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Bliss Road and west of the outlet to Sawdy Pond, in latitude 41° 37' 42.74" and longitude 71° 08' 08.84'' ; thence on an azimuth of 38° 24'00", 2,147 feet to bound 121, a granite monument, standing on the west shore of Sawdy Pond, in latitude 41° 37' 26.11" and longitude 71° 08' 26.40'' ; thence on an azimuth of 6° 41' 25'', 4,159.4 feet to bound 122, a granite monument, set in concrete masonry, on the west shore of Sawdy Pond, in latitude 41° 36' 45.30'' and longitude 71° 08' 32.78'' ; thence on an azimuth of 350° 51' 04"', 2,835.8 feet to bound 123, a granite monument, standing on the west shore of Sawdy Pond, in latitude 41° 36' 17.64"' and longitude 71° 08' 26.84"'; thence on an azimuth of 308° 31' 11"', 686 feet to bound 124, a granite monument, standing at the south end of Sawdy Pond, in latitude 41° 36' 13.42" and longitude 71° 08' 19.78'' ; thence on an azimuth of 333° 06' 55", 4,069.2 feet to bound 127, a granite monument, set in concrete and known as Joe Sanford's Bound," in latitude 41° 35' 37.56'' and longitude 71° 07' 55.56'' ; thence on an azimuth of 354° 40' 49'', 14,189 feet to bound 128, a granite monument, set in concrete, on the north side of the road and dam in the village of Adamsville, in latitude 41° 33' 17.98'' and longitude 71° 07' 38.26" ; thence on an azimuth of 353° 18' 42'', 1,239.7 feet to bound 130, a granite monument, standing on the northeast side of the highway south of Adamsville, in latitude 41° 33' 05.81" and longitude 71° 07' 36.36''; thence on an azimuth of 354° 23' 32", 10,779.3 feet to bound 135, a granite monument, lettered Mass.-R. I., standing on the north side of the road leading to Little Compton, in latitude 41° 31' 19.83'' and longitude 71° 07' 22.52''; thence on an azimuth of 356° 39' 48'', 8,234.1 feet to bound 137, a granite monument, standing in the position formerly occupied by “ Peaked Rock Bound," near the Atlantic Ocean, in latitude 41° 29' 58.61" and longitude 71° 07' 16.22'' ; thence in the same direction about 785 feet to corner 138, a point where this line intersects the line of high water at the Atlantic Ocean and distant from the point of beginning about 45.789 miles.

Each of the granite monuments above described is marked " Mass.R. I., 1898."

In 1713 commissioners from the Province of Massachusetts Bay and Colony of Connecticut settled a line between Massachusetts and Connecticut.. By this line certain northern frontier towns were given to Massachusetts, viz, Woodstock, Suffield, Enfield, and Somers. In 1749 the Legislature of Connecticut passed a resolution stating that inasmuch as the line had not been approved by the King and the two colonies had no legal right to transfer territory without the confirmation of the Crown, the contract was void, and these towns were again taken under the jurisdiction of Connecticut. Massachusetts appealed to the King, and the claims of Connecticut were fully established.41

In 1791 Massachusetts and Connecticut appointed commissioners to establish the boundary between them, but the commissioners were unable to agree.

In 1803 commissioners were appointed to complete the line west of Connecticut River, a compromise having been made concerning the line between the town of Southwick and the towns of Suffield and Granby (the cause of the disagreement of the former commissioners). The agreement made was as follows: 42

11 Hollister, G. H., History of Connecticut, vol. 2, Hartford, 1857.

That the line should begin from a station 8 rods south of the southwest corLer of West Springfield, and thence run west to the large ponds, and thence southerly by those ponds to the ancient south line of Westfield, and from thence on said south line to the ancient southwest corner of Westfield; and from thence northerly in the ancient west line of Westfield to the station in said west line made by commissioners in the year 1714, and from thence to the southwest corner of Granville.

The reason for this peculiar deviation from a straight boundary, known as the “Southwick jog," is that when adjusting errors in the boundary line between Connecticut and Massachusetts as previously run by compass a long, narrow strip of land was given to. Connecticut, and the Southwick jog ceded to Massachusetts was intended to be an equivalent area.

In 1826 the line between Massachusetts and Connecticut east of Connecticut River was run by commissioners appointed from each State, and 49 stone monuments were erected, marked "M" on the north side and "C" on the south.43

The same commissioners surveyed and marked the line from the northeast corner of Connecticut to the corner of Rhode Island, reporting as follows:

Beginning at the monument erected at the northeast corner of said State of Connecticut and running in a direct line to the ancient heap of stones on the north side of the turnpike leading from Hertford to Boston, through Thompson and Douglass, where we erected a monument, and thence running in a direct line to the northwest corner of the State of Rhode Island.

