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Iowa and Florida be, and the same are hereby, declared to be States of the United States of America, and are hereby admitted into the Union on equal footing with the original States in all respects, whatsoever.

See. 2. And be it further enacted, That the following shall be the boundaries of the said State of Iowa, to wit: Beginning at the mouth of the Des Moines river, at the middle of the Mississippi, thence by the middle of the channel of that river to a parallel of latitude passing through the mouth of the Mankato, or Blue-Earth river; thence west, along the said parallel of latitude, to a point where it is intersected by a meridian line, seventeen degrees and thirty minutes west of the meridian of Washington city; thence due south to the northern boundary line of the State of Missouri; thence eastwardly following that boundary to the point at which the same intersects the Des - Moines river, thence by the middle of the channel of that river to the place of beginning.

Sec. 3. Ind be it further enacted, That the said State of Iowa shall have concurrent jurisdiction on the river Mississippi, and every other river bordering on the said State of Iowa, so far as the said rivers shall form a common boundary to said State, and any other State or States now or hereafter to be formed or bounded by the same: Such rivers to be common to both: And that the said river Mississippi, and the navigable waters leading into the same, shall be common highways, and forever free as well to the inhabitants of said State, as to all other citizens of the United States, without any tax, duty, impost, or toll therefor, imposed by the said State of Iowa.

Sec. 4. Ind be it further enacted, That it is made and declared to be a fundamental condition of the admission of sail State of Iowa into the Union, that so much of this act as relates to the said State of Iowa shall be assented to by a majority of the qualified electors at their township elections, in the manner and at the time prescribed in the sixth section of the thirteenth article of the constitution adopted at Iowa city the first day of November, anno Domini eighteen hundred and forty-four, or by the legislature of said State. And as soon as such assent shall be given, the President of the United States shall announce the same by proclamation; and therefrom, and without further proceedings on the part of Congress, the admission of the said State of Iowa into the Union, on an equal footing in all respects whatever with the original States, shall be considered as complete.

SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That said State of Florida shall embrace the territories of East and West Florida, which, by the treaty of amity, settlement and limits between the United States and Spain, on the twenty-second day of February, cighteen hundred and nineteen, were ceded to the United States.

Sec. 6. Ind be it further enarted. That until the next census and apportionment shall be made, each of said States of Iowa and Florida shall be entitled to one Representative in the House of Representatives of the United States.

Sec. 7. Ind be it further enacted, That said States of Iowa and Florida are admitted into the Union on the express condition that they shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the public lands lying within them, nor levy any tax on the same whilst remaining the property of the United States: Proridled That the orclinance of the convention that formed the constitution of Iowa, and which is appended to the said constitution, shall not be deemed or taken to have any effect or validity, or to be recognized as in any manner obligatory upon the Government of the United States.

Approved, March 3, 1845.

CONSTITUTION OF FLORIDA-1838 a

We, the people of the Territory of Florida, by our delegates in convention, assembled at the city of Saint Joseph, on Monday, the 3d day of December, A. D. 1838, and of the Independence of the United States the sixty-third year, having and claiming the right of admission into the Union as one of the United States of America, consistent with the principles of the Federal Constitution, and by virtue of the treaty of amity, settlement, and limits between the United States of America and the King of Spain, ceding the provinces of East and West Florida to the United States, in order to secure to ourselves and our posterity the enjoyment of all the rights of life, liberty, and property, and the pursuit of happiness, do mutually agree, each with the other, to form ourselves into a free and independent State, by the name of the State of Florida.

ARTICLE I

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS

That the great and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established, we declare:

SECTION 1. That all freemen, when they form a social compact, are equal, and have certain inherent and indefeasible rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty; of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property and reputation, and of pursuing their own happiness.

Sec. 2. That all political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and established for their benefit; and, therefore, they have at all times an inalienable and indefeasible right to alter or abolish their form of government in such manner as they may deem expedient.

SEC. 3. That all men have a natural and inalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience; and that no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious establishment or mode of worship in this State.

SEC. 4. That all elections shall be free and equal, and that no property qualification for eligibility to office, or for the right of suffrage, shall ever be required in this State.

Sec. 5. That every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments, on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty; and no law shall ever be passed to curtail, abridge, or restrain the liberty of speech or of the press.

a This constitution was framed by a convention which met December 3, 1838, and adjourned January 11, 1839. It was not submitted to the people.

Sec. 6. That the right of trial by jury shall forever remain inviolate.

Sec. 7. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions from unreasonable seizures and searches; and that no warrant to search any place, or to seize any person or thing, shall issue without describing the place to be searched, and the person or thing to be seized, as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.

SEC. 8. That no freeman shall be taken, imprisoned, disseized of his freehold, liberties, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner destroyed, or deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the law of the land.

Sec. 9. That all courts shall be open, and every person, for an injury done him, in his lands, goods, person, or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered, without sale, denial, or delay.

Sec. 10. That in all criminal prosecutions the accused hath a right to be heard, by himself or counsel, or both; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and in all prosecutions by indictment or presentment, a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the county or district where the offence was committed, and shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself.

