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The following is an abstract of the engineer's report of the line run under direction of the commissioners from New York, the Connecticut commissioners declining to be present or assist:

Beginning at the northwest cornor of Connecticut, at the monument erected by the commissioners of New York and Connecticut in 1731, latitude 42° 02' 58.54", longitude 73° 30' 06.66''; thence south 11° 20' west, 464 chains, to the forty-seventh mile monument;" thence south 12° 34' west, 239 chains 57 links, to the forty-fourth mile monument point; thence south 11° 33' west, 160 chains, 99 links, to the forty-second mile monument; thence south 13° 16' west, 161 chains 24 links, to the fortieth mile monument point; thence south 12° 21' west, 398 chains 21 links, to the thirty-fifth mile monument; thence south 12° 32' west, 158 chains 96 links, to the thirty-third mile monument; thence south 11° 44' west, 243 chains 37 links, to the thirtieth mile monument; thence south 12" 27' west, 161 chains 32 links, to the twenty-eighth mile monument; thence south 10° 56' west, 160 chains, to the twenty-sixth mile monument point; thence south 11° 39' west, 320 chains 11 links, to the twenty-second mile monoment; thence south 12° 18' west, 163 chains 17 links, to the twentieth mile monument; thence south 11° 49' west, 159 chains 9 links, to the eighteenth mile monument; thence south 12° 19' west, 157 chains 15 links, to the sixteenth mile monument; thence south 10° 11' west, 161 chains 7 links, to the fourteenth mile monument; thence south 10° 51' west, 313 chains 41 links, to the tenth mile monument point; thence south 12° 24' west, 155 chains 71 links, to the eighth mile monument; thence south 10° 19' west, 159 chains 28 links, to the sixth mile monument point; thence south 12° 10' west, 164 chains 42 links, to the fourth mile monument; thence south 11° 44' west, 158 chains 99 links, to the 2-mile monument; thence south 14° 10' west, 109 chains 41 links, to the Ridgefield angle monument; thence south 25° 8' east, 213 chains 39 links, to the fourth mile monument on the east line of the oblong between the Wilton and Ridgefield angles; thence south 24° 48' east, 157 chains 63 links, to the 2-mile monument; thence south 24° 14' east, 167 chains 28 links, to the Wilton angle monument, or southeast corner of the oblong as set off by the commissioners of 1731; thence south 67° 45' west, 138 chains 76 links, to the southwest corner of the oblong, and being where the survey of 1725 terminated; thence south 65° 44' west, 90 chains 87 links, to a point considered the origi. nal twelfth mile monument point; thence south 66° 56' west, 241 chains 93 links, to a point called the ninth mile monument; thence south 66° 45' west, 319 chains 12 links, to the fifth mile monument point; thence south 66° 25' west, 398 chains 40 links, to the angle at the Duke's Trees; thence south 23 38' east, 172 chains 93 links, to a point which is west-southwest and distant 32 rods from the chimney in the old Clapp house; thence south 24° 21' east, 224 chains 78 links, to a point opposite the old William Anderson house; thence south 24° 19' east, 173 chains 7 links, to the great stone at the ancient wading place on Byram River; thence south 17° 45' west, 12 chains 60 links, to a rock in the river which can be seen at low tide, in which there is a bolt; thence south 27° west, 55 chains 19 links; thence south 7° 20' east, 13 chains 45 links; thence south 12° 10' east, 16 chains 13 links; thence south 2° 40'

62 The mile monuments referred to are those at that time remaining which were estab lished by the Connecticut and New York commissioners of 1731.

08 The entire distance from the Massachusetts line to Ridgefield angle is 52 miles 35 rods, a difference of only 5 rods from the survey of 1731.

east, 9 chains 4 links; thence south 28° 25' east, 9 chains 54 links; thence south 18° 40' east, 4 chains 77 links; thence south 11° 55' west, 6 chains 33 links; thence south 58° 10' west, to where it falls into the sound.“

In 1880 commissioners were appointed by Connecticut and New York to settle the boundary between the two States. Their report was ratified in the same year.

