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4. Correlative: As in, “John was not only a leader in scholarship, but he was also an all-round athlete.” The conjunctions useful here are: both . . . and, not only . . . but also, and . . . therefore. 5. Inference: As in, “There is a thunderstorm brewing; hence we shall catch no fish.” The conjunctions most useful here are: hence, so, thus, therefore, consequently; and the conjunctional phrases: as a result, in fine, as a consequence. 6. Reason (where the reason for the speaker's knowledge is stated): As in, “We shall be late, for I know that we are running at only half-speed.” The conjunction most useful is: for. o 7. Repetition: of some thought (usually without a connective): As in, “The girl was weary; she drooped her head, and unclasped her thin hands.” 8. Statement and elaboration (also usually without a connective): As in, “There are two trails to the canyon: the upper by Horsecorral meadows, and the lower by the river.” 9. Grouping of related details (without connective): As in, “There were ducks in one corner of the old barnyard; chickens in the straw; pigeons on the roof; pigs everywhere.” Of these nine relationships, the first four are the commonest, the first six the most important for your study. The last three closely resemble each other, and will be easy of comprehension. Leaving out connectives, when it can be done safely, often helps the vigor and smoothness of your speech or writing. But first acquire infallible accuracy in putting in the right ones.
I. Use each of the above-named connectives in compound sen
tences of your own composition.
II. Answer the following question by means of compound sen
tences : —
What is the difference between a compound and a simple
III. Add to the following expressions, making a compound sentence
1. 2. 3.
. I shall not go in the rain; however
. I do not think it is wise, yet
. I do not think he will fail; nevertheless
of each one : —
John went to school but — —
They are already supplied; therefore
IV. Supply connectives of equality in each of the following groups.
. This is a frightful road
. I do not care for opera,
Give reasons for your choice in each case : —
. It was rainy We went
. He was clever — he was very bad
. He had been away for two years he returned most reluctantly
. John goes to school regularly he is making progress
. Jim makes money selling papers he receives
we shall soon be over it dying men did groan, ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets
I shall remain at home
substitute is better in each case: —
Caesar is a very ugly dog and I love him.
. She was an excellent student but she was madevaledictorian.
. Sir Brian's spirit of revenge was most wicked but we were
glad to see him defeated. He is rarely at home and I luckily found him in. . The football game was long and hard and few men were hurt. The man is a good citizen but he deserved to be elected.
. It is very rainy this morning but they have decided not to
go out. His playing was not appreciated but he stopped. They were very tired and weary but they retired early.
VI. Reduce the following incorrect compound sentences to simple
sentences. Tell why the result is better in each case: —
Four large plums were on the table and they were right in
I am going to the city and I am going with my mother and
. I rode my bicycle but I rode very slowly and I could not
help the accident.
. Our coachman's name is James and he is very old indeed
but he is quite alert.
. Shakespeare was born at Stratford-on-Avon and he wrote
many plays but I have read very few of them.
. It is a very great country but I like America better and I
intend to remain here.
. He was not only applauded by us but the whole world
applauded him also. . I am neither fond of study nor recreation and I prefer to
sleep. . His sickness was long and severe and he suffered keenly.
10. Tom is a clerk and he does his work faithfully and his
mother hopes he will soon be promoted.
VII. Examine the following compound sentences closely. Explain
the connective in each case. Show that there are two or
1. The memory of the public is short, and one set of facts is
easily crowded out of mind by another.
2. The committee appointed by Mayor Gaynor to serve in an
advisory capacity in park management has taken up its
. The master continued firing guns for help; and a lightship
ventured a boat out to help us.
. There appeared before me a little opening of the land, and
I found a strong current of the tide setting into it.
. My very heart would shrink, and my very blood run chill,
but to think of it.
. In the day, great troubles overwhelmed my mind; and in
the night I dreamt often of killing the savages.
. My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very rich
. The very next day we took up our abode in the palace, and
never did sovereigns share a divided throne with more
. I was not to be diverted from my humor; however, my
will was law with these good people.
For several days ensuing, her name was unmentioned by
. Mrs. Steerforth was particularly happy in her son's society,
and Steerforth was, on this occasion, particularly attentive and respectful to her.