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in its present form. The Deluge, and its effects on the earth's strata. Marine shells,
&c. Grand and terrific objects which this science exhibits—illustrate the sublimo
descriptions of the Deity Mecorded in the Scriptures.

Astronomy - - - - - - - - - - - - 163

Its sublime objects. Apparent motions of the Sun—of the Moon. Eclipses of the Sun

and Moon. Apparent motion of the starry heavens. Stars and planets seen in the

day-time, and with what powers of the telescope they may be distinguished. Appar-

ent revolution of the celestial vault indicates Almighty power. Stars never shifi their

relative positions. Solar System. The Sun—his size and probable destination illus-

trated—his spots and atmosphere—different kind of rays emitted from his body—his

distance illustrated. Mercury—his size, rotation, quantity of light and heat, &c.

Proportions of caloric on the different planets. Venus—her size, phases, mountains,

transits, and general phenomena. Original observations on, and mode by which her

diurnal rotation may be determined. Earth—proofs of its annual and diurnal motions.

The moon—description of her majestic mountain scenery, luminous spots, celestial

appearances, illuminating power, superficial contents, &c. Mars—his distance,

atmosphere, luminous zone, &c. New Planets—Ceres, Pallas, Juno, and Vesta—

their anomalies, singularities, and probable origin. Meteoric Stones. Jupiter—his

bulk, rotation, belts, and the appearances of his moons. Saturn—his figure, belts,

moons, and quantity of light. His Rings, their dimensions, motion, and phenomena

—illustrated by a figure. Splendour of the firmament, as viewed from this planet (see

the engraving.) Herschel—his distance, size, and quantity of light. Comets—their

tails, velocity, orbits, size, and number. New Comet. Motion of the solar system

in absolute space—its destination—plurality of worlds intimated in Scripture. The

Fixed Stars—their distance illustrated-–their arrangement, changes—moral reflections.

Relation of Astronomy to Religion—moral effects which its objects have a tendency

to produce—criminality of overlooking the works of God, &c.

NATURAL Philosophy - - - - - - - - - - - - 201

Its objects and different departments. Mechanics--subjects it embraces, and its impor-

tance to the improvement of mankind. Hydrostatics—its leading principles and uses,

illustrated by figures. Pneumatics—its principles, and the experiments by which they

are illustrated. Acoustics. Optics—leading facts and principles of this science.

Burning-glasses, &c. Electricity—its nature, phenomena, effects, and agency in the

system of nature. Galvanism—its singular effects on metals, &c. and on the animal

system—various facts which it explains. Magnetism—its various phenomena and

effects. Relation of Natural Philosophy to Religion—its inventions meliorate the con-

dition of mankind—illustrated in the case of the electric fluid-it undermines the influ-

ence of superstition—unfolds the incessant agency of God—indifference to this subject

unreasaonble.

Chymistar - - - - - - - - - - - - - 210

Its objects, and present dignified station. General forms of matter—simple and com-

pound substances. Caloric—its sources and properties. Oxygen, its properties and

combinations—nitrous oxide, its singular effects. Nitrogen, its effects on flame and

animal life. Hydrogen, its properties and uses. Carbon, its nature, combinations,

and antiseptic properties. Sulphur, its origin, combinations, and properties. Phos-

phorus, history of its discovery—how prepared—curious experiments with this sub-

stance—Phosphoric phenomena in the system of nature. Connexion of this science

with Religion—it displays the wisdom and benevolence of God, and the mode of his

present and future operations—improves the condition of man—and carries forward

our views to a more glorious and auspicious era.

Anatomy and Physiology - - - - - - - - - - - 231
Their general object—human body, its different parts and divisions. Bones, their num-
ber, form, and positions. Muscles, their nature, use, and extraordinary strength.
Heart and blood-vessels, and the circulation of the blood. Respiration—curious struc-
ture of the lungs. Digestion. Perspiration. Sensation, and the system of nerves.
Summary. Moral reflections—this branch of study teaches us our dependence on a
Superior Power—and excites to gratitude.

History - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 24!

Its objects, advantages, and connexion with Religion. Connexion of the sciences and

of the Divine dispensations with each other. Concluding remarks.

CHAPTER W.

A PPE N DIX.

So I. Illustration of the rate of motion in the heavenly bodies, on the supposition that the eas on

is at rest.

No. II. Experimental illustrations of the pressure of the atmosphere.

