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JOURNAL OF BELLES LETTRES, ARTS, &c.
Published every Wednesday.-Terms, five dollars per annum, to be paid in advance.
“ PoSCENTES VARIO MULTUM DIVEŘSA PALATO"-Hor. Lib. ii. Ep. 2.
No. 1.-Vol. 1.
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA.
JUNE, 17, 1829,
ty-lists of Professors and Students—honorary PROSPECTUS
distinctions, and occasionally such productions OF A LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL, of the Students as may possess unusual merit.
This information, peculiarly interesting to the To be published weekly, at the University Parents and Guardians of the Students, will not of Virginia, under the title of “ The Virginia be unacceptable to the Public. The Journal Literary Museum, and Journal of Belles-Lettres, may also, by receiving and transmitting hints Arts and Sciences, &.c."
on the difficult subject of College government The objects of this Journal will be, to commu
and instruction, render an important service to nicate the truths and discoveries of Science to
the cause of Education. the miscellaneous reader, and to encourage a
Party Politics and Controversial Theology will taste for polite literature.
be excluded ; but such exclusion will not extend It will rely, chiefly, for its support on the Pro
to religious or political topics, of a general chafessors of the University, whose minds, kept in
racter, discussed with temperance and ability. a state of active inquiry, by the Lectures requir
The Journal will consist of sixteen pages sued of them, may be expected to afford original per-royal octavo, weekly, and at the end of the and interesting contributions,on all the important year, an Index will be furnished, so that it will branches of Learning or Science.
form a considerable volume, annually. The Scientific portion of the work will, gene
The terms of subscription will be five dollars, rally, be of a popular character; but, should it
per annum, payable on the delivery of the fifth occasinnally contain discussions, which, on ac
number. The work to be commenced as soon as count of their novelty or importance, may also two hundred subscribers shall have been obinterest the adept, it will be the aim of the Edi
tained. tors to make such articles, so far as may be prac
Communications, post paid, to be addressed ticable, intelligible and insti uctive to the gene - To the Editors of the Virginia Literary Mum ral reader.
seum, University of Virginia. Whilst the Journal will be principally devoted
University of Virginia, Feb. 26,
1829. to general topics of Moral or Physical Science, Philology and Polite Literature, the Editors will not be unmindful of our local and peculiar con
INTRODUCTION. cerns. They will endeavour to collect and difuse what information they can, concerning the From the first opening of this University, history of Virginia, and the other States—their it has been thought by many of its most infirst Settlement-their progress as Colonies and telligent friends, that it presented a favoras Independent States :—their peculiarities in able occasion for the establishment of a Laws, Manners or Dialect-their Statistical De- Literary Journal. It was presumed that tails and Natural Phenomena. Such a Reposi- eight or more Professors, who were daily tory is much wanted. The information, which occupied in communicating, in familiar lan. now lies scattered among individuals, if collect
the fruits of their studies to others, ed, would shed great light on the past history would be qualified to make such a work, and present state of our country. On these, at once useful and interesting to the public. and other subjects, they solicit contributions. The central position of the University, both A part of the Journal will communicate in
as it respects Virginia, and the whole Unformation concerning the University-the course of instruction pursued by the several Professors dation. It was known, moreover, that the
ion, was regarded as a further recommen- Meetings of the Visitors- Public Examina- plan of the Institution was principally the tions-Statutes and Regulations of the Universi- work of Mr. Jefferson, and that it essayed
important innovations in its discipline, and prehension, and proved, from indubitable its course of instruction, as well as the evidence, the general salubrity of the place. structure of its buildings; whence it was There
may be some difference of opinion inferred that a lively curiosity would be felt about the species of periodical that should to learn the progress of an experiment of have been selected. Some may think a this high character, made by the most po- monthly publication would have been prepular and most philosophical statesman of ferable to a weekly, and others, that a quar
terly review would have been preferable to The force of these considerations, as well either. But to the last there existed these as others which more peculiarly concerned objections: there are at this time three Rethe interests of the Institution, was duly views in the United States, all of which befelt by the Professors; but they did not ing conducted with ability, may be supthink it advisable to undertake a periodi- posed to engross that portion of the public cal publication while they were engaged in patronage which is likely to be afforded to preparing courses of lectures for their se- this species of writing. The interest which veral classes: a duty which not only re- these periodicals once excited, is indeed alquires much reading, but also the labour of ready weakened by their multiplication, and adapting the result of their researches and it would necessarily be more so by their furreflections to the capacity of the learner. ther increase. Besides, they are suited onNor, coming as they nearly all have done, ly to long and grave dissertations on imfrom a distance, could they at first have portant subjects. From them all poetrytold, what would be most acceptable to the every species of fiction and other producpublic taste on their present theatre of action of fancy—all literary intelligence—all tion, or be best suited to its literary wants. articles not extending beyond a page or These preliminary obstacles being now re two, whatever might be their character or moved, they engage in the work with alac- merit, are of necessity excluded. They rity, in the hope that while they are em are adapted only to the reflective and ploying their hours of leisure in contrib- speculative class of readers, and are little