These commissioners reported as follows:

We agree that the boundary on the land constituting the western boundary of Connecticut and the eastern boundary of New York shall be and is as the same was defined by monuments erected by commissioners appointed by the State of New York, and completed in the year eighteen hundred and sixty, the said boundary line extending from Bryram Point, formerly called Lyon's Point, on the south, to the line of the State of Massachusetts on the north. And Fe further agree that the boundary on the sound shall be and is as follows: Beginning at a point in the center of the channel, about six hundred feet south of the extreme rocks of Bryram Point, marked No. 0, on appended United States coast survey chart; thence running in a true southeast course three and one-fourth statute miles; thence in a straight line (the arc of a great circle) northeasterly to a point four statute miles due south of New London light-house; thence northeasterly to a point marked number one, on the annexed United States coast survey chart of Fisher's island sound, which point is on the longitude east three-quarters north, sailing course down on said map, and is about one thousand feet northerly from the Hammock or North Dumpling lighthouse; thence following said east three-fourths north sailing course as laid down on said map easterly to a point marked number two on said map; thence southeasterly to a point marked No. 3 on said map; so far as said States are coterminous.65

The above agreement concerning these boundaries between Connecticut and New York was confirmed by the Congress of the United States February 26, 1881.66 . For the history and present location of the eastern boundary of Connecticut, see Massachusetts, page 83, and Rhode Island, pages 87-88. For the northern boundary, see Massachusetts, pages 82–83.

Under the charter of 1662 Connecticut claimed a large western territory. Subsequent to the Revolution, however, in 1786, 1792, 1795, and 1800, she relinquished all title to any land west of her present boundary.

NEW YORK.

The territory included in the present State of New York is part of that claimed by both France and England by right of discovery. It was included in the territory of Acadia, for which a charter was given by Henry IV of France in 1603, and was included also within

"See Report of the commissioners to ascertain and settle the boundary line between the States of New York and Connecticut, Feb. 8, 1861, in which will also be found a complete account of this controversy.

New York Rev. Stat., 1882, vol. 1, p. 136. 21 Stat, L., p. 351.

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the limits of the Virginia colony, chartered by James I of England in 1606, which embraced all that part of America between 34 and 45 degrees north latitude. Much of the territory west of Hudson River was held by the French and Indians and was a source of dispute for many years. The Indian treaty of 1684 gave England nominal control, but the French were not finally dispossessed of their claim until nearly a hundred years later. The Dutch in 1613 established trading posts on the Hudson and claimed jurisdiction over the territory between Connecticut and Delaware rivers, which they called New Netherlands. The government was vested in the United New Netherland Co., chartered in 1616, and later in the Dutch West India Co., chartered in 1621.

In 1664 King Charles II of England granted to his brother, the Duke of York, a large territory in America, which included, with other lands, all that tract lying between the west bank of Connecticut River and the east bank of the Delaware. The Duke of York had previously purchased, in 1663, the territory on the New England coast which had been awarded to the Earl of Stirling, and in 1664, with an armed fleet, he took possession of New Amsterdam, which was thenceforth called New York. This conquest was confirmed by the treaty of Breda in 1667,

The following is an extract from the grant of 1664 to the Duke of York : 67

We have given James Duke of York all that part of the maine land of New England beginning at a certaine place called or knowne by the name of St. Croix next adjoyning to New Scotland in America and from thence extending along the sea coast unto a certain place called Petuaquine or Pemaquid and so up the River thereof to the furthest head of ye same as it tendeth northwards and extending from thence to the River Kinebequi and so upwards by the shortest course to the River Canada northward and also all that Island or Islands commonly called by the severall name or names of Matowacks or Long Island scituate lying and being towards the west of Cape Codd and ye narrow Higansetts abutting upon the maine land between the two Rivers there called or knowne by the severall names of Conecticutt and Hudsons River together also with the said river called Hudsons River and all the land from the west side of Conecticutt to ye east side of Delaware Bay and also all those severall Islands called, or knowne by the names of Martin's Vineyard and Nantukes otherwise Nantuckett.

