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INDEX TO VOL. XIV. OF LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.
153 England, Elections in, 518, 519, The Mexican Race, 135
543 Mormon Battalion, .
545 Doniphan and Xenophon, . 137
Outrage on British Subject
416 Foster, Life and Correspon- Letter from a Native of Pue-
dence of, .
558 France and the United States, Guerilla Warfare in, 406
Early Relations of, 170 Peace Party in, :
Provincial Legends of, 196 A Volunteer's Letter, . . 503
183, 199 Men, Women, and Books, 188
. 215 Greek Christian's Pilgrimage Magnetic Telegraph, 334
27 Montauk Point,
82 Miller's Niece,
181 Masorcha Club,
Night in the Forest,
ca, Siberia and
New Bedford, Whaling, &c., 73
Natural Sanitary Agencies, . 220
126 Non-intervention a Humbug, 285
169 Neal, Joseph C.,
526 Napoleon at St. Helena, . . 606
522, 541 Oregon, Colonization of, .
American Women in,
Coming Confiscation in, 381 Punch, 28, 239, 249, 287, 479,556
529 Piano in Illinois,
537 Present and Future,
What Ireland Wants, .
Peru, Prescott's Conquest of, 120
466 Portugal, English Interven-
Poor Relations of Kings, 222
78 Pension List,
Protector, by Merle D'Au-
Pestilence, Moral Effects of, 333
217 Intoxication from Ether, 213
Panama, Isthmus of,
Parliaments of 1841 and 1847, 519
Men of the late, 520
British Press and Mexican
47 Black Prince,
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.
From the North British Review. tive of border feud can exceed it in interest. We Lives of Simon Lord Lovat, and Duncan Forbes of read it now with far livelier feelings than it would
Culloden. From original Sources. By JOHN have produced in his own age; for, in proportion to Hill Burton, Advocate, Author of " The Life the maturity of our civilization, is our interest in the of David Hume.” London, 1847.
portraiture of ruder times—the novelty of the de
scriptions being aided is producing this effect, by a We lately had occasion in this journal, to con- latent contrast in favor of present comforts. Since sider at some length the more prominent features then—a century has passed away-dynasties have of the Jacobitism of the last age. Our remarks been extinguished :— Europe has been revolutionwere confined chiefly to the effects produced by the ized, and its social condition has undergone a change commotions arising out of the downfall of an an- more complete than had been felt in all the previous cient dynasty, on the general interests of the coun- ages since the Crusades. try, rather than on the destiny of individuals. The Lovat was born in the year 1676, in the reign of generalities with which, with such an object, we Charles the Second. He was the second son of the were obliged to deal, compelled us to disregard peer of Lovat, and was early sent to the University many of those picturesque details of individual biog- of Aberdeen, at which he appears to have been dilraphy, which constitute the most interesting part igent. He acquired there the extensive acquaintof this branch of Scottish history; and it is there ance with the precepts of morality, scattered fore with much gratification, that we are now en- through the ancient classics, and which he applied abled to fill up blanks that were unavoidable, by a with much facility and tact in the exigencies of his rapid sketch of the story of one of the leading Jac- subsequent career. Is there any man who accuses obites, and of one of the few prominent royalists him of treachery, which at the particular moment whose name has descended to us untarnished by it did not suit his purpose to disclose, he cites you incapacity or cruelty.