at, of the public, and attractive to the young, the thoughtless and o the advancement of thegay. A weekly paper, on the other hand, also be able to pro- is fettered by no such restrictions. e Institution of which place by the side of the most serious disThey may thus, inquisition, a moral maxim, an insulated fact - șate the disadvantage in physics, or the most minute verbal criti
ation, remote as it is cism. Poetry may here mingle with prose from any large town, and keep the Univer- -historical facts and sketches of real life, sity in the minds of the public, although it with the wildest creations of the imaginacannot be placed before their eyes. They tion—the phenomena of matter with those may also counteract the hostility with which of intellect. Such a miscellany, in short, the Institution has been sometimes openly, excludes no one of the thousand ways, in and more often invidiously assailed. Had which one mind may act upon another, by the University always possessed the means addressing itself to the reason, the fancy, now afforded, it might have met these in- or the feelings. A weekly paper, possessjurious attacks in the threshhold. The pe-es, too, some advantages over a monthly culiar advantages of its management and publication. The Post Office laws are discipline, if the wisdom of a Jefferson, a more favourable to its circulation : and Madison, a Monroe, and their able coad-where the investigation of a copious subjutors can be supposed to have devised ject is continued from paper from paper, as any, might have been communicated for the must be the case in both species, to secure gratification of a liberal curiosity, and the the indispensable requisite of variety, or benefit of other seats of learning: and re where different writers engage in controcently, when the University was visited by versial discussions, the shorter interval does a disease, from which not only no College, not suffer the interest of the reader to flag, but no neighbourhood, nor even any plan- or his memory to lose the connexion of the tation or estate, however elevated its site, separate parts. It is on these accounts, that or healthy its general character, is always such a periodical as has been chosen, is exempt, they might have allayed popular ap-supposed to unite in a great degree, the ad
, . 3 vantages of a newspaper, a magazine, and beautiful of all gems, are composed almost a review.
solely of alumine or clay, yet we cannot An impression has gone abroad, the edi-form them from this ingredient, and they tors know not how, that the subjects of this remain as rare and are as highly valued, as paper, would be altogether of a scientific they were before their humble origin was or technical character. The Prospectus, discovered. they think, does not warrant this conclu If charcoal could be melted, it is very sion: to remove, however, all doubts, on probable that it would assume a vitreous texthe subject, they will here remark, that un- ture, and that its conversion into diamond der the term • Polite Literature,' they meant would be thus accomplished. Unfortunateto comprehend every species of composition ly, however, for the success of this method, which may please or instruct, and which charcoal, when excluded from air, is found does not come under the denomination of to resist the most intense heat to which it
Science. Their pages, therefore, are as can be exposed. In the hottest furnace, accessible to the sportive effusions of fancy and in the focus of the most powerful lens, and wit, as to the most erudite disquisi- it remains unchanged. Sir Humphrey Dations of the scholar, or the profoundest re- vy exposed it, in chlorine gas, to the heat searches of philosophy. It will be their of the great Voltaic apparatus of the Royal aim to give a portion of their paper to every Institution, without sensibly altering its texdepartment of knowledge and though ture. Professor Silliman, indeed, thought, they should fail in communicating much that he had succeeded in melting small that is new in Science, they trust they will points of charcoal, by Dr. Hare's deflabe able to explain and illustrate what is grator ; but Mr. Vanuxem proved that already known—that they will at least add the globules which Mr. Silliman supposed to the stock of l'armless pleasure; and true to be of diamond, consisted of an oxide of to their motto, that they will, at the literary iron, and were even attracted by the magrepast which they shall weekly lay before net. the public, be able to produce a variety of These failures are certainly calculated to intellectual food to suit the diversified discourage any further attempts to produce tastes of their readers.
diamonds by the fusion of charcoal; but The editors take this occasion to inform there is another principle to which we may the subscribers that their first number would have recourse, and which may prove more have appeared several weeks before, but successful. Charcoal enters into combinafor the unforeseen delay occasioned by tion with many substances, such as oxygen, the publisher in procuring his paper and hydrogen, and sulph'ır, and, if it co type.
