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4. Correlative: As in, “John was not only a leader in scholarship, but he was also an all-round athlete.” The conjunctions useful here are: both . . . and, not only . . . but also, and . . . therefore. 5. Inference: As in, “There is a thunderstorm brewing; hence we shall catch no fish.” The conjunctions most useful here are: hence, so, thus, therefore, consequently; and the conjunctional phrases: as a result, in fine, as a consequence. 6. Reason (where the reason for the speaker's knowledge is stated): As in, “We shall be late, for I know that we are running at only half-speed.” The conjunction most useful is: for. o 7. Repetition: of some thought (usually without a connective): As in, “The girl was weary; she drooped her head, and unclasped her thin hands.” 8. Statement and elaboration (also usually without a connective): As in, “There are two trails to the canyon: the upper by Horsecorral meadows, and the lower by the river.” 9. Grouping of related details (without connective): As in, “There were ducks in one corner of the old barnyard; chickens in the straw; pigeons on the roof; pigs everywhere.” Of these nine relationships, the first four are the commonest, the first six the most important for your study. The last three closely resemble each other, and will be easy of comprehension. Leaving out connectives, when it can be done safely, often helps the vigor and smoothness of your speech or writing. But first acquire infallible accuracy in putting in the right ones.

EXERCISES

I. Use each of the above-named connectives in compound sen

tences of your own composition.

II. Answer the following question by means of compound sen

tences : —

What is the difference between a compound and a simple

sentence 2

III. Add to the following expressions, making a compound sentence

1. 2. 3.

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. I shall not go in the rain; however
. Whether he yields or not, they
. Not only are there sufficient for the whole party, but there

. I do not think it is wise, yet

. I do not think he will fail; nevertheless

of each one : —

John went to school but — —
We prefer apples and —
Both girls and boys are requested to be present; therefore

are also
Either he must remain at home or I — —

They are already supplied; therefore

IV. Supply connectives of equality in each of the following groups.

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. This is a frightful road
. Horses did neigh,

. I do not care for opera,

Give reasons for your choice in each case : —

. It was rainy We went
He was a good scholar he was promoted

. He was clever — he was very bad

. He had been away for two years he returned most reluctantly

. John goes to school regularly he is making progress

. Jim makes money selling papers he receives

many gifts

we shall soon be over it dying men did groan, ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets

I shall remain at home

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1.

2.

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9. 10.

substitute is better in each case: —
He neglected his appearance but at the end of the year he
lost his position. -

Caesar is a very ugly dog and I love him.

. She was an excellent student but she was madevaledictorian.

. Sir Brian's spirit of revenge was most wicked but we were

glad to see him defeated. He is rarely at home and I luckily found him in. . The football game was long and hard and few men were hurt. The man is a good citizen but he deserved to be elected.

. It is very rainy this morning but they have decided not to

go out. His playing was not appreciated but he stopped. They were very tired and weary but they retired early.

VI. Reduce the following incorrect compound sentences to simple

1.

2.

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sentences. Tell why the result is better in each case: —

Four large plums were on the table and they were right in
front of us.

I am going to the city and I am going with my mother and
I am going to-morrow.

. I rode my bicycle but I rode very slowly and I could not

help the accident.

. Our coachman's name is James and he is very old indeed

but he is quite alert.

. Shakespeare was born at Stratford-on-Avon and he wrote

many plays but I have read very few of them.

. It is a very great country but I like America better and I

intend to remain here.

. He was not only applauded by us but the whole world

applauded him also. . I am neither fond of study nor recreation and I prefer to

sleep. . His sickness was long and severe and he suffered keenly.

10. Tom is a clerk and he does his work faithfully and his

mother hopes he will soon be promoted.

VII. Examine the following compound sentences closely. Explain

the connective in each case. Show that there are two or
more equal ideas expressed in each : —

1. The memory of the public is short, and one set of facts is

easily crowded out of mind by another.

2. The committee appointed by Mayor Gaynor to serve in an

10.

11.

12.

13.

advisory capacity in park management has taken up its
labor in a serious spirit, and thus far its proceedings have
been encouraging to all.

. The master continued firing guns for help; and a lightship

ventured a boat out to help us.

. There appeared before me a little opening of the land, and

I found a strong current of the tide setting into it.

. My very heart would shrink, and my very blood run chill,

but to think of it.

. In the day, great troubles overwhelmed my mind; and in

the night I dreamt often of killing the savages.

. My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very rich

in subjects.

. The very next day we took up our abode in the palace, and

never did sovereigns share a divided throne with more
perfect harmony.

. I was not to be diverted from my humor; however, my

will was law with these good people.
The monarch gladly agreed to so moderate a stipulation,
and the astrologer began his work.
A winter passed away, spring opened with all its bloom and
verdure and breathing sweetness, and the happy time
arrived for birds to pair and build their nests.
The prince remained disappointed and perplexed, but with
his curiosity still more piqued by the difficulty of gratify-
ing it.
A quick step was now heard upon the staircase, and a loud
knock at the door rapidly succeeded.

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14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

For several days ensuing, her name was unmentioned by
either Usher or myself; and during this period I was
busied in earnest endeavors to alleviate the melancholy
of my friend.
A slight noise attracted my notice, and, looking to the floor,
I saw several enormous rats traversing it.
I had no alternative but to conclude him stricken with
lunacy, and I became seriously anxious about getting him
home.
One of the weasels was disabled by my shot, but the troop
was not discouraged, and, after making several feints to
cross, one of them seized the wounded one and bore it
over, and the pack disappeared in the wall on the other
side.
In cold and uncongenial districts, the seedlings are mostly
sour and crabbed, but in more favorable soils they are
oftener mild and sweet.
This woodpecker does not breed or abound in my vicinity;
only stray specimens are now and then to be met with in
the colder months.
It has a purpose, and that purpose gives it its character.
But the good-natured, self-forgetful cheeriness and common
sense of Priscilla would soon have dissipated the one
suspicion; and the modest claim of Nancy's speech and
manners told clearly of a mind free from all disavowed
devices.
He put his hand in his pocket and found a half a guinea,
and, thrusting it into Silas's hand, he hurried out of the
cottage to overtake Mr. Kimble.
Mr. Micawber was waiting for me within the gate, and we
went up to his room (top story) and cried very much.
I say nothing tender to Miss Shepherd, but we under-
stand each other.

. Mrs. Steerforth was particularly happy in her son's society,

and Steerforth was, on this occasion, particularly attentive and respectful to her.

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