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on peaks less easily ascended. Inaccessible mountain peaks on the line were located by triangulation. The report on the survey of the coast boundary is in preparation.
In accordance with the convention of April 21, 1906, commissioners were appointed under whose direction the one hundred and fortyfirst meridian has been established and intervisible marks placed along the line from the Arctic Ocean to Mount St. Elias, a distance of about 645 miles, the field work having been completed in 1913.
FIGURE 4.—Map showing award of Alaska Boundary Tribunal, October 20. 1903.
The final report of the commissioners, dated December 15, 1918, was published in 1919 and is accompanied by an atlas containing 38 sheets of maps. The report is entitled -- Joint report upon the survey and demarcation of the international boundary between the United States and Canada along the one hundred and forty-first meridian from the Arctic Ocean to Mount St. Elias.” This report contains copies of treaties and historical data relating to the location
of the boundary.
It is an interesting fact that the area of Alaska and the Aleutian
position so as to touch the Canadian boundary a short distance west of the Lake of the Woods, would reach the Atlantic Ocean near the line between Georgia and South Carolina, cross the Mexican boundary in southwestern New Mexico, and touch the Pacific Ocean in southern California.
The Republic of Hawaii was formally annexed to the United States by the voluntary action of its citizens and a joint resolution of Congress approved July 7, 1898. The transfer of sovereignty took place August 12, 1898. The area was constituted a Territory by act of Congress April 30, 1900, effective June 14, 1900.62
The Hawaiian Islands and adjacent islets are scattered over a considerable area which extends nearly 2,000 miles in a general northwest-southeast direction and has a width of about 150 miles. (See fig. 3.) The eight inhabited islands, which lie between latitude 19° 00' and 22° 15' N., longitude 155° 00' and 162° 00' W., and have a total area of 6,406 square miles, are as follows:
Hawaii, greatest length 81 miles, greatest width 73 miles, area 4,016 square miles; the highest point is Mauna Kea, 13,825 feet above sea level.
Maui, about 42 miles long and 23 miles wide, area 728 square miles; greatest height 10,032 feet.
Oahu, about 40 miles long and 26 miles wide, area 598 square miles; highest peak is slightly over 4,000 feet in elevation.
Kauai is nearly circular and about 23 miles in diameter, area 547 square miles; greatest elevation about 5,200 feet.
Molokai, about 34 miles long and 7 miles wide, area 261 square miles; highest point 4,970 feet.
Lanai, about 15 miles long and 10 miles wide, area 139 square miles; highest point 3,400 feet in elevation.
Niihau, about 16 miles in length and 3 to 5 miles in width, area 73 square miles; maximum height about 1,300 feet.
Kahoolawe, about 9 miles long and 6 miles wide, area 44 square miles; highest point 1,450 feet.
The most important of the islands outside the main group are:
Nihoa or Bird Island, latitude 23° 06' N., longitude 161° 58' W., about three-fourths of a mile long and one-fourth of a mile wide; highest point 903 feet.
Gardner Island, latitude 25° 01' N., longitude 167° 59' W., an inaccessible rock 170 feet high and about 600 feet in diameter.
62 31 Stat. L. 141.. For a summary of legislative acts relating to this transfer see Moore, J. B., A digest of international law : 56th Cong., 2d sess., H. Doc. 551, vol. 1, pp. 475–520, 1906.
Laysan Island, latitude 25° 42' N., longitude 171° 44' W., is 14 miles long, 1 mile wide, and 55 feet in extreme height.
Lisiansky Island, latitude 26° 00' N., longitude 173° 50' W., about 1 mile long, half a mile wide, and 44 feet high.
Midway Islands, sometimes called Brooks Islands, two small coral islands in latitude 28° 13' N., longitude 177° 22' W., about 1,200 miles a little north of west from Honolulu. Discovered by Captain Brooks in 1859 and claimed by the United States in 1867 by right of discovery and occupation. The larger island is 14 miles long and rises 43 feet above sea level. On this island there is a cable station and lighthouse.53 Total area about 14 square miles.
Ocean (also called Cure or Kuré) Island, latitude 28° 25' N., longitude 178° 25' W., an atoll about 15 miles in circumference.54
Two islands at some distance southwest of the main group are under the jurisdiction of Hawaii; these are
Johnstons Island, also called Cornwallis Island, latitude 16° 45' N., longitude 169° 30' W., a grass-covered lagoon island half a mile in length.
Palmyra Island, latitude 5° 52' N., longitude 162° 06' W., known also as Samarang Island, was annexed to Hawaii in 1862. It is an atoll occupying an area about 6 miles long and 14 miles wide and consists of more than 50 small coral islets varying from less than half an acre to 46 acres in size, covered with brush and coconut
PORTO RICO, GUAM, AND THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.58
The next important accession of territory made by the United States consists of the islands ceded by Spain by the treaty of peace concluded December 10, 1898.57 (See fig. 3.) Article 2 of that treaty is:
Spain cedes to the United States the island of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and the island of Guam in the Marianas or Ladrones.
Porto Rico has an area of 3,435 square miles. The largest of the other West Indian Islands referred to is Vieques, and others are Culebra, Mona, and Desecheo. These islands, including Porto Rico, all lie in the area between latitude 17° 42' and 18° 31' N. and longitude 65° 20' and 67° 55' W. Possession was taken by the United States October 18, 1898.
