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land claiming that the boundary should properly run through the Rosario Strait, the most eastern passage, whereas the United States claimed that it should follow the Strait of Haro.

This matter was finally settled by a reference to the Emperor of Germany as an arbitrator, who decided it in favor of the United States on October 21, 1872.28

TREATY WITH GREAT BRITAIN, 1908. The treaty with Great Britain concluded April 11, 1908, described the boundary between the United States and Canada in eight sections and provided for the appointment of a joint commission to recover or restore previously established marks and to place new marks on unmarked sections 29


TREATY WITH GREAT BRITAIN, 1910.30 In order to remove a slight uncertainty concerning the boundary line in Passamaquoddy Bay a treaty with Great Britain was concluded on May 21, 1910, which laid down the position of the line by courses and distances, starting from a point between Treat Island and Campobello Island, previously fixed by range lines, and running thence in a general southerly direction to the middle of Grand Manan Channel. Popes Folly Island and the lighthouse between Woodward Point and Cranberry Point were left within United States territory.

SURVEY AND MARKING OF THE NORTHERN BOUNDARY.3 Before 1908 no permanent marks had ever been erected for the northern water boundary, running through Passamaquoddy Bay, St. Croix River, St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, and from the mouth of Figeon River to the northwesternmost point of the Lake of the Woods. The land boundary from the Lake of the Woods west to the Pacific had never been adequately marked, and the forty-ninth parallel in the Strait of Georgia was without reference marks. Up to November 1, 1922, the markings of the northern boundary had been completed or provided for as follows:

The section of the boundary east of the mouth of Pigeon River comprises 23.5 miles of water boundary running through Passamaquoddy Bay, 128 miles through St. Croix River from its mouth to its source, 488 miles of land and 177 miles of water boundary from the source of St. Croix River to St. Lawrence River, and 1,289 miles of > Malloy, w. ., op. cit., vol. 1, p. 725. Idem, p. 815. * Charles, Garfield, Treaties, conventions, etc., between the United States and other powers: 620 Cong., 3d sess., S. Doc. 1063, p. 49.

Wa See report prepared for the Department of State by C. P. Anderson on the northern boundary of the United States with particular reference to the portions thereof which require more complete definition and marking, Washington, 1906.

water boundary through St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes and connecting waters to the mouth of Pigeon River. The land portion is marked by iron or stone monuments set in concrete foundations, or by concrete monuments; the water portion is defined by courses and distances between turning points (angles), and these points are referred to marks of metal or concrete on the banks and shores.

The full report of the resurvey and marking of St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes has been published by the Canadian Government. 31 It gives extracts from treaties, instructions to the commissioners, courses and distances between marks, and geographic positions and azimuths.

From the mouth of Pigeon River to the northwesternmost point of the Lake of the Woods, 426 miles, the water boundary will be defined by courses and distances between turning points on the boundary line, and these will be referred to metal reference marks set in concrete or solid rock on the shores of the lakes and the banks of the streams.

From the northwesternmost point of the Lake of the Woods to the summit of the Rocky Mountains the boundary is composed of a north-south section, 26.6 miles long, which meets the forty-ninth parallel at a point in the Lake of the Woods, and an east-west section, 860 miles long, approximately on the forty-ninth astronomic parallel. This part of the boundary was first located in the years 1872 to 1876 and was marked by iron pillars, rock cairns, or earth mounds set at intervals of 1 to 19 miles.32 The cairns and earth mounds have now been replaced by iron monuments weighing about 400 pounds each (see Pl. I, A and C), or, in the mountains, by aluminum-bronze monuments set on concrete foundations and projecting 5 feet above the surface. Additional monuments have been so placed that no interval between two consecutive marks exceeds 2 miles. This resurvey was completed in 1913, and 39 of the 40 maps covering the line have been published.

From the summit of the Rocky Mountains to the Strait of Georgia 410 miles of land line on the forty-ninth astronomic parallel was located by a joint commission between 1859 and 1862 and was marked by stone or iron pillars, rock piles, or mounds of earth at intervals ranging from a fraction of a mile to 25 miles.33

Report of the International Waterways Commission upon the international boundary between the Dominion of Canada and the United States through St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, 286 pp., 29 maps, Ottawa, 1916.

* For details regarding the survey see 44th Cong., 2d sess., S. Ex. Doc. 41.