No. III. On the means by which it may probably be ascertained whether the Moon be a hat-ta-
ble world.

No. IV. Remarks on the late prote...ded discovery of a Lunar Fortification.

No. V. On the ideas of Magnitude, Motion, and Duration, as expressed by numbers.

No. VI. On a Plurality of Worlds.

No. VII. On the first inventor of Printing.

No. VIII. On Telescopes; with a brief notice of a New Reflecting Telescope constructed by the

Author.

No. IX. On Steam Navigation.

No. X. Strictures on a certain sentiment respecting Human Redemption.

No. XI. Extract from Dr. Dwight.

No. XII. List of Popular Works on the different sciences treated of in this volume, with wo.
casional remarks.

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The

C HR IS TI A N PHILOSOPHE R.

IN T R O DUCTION.

Or to subject of Religion, mankind have, in all ages, been prone to run into extremes. While some have been disposed to attach too much importance to the mere exertions of the human intellect, and to unagine that man, by the light of unassisted reason, is able to explore the path to true wisdom and happiness, the greater part offeligionists, on the other hand, have been disposed to treat scientific knowledge, in its relation to religion, with a degree of indifference bordering upon contempt. Both these dispositions are equally foolish and preposterous. For he who exalts human reason, as the only sure guide to wisdom and felicity, forgets, that man, in his present state, is a depraved intelligence, and, consequently, liable to err ; and that all those who have been left solely to its dictates, have uniformly ailed in attaining these desirable objects. Juring a period of more than 5,800 years, the greater part of the human race have been left solely to the guidance of their eational powers, in order to grope their way to the Tempe of Knowledge, and the Portals of Immortality; but what has been the result of all their anxious researches 3 Instead of acquiring correct notions of the Great Author of their existence, and of the nature of that homage which is due to his perfections, “they have become vain in their imaginations, and their foolish hearts have been darkened Professing themselves to be wise, they have become fools; and have changed the glory of the Incorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to four-sooted beasts, and creeping things." Instead of acquiring correct views of the principles of moral action, and conducting themselves according to the eternal rules of rectitude, they have displayed the operation of the most diabolical passions, indulged in continual warfare, and desolated the earth with rapine and horrid carnage; so that the history of the world presents to our view little more than a series of revolting details of the depravity of our species, and of the wrongs which one tribe of human beings has wilfully inflicted upon another. This has been the case, not only among a few uncultivated hordes on the coas's of Africa, in the plains of Tartary, and the wilds of America, but even among those nations which stood highest in the ranks of civilization, and of science.—

The ancient Greeks and Romans, who boasted of their attainments in philosopny, and their progress in the arts, entertained the most foolish, contradictory, and unworthy notions of the Object of Divine worship, of the requirements of religion, and of the eternal destiny of man. They adored a host of divinities characterized by impiety, fraud, injustice, falsehood, lewdness, treachery, revenge, murder, and every other vice which can debase the human mind, instead of offering a tribute of rational homage to that Supreme Intelligence who made and who governs the universe. Even their priests and philosophers indulged in the most degrading and abominable practices.and entertained the most irrational notions in regard to the origin of the universe, and the moral government of the world. Most of them denied a future state of retribution, and all of them had their doubts respecting the reality of an immortal existence: and as to the doctrine of a resurrection from the dead, they never dreamed of such an event, and scouted the idea, when proposed to them, as the climax of absurdity. The glory to which their princes and generals aspired, was, to spread death and destruction among their fellow-men—to carry fire and sword, terror and dismay, and all the engines of destruction, through surrounding nations—to fill their fields with heaps of slain—to plunder the survivors of every earthly comfort, and to drag captive kings at their chariot wheels—that they might enjoy the splendour and the honours of a triumph. now stated, with regard to the most enlightened nations of antiquity, will equally apply to the present inhabitants of China, of Hindostan, of the Japanese Islands, of the Birman Empire, and of every other civilized nation on which the light of revelation has never shone—with this additional consideration, That they have enjoyed an additional period of 1800 years for making further investigations; and are, at this moment, as far from the object of their pursuit as when they first commenced their researches; and not only so, but some of these nations, in modern times, have mingled with their abominable superstitions and idolatries many absurdities and horrid cruelties, which were altogether unknown among the Greek and Roman population. Such are the melancholy results to which men have been led, when left to the guidance

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