Q. slowly precipitated from any of these com
binations, it might form crystals of pure
carbon, and the great chemical problem be MANUFACTURE OF DIAMONDS. thus solved. If the following account, taken
from a communication made to the InstiAfter the experiments of Lavoisier and tute of France, can be relied on, it would others had proved that the diamond was indeed seem as if this method had actuchemically identical with charcoal, it was ally succeeded, in the hands of M. Gannal. natural that many attempts should be made The compound which he used was the to produce this most precious of gems, by carburet of sulphur, or sulphuret of carartificial means. The project presented bon, a transparent colourless liquid, renone of the absurdity for which the trans- markable, like the diamond, for its high remutations of the alchemists have been so fractive power, and which may be prepared justly ridiculed. We have at our command by passing the vapour of sulphur over fragthe material of which we know the dia- ments of charcoal, heated to redness, in a mond to be formed, and it is by no means tube of porcelain. M. Gannal's experiimpossible that we should be able to give ment is thus described. to it the state of close aggregation and the • If several rolls of phosphorus are introcrystalline texture which render it so valu- duced into a matrass containing carburet of able. It is true that we are foiled in many sulphur, covered with a layer of water, the analogous cases. Thus, though we know moment the phosphorus finds itself in conthat the ruby and sapphire, two of the most tact with the carburet, it dissolves, and, be
. In tenui labor
coming liquid, is precipitated to the lower | which remained on its surface. Exposed part of the matrass. The whole mass is to the sun's rays, this substance presented then divided into three distinct layers : the numerous crystals, reflecting all the colours first formed of pure water, the second of of the rainbow. Twenty of them were carburet of sulphur, and the third of lique- large enough to be taken up with the point fied phosphorus. Things being in this state, of a penknife; and three others were of if the matrass be agitated so as to cause the the size of a grain of millet. These last, mixture of the diflerent bodies, the liquor baving been submitted to the inspection of grows thick, becomes milky, and, after a an experienced jeweller in Paris, were prolittle rest, separates anew, but only into two nounced by him to be real diamonds!"" layers; the upper one of pure water, the We are sure that this notice of M. Ganunder one of phosphuret of sulphur; and nal's discovery will be read with interest, between those two layers, there is a very especially if it be considered, that the diathin stratum of white powder, which, when mond is not a mere article of luxury, but, the matrass is exposed to the sun's rays, ex- like silver and gold, has many valuable prohibits all the colours of the prism; and perties independent of its rarity. Its use which, consequently, appears to be formed in cutting glass is familiarly known; and it of a multitude of little crystals.
forms the only tools for shaping and polishEncouraged by this experiment, M. Gan-ing the hard jewels used in chronometers nal endeavoured, by the following process, and the best watches. to obtain larger crystals, and succeeded. It appears that a M. Delatour, has also He introduced into a matrass, placed where produced the diamond; but we have yet it would be quite undisturbed, first eight seen no account of his process.
M. ounces of water, and then eight ounces of carburet of sulphur, and eight ounces of phosphorus. As in the preceding experi
AUSTRALIAN ADVERTISEMENTS. ment, the phosphorus dissolved; and the three liquids arranged themselves in the or
VIRGIL. Georgic. der of their specific gravity. After four
Though low the subject, it deserves our pains.' and-twenty hours, there was formed between the layer of water and the layer of carbu Newspaper advertisements frequently ret of sulphur, an extremely thin pellicle of exhibit the characteristic manners of a white powder, having here and there seve- country more forcibly than any other kind ral air bubbles, and various centres of crys- of publication : hence the traveller turns tallization, formed, some by spars of very anxiously to them, on visiting any foreign thin sheets, and others by stars. In the country; and hence, again, the pleasure course of a few days, this pellicle gradually which is experienced in referring to the files grew thicker. At the same time, the sepa- published by our Ancestors. The value of ration of the two inferior liquids became this kind of information, in depicting less complete; and in three months they manners and customs, has, indeed, induced appeared to form but one and the same a late historian of New South Wales, Mr. substance. Another month having elapsed W. C. Wentworth, to go so far as to pubwithout any new result, the question was, lish, in his work, a literal copy of an entire how to find means of separating the crys- Sydney Gazette ! tallized substance from the phosphuret of In our own Newspapers, peculiarities ocsulphur, to which the inflammability of the cur, which are striking to the English travmixture presented great obstacles. After eller. “The Subscriber has the honor' &c. several attempts, more or less unsuccessful, is never seen in the English Journals alM. Gannal determined to filter the whole though strictly correct, in the sense we emthrough a chamois skin, which he after-ploy it, both in etymology and by antient wards placed under a glass bell, taking care, custom, its acceptation, in recent times, from time to time, to renew the air. At has been, in England, almost entirely limthe end of a month, this skin becoming ca-ited to the Contributor to any Undertakpable of being handled without inconveni- ing; and, where the expression would be ence, it was doubled up, washed, and dried. used here, the word “Undersigned' would For the first time, M. Gannal was then en- be subtsituted in England. The underabled to examine the crystallized substance signed has the honor, &c.