from Virgil the picture of a good man, the victim When we glance over the history of the Jacobites, of the world's slander, and the object of divine comeven in their most fortunate and happy moments, miseration ;-is he anxious to condole with one we are amazed to find how little of real ability they whose father or brother he has hurried to his acdisplayed; and how, instead of conduct rising with count, he brings from Seneca solemn reflections on the occasion, they wasted themselves in a fondness mortality; and if he wishes to describe a patriot's of transient applause-courted by vanity, given by death, he applies to himself the language of Horace, fattery, and vanishing in show, like the qualities as to the beatific rapture consequent on dying for which acquired it. Such were Mar and all the one's country. leaders of the first rebellion ; and if there was more After leaving the university, his first act was to self-sacrifice in the Jacobites of the '45, they have induce his cousin, the then Lord Lovat, to endeavor little claim to respect on the score of energy in im- to disinherit his only child, a daughter, and to call proving victory or remedying defeat. There was to the succession to the honors and estates Simon's one exception to the mediocrity, which would, ere father and himself, as the nearest male-heirs. The this, have covered them with oblivion, were it not cousin died in the year 1696, and then began a long for the heroism of their deaths; and he who organ- struggle, which occupied about thirty years, beized, and as often betrayed their schemes, who tween Lovat on the one hand, and the heiress and crushed the first rebellion, and was himself over- her friends on the other, in regard to the succeswhelmed in the second, deserves notice as well from sion. Her uncle, the Marquis of Athole, was at the historical importance he has thus obtained, as that time influential with the government; and from from the extraordinary exhibition of character he that influence, and the violence of his opponent, he has left us, and the extraordinary adventures of was enabled to direct against Lovat the whole arwhich he was the hero. In Lovat's life will be tillery of the law, with which, indeed, the latter had found a better insight into the sveial, and therefore a stand-up fight until the day of his death. Athole real condition of the people of the north of Scotland, first attempted to soothe his ambition or work upon in the transition-time in which he lived, than can his fears; but the terms offered were either insuffibe found anywhere out of the Waverley, Novels. cient in value or in security, and they were rejected ;
He joins together the old age of feudal misrule, and as Lovat is the sole historian of the transaction, and that of settled government-connecting the they were rejected with the indignation becoming a reigns of the last Stuarts with the era of Hume and virtuous man insulted, Robertson, and the kindred spirits who threw so “I do not know what hinders me, knave and bright a light on the commencement of our literary coward as you are, from running my sword through history. His biography has thus a charm in illus- your body. You are well known for a poltroon ; trating both epochs by his own example. The feu- and if you had one grain of courage,” &c. &c. dal tyrant in the wilds of Stratherick-a law unto These were the brave words put together in the himself-exercising unbounded power over the lives security of after years, when, in a fit of Jacobitism, and fortunes of a numerous vassalage, is found he composed what he jocosely terms “ Memoirs of united in the person of the same man who shone as his Life;" and in which all his powers of imaginaa courtier in the palace of Louis le Grand—who tion as to facts are well illustrated. If there was was the correspondent and friend of literary men, one characteristic of the man, it was the hypocrisy and devoted much of his leisure to writing pious with which he rubbed gently down any victim on letters to the pious. There is, too, so much of the whom he had designs-the words of eastern adulabandit in this man's history, that no fictitious narra- tion with which he plied his vanity, and the patience CLXIV.
with which he suppressed the appearance of his period was small enough; but Lovat in his usua] half-robber, half-savage ferocity-covering its out-grandiloquent style, in his later life, made the most breaks, by bewailing it always as the indiscreet zeal of what he termed “the several regiments of cavof an unruly clan.
alry and dragoons," whom he of course defeated, Being somewhat diffident as to the result of a and whom he laid under the sanction of an oath, litigation with the Marquis of Athole, acting for his when he thought it unnecessary to keep them niece, he devised and executed, far away among his prisoners : Highland hills, a scheme worthy of his genius, and “ They renounced their claims in Jesus Christ, direct and speedy in its results. In after life, when and their hopes of heaven, and delivered themselves experience had sharpened his capacity, we find spe- to the devil and all the torments of hell, if they ever cific foresights and preparations for all contingen- returned into the territories of Lord Lovat, or occacies, until success had made him presumptuous, and sioned directly or indirectly the smallest mischief to the relaxation of age had unstrung his vigor; but Lord Lovat.” in his eager pursuit of the inheritance, his caution Lovat was tried in the court of justiciary, for overleaped itself, and he fell on the other side, into having assembled in arms, with his followers, and a number of difficulties, for which he was obliged carried off Lord Saltoun, who had gone to the asto endure, many a year, a vagabond life of wander-sistance of the heiress. This act, according to the ing. An unsuccessful attempt to marry the heiress wide sweep of the criminal law of those days, was was followed by the next best thing-a successful construed into treason--conviction followed ; and one to marry her mother. This lady was at the his name and honors, with those of his father, were time living at Castle Dounie, the old seat of the declared forever extinct, and their lands and possesFrasers; and, without any warning, she one morn- sions forfeited. He was the last man tried in Scoting received a visit from Lovat, who carried her, land, where a conviction was obtained, and a senscreaming for mercy, to an inaccessible retreat used tence pronounced, in the absence of the accused. by him in his more recondite schernes.