In July, 1673, the Dutch recaptured New York, and they held it until it was restored to the English by the treaty of Westminster, in February, 1674.

The Duke of York thereupon, to perfect his title, obtained a new grant in substantially the same terms as that of 1664, of which the following is an extract: 68

All that part of the main land of New England, beginning at a certaine place called or known by the name of St. Croix nexe adjoining to New Scotland in

87 Thorpe, F.«N., The Federal and State constitutions, vol. 3, p. 1637. es Idem, p. 1641.

America, and from thence extending along the seacoast into a certain place called Petuaquine or Pemaquid, and so up the river thereof to the furthest head of the same as it windeth northward and extending from the river of Kinebeque and so upwards by the shortest course to the river Canada northwards: And all that island or Islands commonly called by the severall name or, names of Matowacks or Long Islands, scituate and being towards the west of Cape Cod and the narrow Higansetts abutting upon the main land between the two rivers there called or known by the severall names of Connecticutt and Hudson's River, together also with the said river called Hudson's River, and all the lands from the west side of Connecticutt River to the east side of Delaware Bay; And also all those severall Islands called or known by the . Dames of Martin Vin Yards and Nantukes, otherwise Nantucket.

By these grants to the Duke of York and the conquest of the Dutch possessions in America it will be seen that New York originally had a claim to a much larger territory than is now included in her limits. The successive changes in her extent may be sketched as follows:

In 1664 the Duke of York sold the present State of New Jersey to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.

In 1682 the Duke of York sold to William Penn his title to Delaware and the country on the west bank of the Delaware, which had been originally settled by the Swedes but had been conquered by the Dutch and by them surrendered to the Duke of York.

In 1686 Pemaquid and its dependencies were annexed to the New England government by a royal order of the former Duke of York, who had succeeded to the throne of England.

By the charter of 1691 to Massachusetts Bay all claim to any part of Maine was extinguished, and the islands of Nantucket, Marthas Vineyard, and others adjacent (previously known as Duke's County, Y. Y.) were annexed to Massachusetts Bay.

The territory west of Connecticut River to a line within about 20 miles of Hudson River, now forming portions of Massachusetts and Connecticut, was, by agreements and concessions made at different times, surrendered to those States, respectively.

New York by the cession of 1781 to the United States relinquished all its claim to land west of the meridian through the west extremity of Lake Ontario between the forty-second and forty-fifth parallels, and the peace treaty of 1783 cut off the rest of the area still claimed by the State west of its present limits. (See fig. 7.)

Massachusetts prior to 1786 claimed under its charters title to the soil, but not to the sovereignty, of a large area west of Hudson River that was also claimed by New York, but by agreement of commissioners representing the two States, signed on December 16, 1786, Massachusetts released to New York all land east of a meridian commencing on the Pennsylvania line 82 miles west of Delaware River and extending northward to Lake Ontario, except an area of 3,600

"69

square miles east of that line to be selected by Massachusetts between the rivers “Owega and Chenengo.'

The next reduction in area was in 1791, when the consent of this State to the independence of Vermont was made effective by Congress. This left New York with substantially its present boundaries.

For the history and settlement of the eastern boundary of New York see Vermont, pages 71–72; Massachusetts, pages 85–86; and Connecticut, pages 89-93.

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A bill passed by the Legislature of New York, approved March 29, 1922, provided for the resurvey of a part of the State boundary said to be in dispute, extending from the northwest corner of Connecticut about 12 miles southward.

The northern boundary was settled by the treaty of peace in 1783 and by the commission under the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent.

The boundary between New York and New Jersey was plainly stated in the grant by the Duke of York to Berkeley and Carteret. In 1719 attempts were made to have the line run and marked, but nothing seems to have been done till 1769, when commissioners were

* Report of the Regents of the University on the boundaries of the State of New York, vol. 1, pp. 219-220, Albany, 1874.

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