33 See Baker, Marcus, Survey of the northwestern boundary of the United States, 18571861: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 174, 1900. See also a history of the survey by Otto Klotz in Am, Geog. Review, May, 1917, pp. 382–387. A report by the British Commissioner with descriptions and longitudes of marks for this survey is given in U. S. Foreign omice correspondence, 1865–1871, vol. 811, America, p. 1468.

A retracement of this line was completed in 1907. The new marks consist of aluminum-bronze pillars 5 feet high, weighing about 250 pounds each, set in concrete bases at intervals not exceeding 4 miles. The maps of this section of the boundary, 19 sheets, have been published

Along the forty-ninth parallel in the Strait of Georgia, and through the straits of Haro and Juan de Fuca to the Pacific Ocean, 150 miles, the boundary is defined by courses and distances between turning points, which are referred to reference marks consisting of concrete monuments and lighthouses on the shores. The report on this section of the boundary was published in 1921.34 Final reports on other sections of the northern boundary, with maps, are now (1922) in preparation,

The total length of the boundary line between the United States and Canada (not including Alaska) is 3,980 miles, of which 1,785 miles is on land and 2,195 through water.

Considerable information regarding the northern boundary of the United States may be found in a recent article by John W. Davis.35


The southern boundary of the United States was described in definite terms by the treaties with Great Britain of 1782 and 1783 (see pp. +6), but its location was not accepted by Spain and was in dispute with that country until settled by the treaty concluded October 27, 1795,88 wherein it was agreed that

The southern boundary of the United States, which divides their territory from the Spanish colonies of east and west Florida, shall be designated by a line beginning on the River Mississippi, at the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of latitude north of the Equator, which from thence shall be drawn due east to the middle of the River Apalachicola, or Catahouche, thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and thence down the middle thereof to the Atlantic Ocean.

Article 4 of this treaty described the western boundary, which separated the “Spanish colony of Louisiana” from the United States, as being in the middle of the channel or bed of the River Mississippi, from the northern boundary of the said States to the completion of the thirty-first degree of latitude north of the Equator.

" Reestablishment of the boundary between the United States and Canada, forty-ninth parallel to the Pacific Ocean, 95 pp., 1 map, 1921.

* The unguarded boundary: Geog. Review, October, 1922, pp. 585-601. * Malloy, W. M., op. cit., vol. 2, p. 1640.



Plate III (in pocket) is a half-scale reproduction of a copy o second (or later) edition of the Mitchell map of the British a French dominions in North America, as printed in 1774 or 174 now in the Library of Congress. Minor corrections and additio were made for the second edition, but the certificate and publicati date (February 13, 1755) were unchanged. The principal additi was the text in the ocean space at the left of the title.

The Mitchell map (probably the second edition) was used by t framers of the peace treaties of 1782 and 1783. John Adams wro in 1784 regarding it:

We had before us, through the whole negotiations, a variety of maps; but was Mitchell's map upon which was marked out the whole boundary lines i the United States.

The particular copy thus referred to, on which the boundary lines were indicated by the commissioners by red lines, has been lost.

The copy of the second edition of the Mitchell map used by Johì Jay, one of the American commissioners, on which a red line har been drawn to indicate the boundary as proposed by Oswald, i now in the library of the New York Historical Society. In the British Museum there is a copy of the Mitchell map which belonged to King George III. This also has on it the red Oswald line. They Library of Congress has a number of copies of different editions, including a French edition. The Geological Survey has a copy of the second edition. There are slight differences between the secondand other editions, but all have the same publication date and give no clue to the years in which they were actually printed.

Although there are many gross errors in this map, in 1783 it was the best available.



The entire basin of the Mississippi and its tributaries, with much of the coast region of the Gulf of Mexico, which was subsequently known as the Territory of Louisiana, was originally claimed by La Salle in 1682 for France by virtue of discovery and occupation. (See Pl. II for routes followed by La Salle and others between the Great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico; also see Pl. VII and fig. 1.) The area on the Gulf extended eastward to the mouth of the “River of Palms," which is the river in Florida now called the Manatee, or else a smaller stream that empties into the Gulf at or near Tampa Bay.37

37 For a translation of La Salle's proclamation see Sparks, Jared, Library of American biography, vol. 1, pp. 200-202, Boston, 1844.

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