In the midst of these difficulties his father died, The old castle is now in ruins. The victors of and he immediately assumed the title. But this Culloden, after their labors on the field were ended, increase of rank brought no cessation to the ceasedevoted themselves to the destruction of the strong-less pursuit which followed his conviction. From holds of the rebel chiefs; and Castle Dounie was one fastness to another, from valley to mountain, he among the number. In the vaults of this pile, Lovat was hunted with unrelenting perseverance, deriving kept the victims on whom he meant to operate; from his clan a precarious subsistence. Away in but when amant reasons of expediency demanded the remote regions of Glen Strathfarar and Strathit, he furnished to them a more secure retreat from erick, he kept up a band of devoted desperadoes, worldly distractions. An island of the name of by whose ready assistance he carried on the war Aigas, in the midst of the rapid Beauly, which bub- against the flying parties from Fort-William. Over bles and rushes past it with resistless violence, his own people his influence had no limits. He formed an excellent natural prison, to which the once mildly said, that “the Highland clans, to a .dowager-peeress was immediately conducted. man, would regard it as their honor and boast to
The account of the marriage has been taken from cut the throat, or blow out the brains of any one, the records of the judicial proceedings, immediately be he who he would, who should dare to disturb instituted by her infuriated family.
the repose of their laird." “ The said Captain Simon Fraser takes up the The indolence of the Highlanders is proverbial ; most mad and villanous resolution that ever was and they may also be set down as among the dirtiest heard of; for, all in a sudden, he and his said even of Celts. If it is so in our day, when every accomplices make the lady close prisoner under his motive to exertion exists, in the near community armed guards, and then come upon her with three of an active population, it was far more so in that or four russians in the night time, and having dragged of Lovat, when our civilization was young. What out her maids, he proposes to the lady that she the bravoes were in Italy, the retainers of a Highshould marry him ; and when she fell in lamenting land chief might be considered here—they kept and crying, the great pipe was blown up to drown themselves, and paid their rent in the personal serher cries, and the wicked villains ordered the min-vices rendered to their lord. Lovat found, in the ister to proceed.”
course of a long life of war upon the world, many The lady fainted, and bemoaned to the idle winds; occasions for unbesitating service. He made it a “the bagpipe is blown up as formerly, and the fore- point of sacred policy to keep his vassals in trainsaid ruffians rent off her clothes, cutting her stays ing; and no man of the last age did more to prewith their dirks, and so thrust her into bed.” The serve alive the feeling of clanship throughout the succeeding morning displayed her in all the agony half-savage regions of the north-making obedience of outraged honor, her face swollen, and stupefied to the chief be regarded in the light of an honorable withi grief. “ For Christ's sake,” she implored duty. If there was some danger in this kind of one of the witnesses at Lovat's trial, “take me out existence, it had its advantages in its ease and idleof this place either dead or alive.” The house at ness. Their “ houseless heads and unfed sides, the same time was surrounded by armed ruffians, their looped and windowed raggedness,” were matwho played up the bagpipe, when returning con- ters that their thorough goût de la vie vagabonde sciousness enabled the lady to express her sufferings made endurable ; far more so, at least, than the by her screams.
monotonous pursuits of peaceful industry. The Scottish privy council, who, in the absence At last, Lovat found that he was unable to cope of the sovereign, conducted the government of Scot- with the forces sent against him; and having, by land, found the doings of Lovat to come peculiarly skilful flattery of Argyle, at that time the dictator within their jurisdiction. They accordingly de- of Scottish affairs, obtained his interest with King barred the lieges from giving him and his father William, he hurriedly left Scotland, and presented food or lodging, and commission was given to a himself, in pursuit of pardon, before that monarch commander of troops to enter his domains and seize in the Low Countries. He was so far successful, him, dead or alive. The army in Scotland at that that he received a qualified pardon. It remitted all the crimes for which he had been already tried ;| tunate men to the scaffold, where they died with leaving the outrage on Lady Lovat yet unreprieved. the most affecting protestations of their innocence
The former proceedings being thus quashed, he I did not stop here, for I carried the head of Capwas cited, at the instigation of Athole, to stand trial tain Green to the grave; and in a few months after, on the 17th February, 1701, for the abduction of letters came from the captain for whose murder, the dowager. Here again he made no appearance and from the very ship for whose capture, the unforat the trial-proceeding coolly to manage his estates tunate men suffered, informing their friends that and to keep up a horde of retainers-10 levy rents, they were all safe." This execution was resented and to act with as much vigor, as if he had been in England as a national insult, and produced a the undoubted owner of property, handed down to bitterness scarcely credible at the present day. him unchallenged through a long line of ancestors. Then came the vexed subject of the succession to
He was declared an outlaw, and was again com- the crown—the fruitful source of national jealousy, pelled to flee his country. He sought a refuge from followed as it nearly was by actual hostilities. Ai the pursuit in France, leaving his brother John to last the noted act of security of the Scottish parliaact as lieutenant in his absence, to exact rents, levy ment was passed. It was magnified in England contributions, and keep the whole district of the into a declaration of absolute independence, and Aird and Stratherick in commotion. To meet this, was followed up by an act of the English parliathe privy council, at the instance of the heiress, ment, professing to remedy its alleged mischiefs. issued an abundance of orders and proclamations ; This last act was effectually a declaration of open and, as was their custom with disobedient districts, war by England against Scotland, unless in a few they hounded out upon the Frasers some neighbor- months the crown should be settled on the German ing clans to ravage and desolate.