See description in 40th Cong., 2d sess., Sen. Ex. Doc. 79, and 40th Cong., 3d sess., & Rept. 194, also references to legislative action in Moore, J. B., op. cit., vol. 1, p. 555.
** For references to other islands belonging to this group see Coast pilot notes on Hawajian Islands: U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Serial 139, 1920. See also 55th Cong., 3d sess., S. Ex. Doc. 16; and 520 Cong., 2d sess., S. Ex. Doc. 76.
* Pacific islands pilot: U. S. Hydrographic Office Pub. 166, vol. 2, p. 444, 1916. Rock, J. F., Palmyra Island, with a description of its flora, Honolulu, 1916
* For information on the insular possessions of the United States see Noncontiguous territory ; Supreme Court decisions and official opinions by the Attorney General : 59th Cong ad sess, s. Dọc. 204; 61st Cong., 1st sess., S. Dọc. 47; 62d Cong., 2d sess., S, Doc. 366; 63d Cong., 1st sess., S. Doc. 173, etc.
#Malloy, W. M., op. cit., vol. 2, p. 1691.
The island of Guam is at latitude 13° 30' N., longitude 144° 45' E., and has an area of 206 square miles.
The Philippine Islands comprise all the islands lying within the following limits, as defined in article 3 of the treaty: 58
A line running from west to east along or near the twentieth parallel of north latitude, and through the middle of the navigable channel of Bachi, from the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) to the one hundred and twentyseventh (127th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich; thence along the one hundred and twenty-seventh (127th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich to the parallel of four degrees and forty-five minutes (4° 45') north latitude; thence along the parallel of four degrees and forty-five minutes (4° 45') north latitude to its intersection with the meridian of longitude one hundred and nineteen degrees and thirty-five minutes (119° 35') east of Greenwich; thence along the meridian of longitude one hundred and nineteen degrees and thirty-five minutes (119° 35') east of Greenwich to the parallel of latitude seven degrees and forty minutes (7° 40') north; thence along the parallel of latitude seven degrees and forty minutes (7° 40') north to its intersection with the one hundred and sixteenth (116th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich; thence by a direct line to the intersection of the tenth (10th) degree parallel of north latitude with the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich; and thence along the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich to the point of beginning.
Subsequently the United States, by treaty concluded November 7, 1900, purchased from Spain for the sum of $100,000 a small group of islands lying north of Borneo, known as Cagayan Sulu and Sibutu and their dependencies, which, though a part of the Philippine Archipelago, were omitted by mistake in drawing the limits of the Philippines in the treaty of 1898.
There are said to be more than 7,000 islands in the Philippine Archipelago having areas of one-tenth of a square mile or more. Only 31 of the islands have areas greater than 100 square miles. Luzon, the largest, has an area of about 40,969 square miles, and its coast line exceeds 2,200 miles. The highest peak in the entire group is Mount Apo, on the island of Mindanao, 9,610 feet in height. For the Philippine Islands the sum of $20,000,000 was paid by the United States to Spain.
The estimated area of the Philippine Islands is 114,400 square miles.
68 Malloy, W. M., op. cit., vol. 2, p. 1691.
For a brief history of the Philippines and descriptions of the principal islands see U. S. Coast Pilot, Philippine Islands, 2 vols., U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1919, 1921.
For several years the United States, Great Britain, and Germany exercised a joint protectorate over the Samoa Islands,61 For various reasons it was deemed best to bring this situation to an end. England withdrew, and the islands were divided between Germany and the United States, the latter taking all the islands of the group lying east of longitude 171° west of Greenwich. This adjustment was reached by a convention between the United States, Germany, and Great Britain, concluded December 2, 1899, and proclaimed February 16, 1900.62
Tutuila Island, the largest of the Samoan group belonging to the United States, has a length of 20 miles and a breadth of about 6 miles. Its extreme height is 2,141 feet, and its area (scaled from hydrographic chart 2924) is 52 square miles. About 60 miles to the east are the three Manua Islands, the largest of which is Tau, about 51 miles in length, 3,056 feet in extreme height, and 17 square miles in area. Olosega Island is about 3 miles in length and 2,095 feet in height and covers an area of 2 square miles. Ofu Island is about 3 miles long; its highest point is 1,587 feet, and its area 3 square miles.
Rose Island, about 80 miles east of the Manua Islands, is an atoll about 3 miles in diameter, mostly under water at high tide. There are two islets on its eastern edge having a combined area of less than half a square mile. Besides these there are several small islets of minor importance. All these islands lie between 14° and 150 south latitude and 168o and 171° west longitude. The estimated area of this accession is 75 square miles.
Wake Island is an uninhabited atoll in latitude 19° 18' N., longitude 166° 32' E., consisting of three islets separated at high tide and having a total area of about 3} square miles. The highest point is about 18 feet above sea level.
Possession on behalf of the United States was taken on January 17, 1899, by the commander of the United States ship Bennington.63
In order to insure the construction of a ship canal across the
For reference to legislative action leading up to the acquisition of the Samoa group ** Moore
, J. B., op. cit., vol. 1, pp. 536–554 ; Malloy, w. M., op. cit., vol. 2, p. 1595. * Thorpe, F. N., op. cit., vol. 6, p. 3675.
See Moore, J. B., op. cit., vol. 1, p. 555 ; l'acific Islands l'ilot, vol. 1, p. 527, U. 8.
** Idem, p. 3685.
Hydrographic Office, 1916.