Another trifling difference likewise exists of London, unsullied by the name of Dr. in the use, with us, of the First person sin- Eady, the notorious successor of the Dr. gular, in our advertisements, which is Rock, so celebrated by Hogarth. The adscarcely ever employed by the English, as 61 dress, 39 Frith Street, Soho, has been forced will offer for sale,' &c.
upon our recollection in spite of the worthThe Virginia traveller, in Great Britain, lessness of the subject. In an election, would, of course, be impressed with these for Representatives in Parliament, for the verbal distinctions, but, still more, by the City of London, some years ago, amidst the false and inflated taste to which commer- variety of electioneering placards, borne cial emulation has given rise in that coun- about amongst the populace, was one, extry. Every expedient is adopted to engage hibited conspicuously Vote for Dr. Eady, the attention of the reader, and, at times, the friend to the Constitution. Yet manthe false colours are displayed in so attrac- kind are so prone to gullibility, have that tive and humorous a manner, as to compen- organ so largely developed, in spite of the sate, in some measure, for the fraud which silence of Messrs. Gall and Spurzheim on has been practised. The Comedian, Ma- the subject, that these impostors have sucthews, who is well known for his various ceeded, in a pecuniary point of view, the caricature representations of National man- extent indeed of their desires, by their ners and customs, was in the habit of ad- quackery. There is, at this very time, or ducing one or two elucidations of this me- there was, recently, in London, an associaretricious taste. We do not recollect his tion of Empirics who assumed the names of precise words, but the following is the sub- Cooper, Monro and Duncan, and succeedstance
ed in drawing patients to their establishDreadful Accident.—Yesterday, as a man was ment, under the belief, that they were really employed on a high ladder, in cleaning the win the respectable individuals, or relations of dows of a house in Charing Cross, a sudden the individuals, whose names they bear. gust of wind upset the ladder, when, shocking One patient left the country for the purto relate, the man fell at the door of Bish's For- pose of consulting Sir Astley Cooper, and tunate Lottery Office, where Tickets and shares, remained for some time, unwittingly, under are now selling, &c'.
the hands of the Empiric who had assumed News from St. Helena.—Authentic Advices his name. The discovery of the imposition have been received from St. Helena ; they state, gave rise to a judicial investigation. that the Emperor Napoleon is in good health,
The French advertisements are and, that he is determined to use no other than modest than those of the English, and, acWarren's Japan Blacking, prepared and sold at cordingly, it is customary, for the travellers No, 39, Strand.'
from that country, in Great Britain, to ridiNothing however, can be more charac-cule the taste to which allusion has been teristic of the modern system of puffing, made. Soon after the peace with Great than the following extract, from a London Britain, in 1814, the afflux of English Atlas of May 1827, now before us. travellers to Paris excited every one to exPeculiar
pens adapted for every person's wri. hibit his goods and possessions in the most ting, of twelve different Cuts. 1. General Cut. intelligible and alluring manner, and, 2 Hard Cut. 3. Extra-hard Cut. 4. Free Cut. hence, the English language was fre5. Strong Cut. 6. Broad Cut. 7. Medium Cut. quently selected for this purpose, by the 8. Elegant Cut. 9. Lady's Cut. 10. Gentle adoption of which, if they did not sucmen's Cut. 11. Commercial Cut. 12. Fine ceed in the former object, they certainly Cut. Manufactured by T. T. Morrell, 10 Broad accomplished the latter. way. Ludgate Hill, and may be had, of all We well recollect a handsome Parisian Stationers, in town and country. Ask for T. sign, with gilt letters on a purple ground, T. Morrel's Peculiar Pens, and observe none are having, on one side, the French, and, on the genuine, without his printed Label.'
other, an attempted English version. Another system of more modern puffing Ici on loue des jolis appartemens, petits et and of attracting notoriety is, that of hav- grands.' the name and address of the advertiser, 'Here one lets prettys apartments, smalls and chalked upon the dead walls, of the Me- larges.' tropolis and its vicinity. We doubt whe These remarks have been suggested, by ther there is a dead wall, within 40 miles'the perusal of some advertisements, extract