Sec. 11. That all persons shall be bailable, by sufficient securities, unless in capital offences, where the proof is evident or the presumption strong; and the privilege of habeas corpus shall not be suspended unless when, in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

Sec. 12. That excessive bail shall in no case be required; nor shall excessive fines be imposed; nor shall cruel or unusual punishments be inflicted.

Sec. 13. That no person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb.

Sec. 14. That private property shall not be taken or applied to public use unless just compensation be made therefor.

Sec. 15. That in all prosecutions and indictments for libel the truth may be given in evidence; and if it shall appear to the jury that the libel is true, and published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, the truth shall be a justification; and the jury shall be the judges of the law and facts.

Sec. 16. That no person shall be put to answer any criminal charge but by presentment, indictment, or impeachment.

Sec. 17. That no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.

Sec. 18. That retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the existence of such laws, and by them only declared penal or criminal, are oppressive, unjust, and incompatible with liberty; wherefore, no ex post facto law shall ever be made.

Sec. 19. That no law impairing the obligation of contracts shall ever be passed.

Sec. 20. That the people have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble together to consult for the common good, and to apply to

those invested with the powers of government for redress of grievances, or other proper purposes, by petition, address, or remonstrance.

Sec. 21. That the free white men of this State shall have a right to keep and to bear arms for their common defence.

Sec. 22. That no soldier, in time of peace, shall be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner prescribed by law.

SEC. 23. That no standing army shall be kept up without the consent of the legislature; and the military shall in all cases and at all times be in strict subordination to the civil power.

SEC. 24. That perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of a free State, and ought not to be allowed.

SEC. 25. That no hereditary emoluments, privileges, or honors, shall ever be granted or conferred in this State.

Sec. 26. That frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty.

SEC. 27. That, to guard against transgressions upon the rights of the people, we declare that everything in this article is excepted out of the general powers of government, and shall forever remain inviolate; and that all laws contrary thereto, or to the following provisions, shall be void.

ARTICLE II

DISTRIBUTION OF THE POWERS OF GOVERNMENT

SECTION 1. The powers of the government of the State of Florida shall be divided into three distinct departments, and each of them confided to il separate body of magistracy, to wit: Those which are legislative to one; those which are executive to another; and those which are judicial to another.

Sec. 2. No person, or collection of persons, being of one of those departments, shall exercise any power properly belonging to either of the others, except in the instances expressly provided in this constitution.

ARTICLE III

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT

SECTION 1. The supreme executive power shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the governor of the State of Florida.

SEC. 2. The governor shall be elected for four years, by the qualified electors, at the time and place where they shall vote for representatives, and shall remain in office until a successor be chosen and qualified; and shall not be eligible to reëlection until the expiration of four years thereafter.

SEC: 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of governor unless he shall have attained the age of thirty years, shall have been a citizen of the United States ten years, or an inhabitant of Florida at the time of the alloption of this constitution, (being a citizen of the United States,) and shall have been a resident of Florida at least five year's next prececling the day of election.

SEC. 4. The returns of every election for governor shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the speaker of the house of representatives, who shall, during the first week of the session, open and publish them in the presence of both houses of the general assembly; and the person having the highest number of votes shall be governor; but if two or more shall be equal, and highest in votes, one of them shall be chosen governor by the joint vote of the two houses; and contested elections for governor shall be determined by both houses of the general assembly, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 5. He shall, at stated times, receive a compensation for his services, which shall not be increased or diminished during the term for which he shall have been elected.

SEC. 6. He shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of this State, and of the militia thereof.

Sec. 7. He may require information, in writing, from the officers of the executive department, on any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

SEC. 8: Ile may, by proclamation, on extraordinary occasions, convene the general assembly at the seat of government, or at a different place if that shall have become dangerous from an enemy or from disease; and in case of disagreement between the two houses with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper, not beyond the day of the next meeting designated by this constitution.

Sec. 9. He shall, from time to time, give to the general assembly information of the state of the government, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he may deem expedient.

Sec. 10. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

SEC. 11. In all criminal and penal cases, (except of treason and impeachment,) after conviction, he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, under such rules and regulations as shall be prescribed by law; and in cases of treason, he shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to grant reprieves and pardons; and he may, in the recess of the senate, respite the sentence until the end of the next session of the general assembly.

Sec. 12. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by the governor, and used by him officially, with such device as the governor first elected may direct; and the present seal of the Territory shall be the seal of the State until otherwise directed by the general assembly.

Sec. 13. All commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the State of Florida, be sealed with the State seal, and signed by the governor, and attested by the secretary of state.

Sec. 14. There shall be a secretary of state appointed by a joint vote of both houses of the general assembly, who shall continue in office during the term of four years; and he shall keep a fair register of the official acts and proceedings of the governor, and shall, when required, lay the same, and all papers, minutes, and vouchers relative thereto, before the general assembly, and shall perform such other duties as may be required of him by law.

Sec. 15. Vacancies that happen in offices, the appointment to which is vested in the general assembly, or given to the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, shall be filled by the governor dur

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