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southern boundary line of the State of North Carolina, and continuing along the said boundary line until it intersects the ridge or chain of mountains which divides the eastern from the western waters, then to be continued along the top of said ridge of mountains until it intersects a line to be drawn due west from the head of the southern branch of Tugoloo River to the said mountains; and thence to run a due west course to the river Mississippi.

The State of North Carolina ceded 86

The lands situated within the chartered limits of this State, west of a line beginning on the extreme height of the Stone Mountain, at the place where the Virginia line intersects it; running thence along the extreme height of the said mountain, to the place where the Wataugo River breaks through it; thence a direct course to the top of the Yellow Mountain where Bright's road crosses the same; thence along the ridge of the said mountain, between the waters of Doe River and the waters of Rock Creek, to the place where the road crosses the Iron Mountain; from thence along the extreme height of the said mountain to where Nolichucky River runs through the same; thence to the top of the Kald Mountain; thence along the extreme height of the said mountain, to the Painted Rock, on French Broad River; thence along the highest ridge of the said mountain, to the place where it is called the Great Ironor Smoaky Mountain; thence along the extreme height of the said mountain, to the place where it is called the Unicoy or Unaka Mountain, between the Indian towns of Cowee and Old Chota ; thence along the main ridge of the said mountain to the southern boundary of this State.

It will be noted that the above description of the eastern boundary of her ceded possessions agrees in general terms with the description of the western boundary of North Carolina, as given on page 132.

The articles of cession by Georgia describe the area ceded as follows:87 the lands situated within the boundaries of the United States, south of the State of Tennessee, and west of a line beginning on the western bank of the Chatahouchee River, where the same crosses the boundary line between the United States and Spain; running thence up the said river Chatahouchee, and along the western bank thereof to the great bend thereof, next above the place where a certain creek or river, called " Uchee" (being the first considerable .stream on the western side, above the Cussetas and Coweta towns), empties into the said Chatahouchee River; thence in a direct line to Nickajack, on the Tennessee River; thence crossing the said last

mentioned river, and thence running up the said Tennessee River, and along the western bank thereof, to the southern boundary line of the State of Tennessee.

Of the area conveyed by these cessions to the General Government the part lying north of the Ohio was afterward erected into the “territory northwest of the River Ohio," and the balance, lying south of that river, was known as the “ territory south of the River Ohio.”

The United States by act of Congress of September 9, 1850, purchased from the State of Texas her claim to about 16,700 square miles

$6 Donaldson, Thomas, op. cit., p. 77; 1 Stat. L. 106. 87 Donaldson, Thomas, op. cit., p. 80.

of land which Texas had when admitted to the Union. This land is now included in the States of Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. (See fig. 17.)

TERRITORY NORTHWEST OF OHIO RIVER.

square miles.

The territory north of the Ohio was bounded on the west by the Mississippi and a line running north from its source to the international boundary, on the north by the boundary line between the United States and the British possessions, on the east by the Pennsylvania and New York State lines, and on the south by Ohio River. (See fig. 9.) It comprised a land area of approximately 275,000

(See fig. 8.) It was made up of claims of individual States as follows:88

1. Virginia claims, which consisted of all the territory west of Pennsylvania and north of the Ohio to the forty-first parallel of north latitude, and above that her claim by capture as far as the Rorthern limits of the land under the Crown which had been subject to the jurisdiction of the Provinces of Quebec and as far as Lakes Michigan and Huron.

2. The claim of Connecticut, which extended from the forty-first parallel northward to the parallel of 42° 2' and from the west line of Pennsylvania to Mississippi River.

3. The claim of Massachusetts, which extended from the north line of the Connecticut claim above noted to latitude 43° 43' 12'' N. and from the western boundary of New York to the Mississippi.

4. The belt or zone lying north of the Massachusetts claim, extending thence to the Canada line and west to Mississippi River, obtained from Great Britain by the treaty of peace of September 3. 1783.

5. At the time of the cession by the State of Virginia both Massachusetts and New York claimed the Erie purchase of about 316 square miles, which was subsequently bought by Pennsylvania and added to that State (p. 109).

From this territory were formed the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, that part of Minnesota east of Mississippi River, and the northwest corner of Pennsylvania.

On July 13, 1787, a bill for its provisional division into not less than three nor more than five States was passed by Congress. In this bill the limits of the proposed States were defined, corresponding in their north and south lines to the present boundaries of Ohio,

Donaldson, Thomas, op. cit., p. 161.

Illinois, and Indiana. The following extract gives the text of the clause defining these boundaries: 89 AN ORDINANCE FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES

NORTHWEST OF THE RIVER OHIO. ARTICLE 5. There shall be formed in the said territory, not less than three nor more than five States; and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession, and consent to the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, to wit: the western State in said territory shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio, and the Wabash rivers; a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincents due north to the territorial line between the United States and Canada; and by the said territorial line to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash, from Post Vincents to the Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to the said territorial line, and by the said territorial line. The eastern State shall be bounded by the last-mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line: Provided, however, And it is further understood and declared, that the boundaries of these three States shall be subject so far to be altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two States in that part of the said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan.

Apparently this ordinance was not put in force until a provisional government was instituted by the appointment of a governor and secretary on February 1, 1788.

By act of May 7, 1800, Congress divided the "territory northwest of the Ohio" into two separate governments and ordered that all that part of the territory of the United States northwest of the Ohio river, which lies to the westward of a line beginning at the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of Kentucky river, and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north until it shall intersect the territorial line between the United States and Canada, shall, for the purposes of temporary government constitute a separate territory, and be called the Indiana Territory.