elector. At this period, Lovat was uncertain whether or Matters had, by these means, come to a crisis at not the Stuarts would be restored ; and upon this the end of the year 1705. The people in both depended the course to be adopted, amid the diffi- nations had revived the national hatreds which had culties by which he was surrounded. Upon the slept for many years. Nay, even the very governwhole, it seemed more probable that they would. ments of the same sovereign seemed determined to Shortly after the commencement of the reign of run counter to one another in all their councils; Anne, her opinions began to glide into the jure- and every parliament wished only to outstrip its divinity toryisin at which they settled. She had predecessor in heaping insult upon the other counno violent antipathies against her brother; and if try, and placing obstructions on its commerce. she had no violent affection to gratify by his restor- England laid a new impost upon Scottish cloth ; ation, there was at least a greater probability that Scotland prohibited all the English woollen manushe would lean to this, than call an obscure German facture in general, and exported all her own wool elector to the throne held for generations by her to the continent; the sister country thereupon profamily. Minds as astute as Lovat's, and nearer the ceeded to prohibit the importation of Scottish caitle, scene, were deceived by such appearances even at and to interrupt by force our long-established trade a later date, when the quarrel with Marlborough with France. and his duchess sealed the doom of the whigs. In It was unfortunate for the Stuarts, that amid all the mean time, Lovat, who cared nothing for the these conflicting elements of disunion, they had no person who filled the throne, provided his own inter- able head to plan a national conspiracy. There ests were not affected, did no disgrace to his sagac- were, indeed, many plots at this period, hatched on ity in adhering at that time to the Stuarts.
their behalf, but they all came to nothing, through Prior to the union, indeed, there were circum- the treachery or imprudence of their agents. stances that might have been worked up into a shall immediately see the part adopted by Lovat, in National cause, under which they might have been regard to one of the most feasible of these, which restored. From the accesson of Anne, down to the he himself concocted and destroyed. incorporation of the parliaments, causes of dispute On his arrival in France, he proceeded to the between the two countries, productive of exasper- country-house where embryo statesmen resolved ation, jealousy and distrust, were hourly occurring and re-resolved upon the affairs of Europe. James
There was first the celebrated Darien scheme, anni- the II. had carried his single-minded bigotry to the hilated by William 10 conciliate the English East grave, and Mary of Modena became openly, what India Company; but whose train of disasters were she had in reality ever been, the source and lifenot terminated in the reign of Anne. The massacre spring of Jacobirical intrigue. To her, Lovat of Glencoe, left behind it a deep feeling of insult applied himself with his accustomed dexterity and and of wrong. Then followed the seizure of the Highland shrewdness. He appeared before her English ship Worcester, and the execution (insisted with protestations of inviolable attachment; and, for by the Edinburgh rabble) of Captain Green, and what was more to the purpose, he made assurances two of his crew-a judicial murder, perpetrated as to the fidelity of the clans. He never, indeed, against evidence, against the convictions of the neglected the great principle of accommodation to judges, and against the will of government. Of all his company, inter lupos ululandum. A short time, the men of note in this matter, the only person who however, had elapsed, when he saw through the appears to have had moral courage to resist the whole farce of the do-nothing secretaries, and enpopular fury was Duncan Forbes, then a young deavored to free himself from the idle kind of life student at college, who, in the debate on the Por- to which he was doomed. It was here he devised teous riots in the house of commons, referred with the only scheme that was ever practical for the honest pride to an incident of his early life, when restoration of the Stuarts. England being furiously he had the courage, in the midst of a universal fury, Protestant, and Lowland Scotland sternly Presbyto expose the pusillanicuity of the privy council, who terian, it was hopeless to look there for a successful signed the order for the execution. “I was,” said rising. Through the Highlands alone-the strongthe orator, “so struck with the horror of the fact, hold of the Stuart family-could an impression be that I put myself in deep mourning, and with the made ; and, accordingly, Lovat fixed upon the danger of my life, attended the innocent but unfor- weak point with a sagacity that experience justified.
