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in the morning At last
after luncheon to-day
in the train yesterday from New York How in the dark
book on the shelf any reason for doing it
. Where in the world
. Over in the other field
. One day early in the morning
. On the field of battle ready to fight
with all the windows broken
At last with their colors flying the field
but at hard work on our own part
By doing our work well at first at
II. Add to the following subjects and predicates words and phrases
that will answer the questions in parenthesis: —
9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 13. 16. 17.
. What did he have (complete the simple sentence, supplying
where and when).
. It rained (complete the simple sentence, supplying how and
. I love (complete the simple sentence, supplying who and
. He must not neglect (complete the simple sentence, sup
plying what and when).
III. Answer the following questions by means of complete but simple
IV. Separate the following into sentences, placing a period at the end of each complete statement and capitalizing the next. Then make a list of phrases, classifying them according to some plan. Make a list also of the single words that modify or explain the main thought, and classify them : —
There were three boys in the park that afternoon one of them wore a red suit and carried a red flag the other two were dressed in white they were playing war and were shouting at one another in the midst of a war dance presently a policeman came into view he was calmly sauntering up and down paying little attention to the young soldiers they started one after the other around their imaginary tent in hot pursuit of an imaginary enemy to their utter surprise and fright they ran headlong into the officer they were too much overcome to recover themselves they threw themselves on the ground in pretence of defeat their little imaginary game of war was concluded appropriately by their imaginary deaths at the hands of a very imaginary enemy. W. In each of the following sentence thoughts point out the subject, the predicate, and the explainers or modifiers. Tell in each case what word these modifiers explain: — . The dog jumped and barked on the return of his master. . They received him openly but refused to buy his books. . In the basket are three red apples. . How can you go without some one to help you ? There are three boys in the room all the time. We have just returned from a beautiful trip on the river. . Yesterday he went to the city for his mother. . The pupils and the teachers of the school are going to spend the day in the park examining the flowers and enjoying the pure fresh air. 9. He will remember the affair to the end of his life. 10. There is a monument at the entrance of the park, on the west side of the city.
THE COMPOUND SENTENCE
The Need for Compound Sentences. – In the course of our thinking we often find that we have two or more closely related thoughts of equal importance. One refuses to be subordinated to the other, or the others, and hence they must occupy equal places in the single sentence which expresses them. When this is the case, we make use of a form of expression called the Compound Sentence. If, for instance, we see two men in the park this morning, one riding and the other walking, we cannot adequately express our thought concerning them in a simple sentence. Our sentence thought is made up of two thoughts of equal value, and we must therefore use some such expression as this: —
Mr. A rides for his health, but Mr. B walks.
We are thinking of two different men and of two different modes of benefiting the health. In both cases the one is as . important as the other, and it would be inaccurate to express either “riding ” or “walking ” by means of a phrase. Definition of a Compound Sentence. — Thus our thinking or idea-forming processes are sometimes very simple and have a number of subsidiary ideas attached to them by means of words and phrases; and sometimes they are compound, that is, sometimes they consist of two or more thoughts of equal rank. Each one of these thoughts must have a subject and predicate of its own for its adequate expression. In other words, a compound sentence is a sentence thought consisting of two or more simple sentence thoughts equally related to each other and joined together by coördinate connectives, sometimes called “connectives of equality.” Thought Relationships in Compound Sentences. – There are nine chief relationships of thought which can exist between simple sentences compounded into compound sentences, and for each of these the language supplies us with proper connecting words. In certain cases, however, as will be seen, the nature of the connection is clear without a conjunction, and no connecting word is needed. The mastery of the compound sentence depends, then, entirely upon
two things: namely, clear thinking which will show exactly the nature of the relationship between the two thoughts which are to be connected, and a knowledge of the proper words to show this connection. For the first, think accurately; for the second, study the table which follows. You will be surprised to find how often a lack of precision in your speech and writing has been due to the use of an “and” or a “besides,” when you meant “but ’’ or “yet.” "
THE NINE RELATIONSHIPS
1. Addition: As in, “I went to the theater and there I - saw Richard Mansfield.” The conjunctions most useful here are: and, likewise, moreover, besides, also, furthermore. 2. Contrast: As in, “The deer scaled the mountain, but the dog followed him.” The conjunctions most useful are: but, still, yet, nevertheless, however, notwithstanding, on the other hand. 3. Alternation : As in, “Either you must go or I must lose
my train.” The conjunctions most useful are: either . . . or, neither . . . mor, whether . . . or.
1 Such connectives are sometimes grouped in four different classes; namely; — Additive or copulative coördinate conjunctions: and, likewise, moreover, besides, also. Adversative or contrasting coördinate conjunctions: but, still, yet, nevertheless, however, notwithstanding. Final or concluding coördinate conjunctions: so, hence, thus, therefore, consequently; (and the coördinate conjunctional phrases, as a result, in fine, as a consequence); also, when not used to subordinate, for. Correlative coördinate conjunctions : — 1. Alternative correlatives: whether . . . or, either . . . or, neither . . . nor. 2. Copulative correlatives: both . . . and, not only . . . but also, and . . . therefore.