The present boundary between Massachusetts and Connecticut was fixed by a joint commission authorized by legislative acts of both Statės in 1905. The line as surveyed and marked was approved by Massachusetts in 1908,4 by Connecticut in 1913, and by the United States Congress October 3, 1914.45 It is thus described :

Beginning at a granite monument at the northwest corner of the State of Rhode Island and marking the corner of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, in latitude 42° 00' 29.150' and longitude 71° 47' 58.778"'; [thence in a general northerly direction) to a granite monument at the northeast corner of the State of Connecticut, in latitude 42° 01' 24.807" and longitude 71° 48' 04.123''.

From this corner the boundary is approximately a straight line bearing 1° or 2° north of west till Connecticut River is approached.

e Massachusetts Special Laws, vol. 3, p. 234. For the full report of the commissioners se Connecticut Private Laws, vol. 2, pp. 1540–1544.

• Idem, pp. 1544–1550.
“ Massachusetts aets of 1908, ch. 192.
<38 Stat. L. 727.

[graphic]

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From a granite monument in latitude 42° 02' 04.619", longitude 72° 31' 55.276'', the full notes are as follows:

South 81° 56' 34'' west, 11,309 feet to a granite monument about 620 feet south of Allen Street in Longmeadow, in latitude 42° 01' 48''.933 and longitude 72° 34' 23''.644; thence south 51° 56' 28'' west, 3,238 feet to a granite monument 450 feet east of the main road from Thompsonville to Springfield, in latitude 42° 01' 29''.212 and longitude 72° 34' 57''.422; thence north 88° 35' 49" west, 5,834 feet to a granite monument on the top of the bank, about 175 feet east of the easterly shore of the Connecticut River, in latitude 42° 01' 30''.616 and longitude 72° 36' 14''.696; thence in the same direction, 950 feet to the middle of said river; thence northerly along a line midway between the banks thereof, about 2,075 feet; thence north 87° 18' 55'' west, 1,260 feet to a granite monument standing on the bank about 225 feet west of the westerly shore of the river, in latitude 42° 01' 51".983 and longitude 72° 36' 44".913; thence in the same direction, 7,661 feet to

monument about 875 feet west of North Street, or Suffield Street, the middle road from Suffield to Springfield, in latitude 42° 01' 55''.516 and longitude 72° 38' 26''.318; thence north 82° 39' 40" west, 8,966 feet to a granite monument on the easterly side of Halladay Avenue, or Front Street, the road from Suffield to Feeding Hills, in latitude 42° 02' 06''.813 and longitude 72° 40' 24".149; thence north 84° 51' 12" west, 7,202 feet to a granite monument on the easterly side of West Street, the road from West Suffield to Westfield, in latitude 42° 02' 13''.185 and longitude 72° 41' 59'' 207 ; thence south 89° 46' 25'' west, 4,137 feet to a granite monument at the corner of Agawam and Southwick in Massachusetts and Suffield in Connecticut, in latitude 42° 02' 13''.019 and longitude 72° 42'54".032; thence south 0° 48' 01" east, 132 feet to a granite monument, in latitude 42° 02' 11".716 and longitude 72° 42' 54'.008; thence south 89° 38'09'' west, 11,231 feet to a granite monument on the easterly shore of Congamond Lake, in latitude 42° 02' 10''.984 and longitude 72° 45' 22''.830; thence in the same direction, 14.5 feet to the shore of the lake as it would be with the surface of the water at the elevation it was in 1803; thence southerly, by the easterly shore of the lake as it would be with the surface of the water at the aforesaid elevation to a point opposite a granite monument near the shore, at the sontherly end of the lake; thence south 4° 26' 29'' west, about 25 feet to said monument, in latitude 42° 00'27''.957 and longitude 72° 46'00".167; thence in the same direction, 1,632 feet to a granite monument at the southeasterly corner of the. "Southwick jog," in latitude 42° 00' 11''.881 and longitude 72° 46' 01"'.841; thence south 81° 33' 28'' west, 13,827 feet to a granite monument at the southwesterly corner of the “Southwick jog," in latitude 41° 59' 51".787 and longitude 72° 49' 02".976; thence north 3° 33' 56'' east, 14,261 feet to a granite monument known as the Crank Monument," in latitude 42° 02' 12.399 and longitude 72° 48' 51".223.

From this corner the line runs on a general westerly course, bearing about 1° north of west, to a large rock, marked 1803 on its southerly side, in Sage's Ravine, in latitude 42° 03' 02.214'' and longitude 73° 26' 00.030"'; thence south 88° 31' 58"' west 14,787 feet to a granite monument at the northwesterly corner of the State of Connecticut and marking the corner of Massachusetts, New York, and Connecticut, in latitude 42° 02' 58.427"' and longitude 73° 29' 15.959''.48

48 For the full notes of this boundary see Massachusetts acts of 1908, ch. 192; and Connecticut acts of 1913; see also 38 Stat. L. 727. For a description of each of the 214 marks on this line see Board of IIarbor and Land Commissioners Twenty-ninth Ann. Rept. : Massachusetts Pub. Doc. 11 of 1907, pp. 106-117, Boston, 1908.

run

The boundary between Massachusetts and New York from an early period was a subject of controversy, New York claiming to the west bank of Connecticut River, under the charters of 1664 and 1674 to the Duke of York, and Massachusetts claiming, under her old charters, to the “South Sea." After many fruitless attempts at a settlement, an arrangement was entered into in 1773 fixing the western boundary of Massachusetts where it now meets New York territory. The Revolution following soon after, the line was not run. In 1785 Congress appointed three commissioners to run the line, who performed that duty in 1787. The line was follows: 17

Beginning at a monument erected in 1731 by commissioners from Connecticut and New York, distant from the Hudson River 20 miles, and running north 15° 12' 9'' east 50 miles 41 chains and 79 links, to a red or black oak tree marked by said commissioners, which said line was as the magnetic needle pointed in 1787.

