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The Territory of Oklahoma was organized under the act of May 2, 1890, from the western part of the Indian Territory. (See pp. 56–57 and fig. 18.) Its limits as originally constituted were set forth in the act as follows: 34

That all that portion of the United States now known as the Indian Territory, except so much of the same as is actually occupied by the five civilized tribes, and the Indian tribes within the Quapaw Indian Agency, and except the unoccupied part of the Cherokee outlet, together with that portion of the United States known as the Public Land Strip,as is hereby erected into a temporary government by the name of the Territory of Oklahoma. The portion of the Indian Territory included in said Territory of Oklahoma is bounded by a line drawn as follows: Commencing at a point where the ninety-eighth meridian crosses the Red River; thence by said meridian to the point where it crosses the Canadian River; thence along said river to the west line of the Seminole country; thence along said I'ne to the north fork of the Canadian River; thence down said river to the west line of the Creek country, thence along said line to the northwest corner of the Creek country; thence along the north line of the Creek country, to the ninety-sixth meridian; thence northward by said meridian to the southern boundary line of Kansas; thence west along said line to the Arkansas River; thence down said river to the north line of the land occupied by the Ponca tribe of Indians, from which point the line runs so as to include all the lands occupied by the Ponca, Tonkawa, Otoe and Missouria, and the Pawnee tribes of Indians until it strikes the south line of the Cherokee Outlet, which it follows westward to the east line of the State of Texas; thence by the boundary line of the State of Texas to the point of beginning; the Public Land Strip which is included in said Territory of Oklahoma is bounded east by the one hundredth meridian, south by Texas, west by New Mexico, north by Colorado and Kansas. Whenever the interest of the Cherokee Indians in the land known as the Cherokee outlet shall have been extinguished and the President shall make proclamation thereof, said outlet shall thereupon and without further legislation become a part of the Territory of Oklahoma. Any other lands within the Indian Territory not embraced within these boundaries, shall hereafter become a part of the Territory of Oklahoma whenever the Indian nation or tribe owning such lands shall signify

4 26 Stat. L. 81-82.
* Donaldson, Thomas, op. cit., pp. 462, 1187.

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