The eastern portion was called the "territory northwest of the River Ohio," and most of it was admitted to the Union in 1803 90 as the State of Ohio. The small remaining part was added to Indiana Territory. (See fig. 14.)

In 1805 all that part of Indiana Territory lying north of a parallel drawn through the most southerly bend of Lake Michigan and east of a line drawn from the same point through the middle of Lake Michigan and north to the Canadian line became the Territory of Michigan (see fig. 15), but the boundary between these Territories was subsequently very much changed.

8 Donaldson, Thomas, op. cit., p. 155. For a plan with maps, proposed by a committee of which Jefferson was chairman, for the subdivision of the territory northwest of the Ohio, which was practically adopted by Congress in 1784, see Wisconsin Hist. Coll., vol. 2, p. 452, Madison, 1888. See also Smith, W. H., The St. Clair papers, vol. 2, p. 603, Cincinnati, 1882 ; Force, Peter, The ordinance of 1787 and its history.

00 There is some uncertainty regarding this date. See footnote 53, p. 165.

By act of February 3, 1809, Indiana Territory was again divided, and the Territory of Illinois was created from the part lying west of Wabash River and a meridian running through the city of Vincennes, extending thence to the Canada line.

On April 19, 1816, Indiana was admitted to the Union as a State, with its boundaries defined as at present, and on April 18, 1818, Illinois was likewise admitted.

The act of June 28, 1834, added to Michigan Territory a portion of the Missouri River drainage basin as far west as White Earth River and north to the forty-ninth parallel and included for the first time a part of the drainage basin of Red River, south of the forty-ninth parallel, under a Territorial government. · This addition to Michigan included also a small part of the Louisiana Purchase. (See p. 174 and fig. 15.)

Wisconsin Territory was formed in 1836 from the portion of Michigan Territory west of the present State of Michigan. On January 26, 1837, Michigan was admitted into the Union, with its present boundaries. On June 12, 1838, all that portion of Wisconsin Territory lying west of Mississippi River and a line drawn due north from its source to the international boundary was made into the Territory of Iowa, and in 1848 Wisconsin was admitted as a State, with its boundaries as at present defined.

The admission of Wisconsin appears to have left the area which is now the northeastern part of Minnesota, lying east of the Mississippi and a line drawn due north from its source, without any government until the formation of Minnesota Territory, in 1849.

TERRITORY SOUTH OF OHIO RIVER. The "territory south of the River Ohio," the government of which was provided for by act of Congress approved May 26, 1790, was bounded on the north by the present northern boundary of Tennessee, on the south by the thirty-first parallel of latitude, on the east by the States of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, and on the west by Mississippi River. The respective cessions from the States that made up this region are as follows:

1. The area ceded by North Carolina was described as extending from 36° 30' (since found to be 36° 33') north latitude southward to 35o and from the western boundary line of the present State to Mississippi River. This is now the State of Tennessee.

2. The area ceded by South Carolina formed a belt 12 or 14 miles in width lying south of the thirty-fifth parallel and extending from her western boundary to Mississippi River. It is doubtful whether under the terms of the original charters South Carolina possessed this strip or whether it was included in the possessions of Georgia. (See p. 135.)

3. The area ceded by Georgia comprised most of the territory of the present States of Alabama and Mississippi north of the thirty-first parallel.

Tennessee was admitted as a State in 1796. In 1798 Congress organized as the Territory of Mississippi a small rectangular area, bounded on the west by Mississippi River, on the north by a parallel through the mouth of Yazoo River, on the east by Chattahooche River, and on the south by the thirty-first parallel of north latitude. This area was subsequently enlarged so as to include the whole of what is now Mississippi and Alabama, and a strip along the Gulf coast, which was at that time claimed by Spain. In 1817 the Territory was divided, and the eastern portion was made into Alabama Territory. Subsequently the two Territories were admitted as States. LOUISIANA, THE AREAS FORMERLY BELONGING TO MEXICO,

AND THE OREGON REGION.

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The Louisiana Purchase was effected in 1803. In 1804 the region thus obtained was divided into two parts; the southern was organized as Orleans Territory and the remainder was called the District of Louisiana. The State of Louisiana, comprising most of the Territory of Orleans, was admitted to the Union in 1812, and in the same year it was enlarged by the addition of the area lying between Mississippi and Pearl rivers, in the southeastern part. In the same year the name of the District of Louisiana was changed to Missouri Territory. (See Pl. VII.) In 1819 Arkansaw Territory was created, and in 1836 it was admitted as a State. (The State name was spelled with an “s” in place of the final “w.")

In 1821 the State of Missouri was formed from another portion of Missouri Territory, and in 1836 the boundaries of this State were extended to their present limits. In 1834, as stated above, that part of this Territory lying north of the State of Missouri and east of Missouri and White Earth rivers was attached to the Territory of Michigan. (See fig. 15.) In 1836 this portion became part of the then formed Territory of Wisconsin. In 1838 it became part of the Territory of Iowa. In 1846 the State of Iowa was created, and in 1849 the remainder of the Iowa Territory was organized as Minnesota Territory. Minnesota was admitted as a State on May 11, 1858, with its present boundaries.

Indian Territory (unorganized) was set apart by act of June 30, 1834, and described as follows 91 (see fig. 18): all that part of the United States west of the Mississippi, and not within the States of Missouri and Louisiana, or the Territory of Arkansas be taken and deemed to be Indian country.

shall

014 Stat. L. 729, 733.

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