The claims of Massachusetts to western lands within the territory of the State of New York were finally settled December 16, 1786, by a joint commission of the two States. By this agreement Massachusetts surrendered the sovereignty of the whole disputed territory to New York and received in return the right of soil and preemption right of Indian purchase west of the meridian passing through the eighty-second milestone of the Pennsylvania line (see fig. 7). excepting certain reservations upon Niagara River. The title to a tract known as “The Boston Ten Towns," lying east of this meridian and previously granted by Massachusetts, was confirmed."

April 19, 1785, Massachusetts executed a deed to the United States. It included all title of the State of Massachusetts to territory west of the present western boundary of New York.

In 1820 Maine, hitherto a part of Massachusetts, was admitted into the Union as an independent State.

In 1853, an area of about 1,010 acres (see insert, fig. 7) in the southwest corner of Massachusetts, known as Boston Corner, was ceded to New York, and in 1855 the cession was confirmed by Con

48

gress. 48

The present boundary between Massachusetts and New York is thus described from resurveys by a joint commission in 1899 :

Beginning at bound 1, a granite monument set in ledge on the side of a Fooded mountain peak six hundred and nine feet east of Ryan Bush Road, in latitude 42° 02' 58.427" north of the Equator, and longitude 73° 29' 15.959'' west from Greenwich, and marking the northwest corner of ConDecticut, a corner of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and a corner of the State of New York; thence on an azimuth of 90° 43' 49'', twenty-six hundred

" New York Rev. Stat., 1875, p. 122.
"Hough's New York Gazette, 1872, pp. 25, 26.
* 10 Stat. L. 602.

and twenty-four feet to bound 3, a granite monument set in ledge on the steep westerly slope of a wooded mountain, in latitude 42° 02' 58.756'' and longitude 73° 29' 50.737'', at the southwest corner of Massachusetts, also in the eastern line of New York, and marking a corner of the towns of Mount Washington, in Massachusetts, and Ancram and Northeast, in New York; thence on an azimuth of 167° 08' 15'', thirteen thousand six hundred and forty-nine feet to bound 9, a granite monuntent set in ledge on the westerly wooded slope of Alandar Mountain about a quarter mile west of its summit, in latitude 42° 05' 10.205'' and longitude 73° 30' 31.031", at the corner of Mount Washington, in Massachusetts, and Copake, in New York; thence on an azimuth of 195° 12' 22'', two hundred forty-nine thousand two hundred and forty-six feet, by the towns of Mount Washington, Egremont, Alford, West Stockbridge, Richmond, Hancock, and Williamstown, in Massachusetts, and Copake, Hillsdale, Austerlitz, Canaan, New Lebanon, Stephentown, Berlin, and Petersburg, in New York, to bound 112, a granite monument set in ledge and earth on an open easterly slope about seventy-five feet west of a private roadway, in latitude 42° 44' 45.201" and longitude 73° 15' 54.904" at the northwest corner of Massachusetts, also in the east line of New York and im the south line of Vermont, and marking a corner in the boundaries of the towns of Williamstown, in Massachusetts, Petersburg, in New York, and Pownal, in Vermont.

The term “azimuth" as used in this description is the angle which a line makes at its point of beginning with the true meridian, reckoning from the south around by the west.

This location of the line was approved by Massachusetts May 8, 1901, and by New York June 9, 1910.50

Massachusetts is one of the very few States that has had her boundary lines adequately marked and by frequent inspection maintains the marks in good condition. In addition to the marking of her exterior lines the State has also had comprehensive surveys made of interior township boundaries. The lines and corners are controlled by an accurate system of triangulation, so that if any number of marks were destroyed the exact positions for new ones to replace them could be readily ascertained from the triangulation data. The results of these surveys are published in a series of folios by the State Harbor and Land Commission. These folios give plats of the lines, positions of triangulation stations, descriptions of boundary marks, extracts from laws by which the lines were fixed, and some historical matter. This action by the State is highly commendable and could be followed by other States with profit.

RHODE ISLAND.

The present State of Rhode Island was settled by Roger Williams and other immigrants, who left Massachusetts Bay and established themselves at Providence in 1636. ' The legal name for this State is the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

50 Massachusetts acts of 1901, ch. 374 ; New York acts of 1910, ch. 447.

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