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LECTURE III.

ON

MARSTON, CHAPMAN, DECKAR, AND WEBSTER.

The writers of whom I have already treated, may be said to have been.“ no mean men;" those of whom I have yet to speak, are certainly no whit inferior. Would that I could do them any thing like justice ! It is not difficult to give at least their seeming due to great and wellknown names ; for the sentiments of the reader meet the descriptions of the critic more than half way,

and clothe what is perhaps vague and extravagant praise with a substantial form and distinct meaning. But in attempting to extol the merits of an obscure work of genius, our words are either lost in empty air, or are “blown stifling back” upon the mouth that utters them. The greater those merits are, and the truer the praise, the more suspicious and disproportionate does it almost necessarily appear; for it has no relation to any image previously existing in the public mind, and therefore looks like an imposition fabricated out of nothing. In this case, the only way that I know of is, to make these old writers (as much as can be) vouchers for their own pretensions, which they are well able to make good. I shall in the present Lecture give some account of Marston and Chapman, and afterwards of Deckar and Webster.

Marston is a writer of great merit, who rose to tragedy from the ground of comedy, and whose forte was not sympathy, either with the stronger or softer emotions, but an impatient scorn and bitter indignation against the vices and follies of men, which vented itself either in comic irony or in lofty invective. He was properly a satirist. He was not a favourite with his contemporaries, nor they with him. He was first on terms of great intimacy, and afterwards at open war, with Ben Jonson ; and he is most unfairly criticised in The Return from Parnassus, under the name of Monsieur Kinsayder, as a mere libeller and buffoon. Writers in their life-time do all they can to degrade and vilify one another, and expect posterity to have a very tender care of their reputations! The writers of this age, in general, cannot however be reproached with this infirmity. The number of plays that they wrote in conjunction, is a proof of the contrary; and a circumstance no less curious, as to the division of intellectual labour, than the

cordial union of sentiment it implied. Unlike most poets, the love of their art surmounted their hatred of one another. Genius was not become a vile and vulgar pretence, and they respected in others what they knew to be true inspiration in themselves. They courted the

applause of the multitude, but came to one another for judgment and assistance. When we see these writers working together on the same admirable productions, year after year, as was the case with Beaumont and Fletcher, Middleton and Rowley, with Chapman, Deckar, and Jonson, it reminds one of Ariosto’s eloquent apostrophe to the Spirit of Ancient Chivalry, when he has seated his rival knights, Renaldo and Ferraw, on the same horse. “ Oh ancient knights of true and noble heart,

They rivals were, one faith they liv'd not under; Besides, they felt their bodies shrewdly smart Of blows late given, and yet (behold a wonder) Thro' thick and thin, suspicion set apart, Like friends they ride, and parted not asunder, Until the horse with double spurring drived Unto a way parted in two, arrived." Marston's Antonio and Mellida is a tragedy of considerable force and pathos; but in the most critical parts, the author frequently breaks off or flags without any apparent reason but want of interest in his subject; and farther, the best and

* Sir Jol Ilarrington's translation.

most affecting situations and bursts of feeling are too evidently imitations of Shakespear. Thus the unexpected meeting between Andrugio and Lucio, in the beginning of the third act, is a direct counterpart of that between Lear and Kent, only much weakened : and the interview between Antonio and Mellida has a strong resemblance to the still more affecting one between Lear and Cordelia, and is most wantonly disfigured by the sudden introduction of half a page of Italian rhymes, which gives the whole an air of burlesque. The conversation of Lucio and Andrugio, again, after his defeat seems to invite, but will not bear a comparison with Richard the Second's remonstrance with his courtiers, who offered him consolation in his misfortunes; and no one can be at a loss to trace the allusion to Romeo's conduct on being apprized of his banishment, in the termination of the following speech.

Antonio. Each man takes hence life, but no man death: He's a good fellow, and keeps open house : A thousand thousand ways lead to his gate, To his wide-mouthed porch: when niggard life Hath but one little, little wicket through. We wring ourselves into this wretched world To pule and weep, exclaim, to curse and rail, To fret and ban the fates, to strike the earth As I do now. Antonio, curse thy birth, And die.”

The following short passage might be quoted as one of exquisite beauty and originality

“As having claspid a rose Within

my palm, the rose being ta'en away,
My band retains a little breath of sweet ;
So may man's trunk, his spirit slipp'd away,
Hold still a faint perfume of his sweet guest.”

Act IV. Scene 1.

The character of Felice in this play is an admirable satirical accompaniment, and is the favourite character of this author (in all probability his own), that of a shrewd, contemplative cynic, and sarcastic spectator in the drama of human life. It runs through all his plays, is shared by Quadratus and Lampatho in What You Will (it is into the mouth of the last of these that he has put that fine invective against the uses of philosophy, in the account of himself and his spaniel, “ who still slept while he baus'd leaves, tossed o'er the dunces, por’d on the old print”), and is at its height in the Fawn and Malevole, in his Parasitaster and Malcontent. These two comedies are his chef d'oeuvres. The character of the Duke Hercules of Ferrara, disguised as the Parasite, in the first of these, is well sustained throughout, with great sense, dignity, and spirit. He is a wise censurer of men and things, and rails at the world with charitable bitterness.

H

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