We To give his scheme feasibility, he drew of course, treated like a traitor and a villain, and if I had not largely upon his imagination, in stating himself to had good friends here of strangers, I had perished be the authorized agent of the clans.
like a dog. I do not yet know what my fate will The last days of the glory of old Louis le Grand be; but I have dear bought my conversation with were approaching; but the prestige of the name those you call my real friends. You tell me that that had long awed Europe still survived. The K. (Keith?) betrayed me to A., (Athole,) and now victories of Malborough at this period of 1702, when we hear of his sufferings for ine; but none in EngLovat landed in France, had not yet convinced the land could wrong me (anglice, cxpose him) but he or world that he was no longer the invincible; and you, and if either of you has wronged me, I cannot Mr. Burton somewhat anticipates the desolation Trust myself, or any flesh and blood; my comfort which overtook the French monarchy. With the is, that I neither betrayed my trust or my friends, old monarch, Lovat obtained an interview, and nor would not for the universe (!!!). For my impressed him-a shrewd judge of character-with part I believe the day of judgment is at hand, foi a high notion of his abilities. The retired from the see a great many of ihe sympions of it.” presence of the king, to consult with his ministers; After waiting at Rotterdam for some time, he and while his proposals were cautiously received, found it expedient to quit it in the disguise of a he had the satisfaction of being sent back to his own Dutch officer; and having fled to France, he was country for further information, and with an assur- very disagreeably astonished, by being immediately ance of assistance on any favorable conjuncture. seized, and encaged in the Bastile, or in the Castle On his arrival in Scotland, he had some interviews of Angoulème. with the Highland chiefs, when a new light as to We have followed the history of this strange his own interest dawned upon him. He immedi- being, whose moral nature was as roiten as his ately wiped his hands of his mission, and one night intellect was acute, aided by the certain light of entered the presence of the Duke of Queensberry, contemporary documents. He now, however, glides the commissioner to the Scottish parliament, with off the public stage, beyond the view of the letterthe startling intelligence of the organization of a writers, and the reach of the legal warrants, which rebellion. The duke, overjoyed at being the in- have enabled us hitherto to follow him. For ten strument through whom such important information years he lived in France, and during part of that was procured, “entertained Lovat with some mon- time, there can be no doubt he was in prison. He ey," and many promises. The government, on appears, however, to have been liberated, and 10 being informed of the matter, became alarmed, as have taken holy orders, joined the Jesuits at St. the account implicated men who had much to lose, Omer, and, according to some accounts, to have and who would, therefore, not rush blindly into officiated as curé at that city. rebellion. A message was conveyed to parliament, During his protracted absence, the heiress of and strong resolutions were passed. The Marquis Lovat had married a gentleman of the name of of Athole, one of the parties falsely implicated by M'Kenzie, who had got hold of the estates, but not Lovat, having got intelligence of the trap laid for of the affections of the clan. They ever regarded him, immediately addressed the queen, in a memo- Lovat as their chief; and deep was their sorrow, rial, which exposed the character of his assailant, when a report was spread, that “ he had rotted in and the means by which Queensberry had been the Bastile.” No communication appears to have duped, in crediting all his informant's calumnies. been allowed between him and his vassals in ScoiThe affair vanished in smoke. No evidence could land; and, as a last resource, they determined to be found against any of the Jacobites; and the send a special embassy 10 discover, and if possible Queensberry plot added another to the hundred-and relieve him. The person selected was a Major one plois of the day, leaving Lovat in the disagree- Fraser, who has given an amusing account of the able position of having fallen between two stools. disastrous chances he suffered in his journey.
Being under sentence of outlawry still, Athole Having discovered his chief among the Jesuits at opened the hull-dogs of the law once more upon him St. Omer, it was found impossible to obtain the conin full cry, and once more he was obliged io retire sent of the French authorities to his liberation. to the continent. Rotterdam was the place he The two accordingly concerted an escape, which selected as a kind of neutral position, from which he they effected by means of an open boat, which could soothe the roused spirits of the Scottish Jac- landed them on the English shore in the year 1714, obites and the Court of St. Germains on the one at the critical moment of the death of Queen Anne. hand, and also induce the English government, on Ilis arrival in London being soon known, his old the other, to retain him in their pay. With all his enemy Athole once more set the officers of the law invincible humor of lying, it was difficult for him, upon his track, and he only found rest to his weary in telling this portion of his history, to prevent some footsteps, when he arrived among the wide solitudes inkling of the truth. The Jacobites discovered of his own mountains. some of his letters; and as there was no destroying The rebellion of the '15 was raging on his arrithe relation of identity between twice two and four, val in the north. The indecisive battle of Sheriffit was impossible to avoid the awkward conclusion muir proclaimed the weakness of government, and to which his Jacobite friends found themselves the danger of energetic action on the part of the obliged to come. To some he put his defence for Jacobites. It was fortunate, therefore, that so betraying them, upon the ground of anxiety to influential and clever a man as Lovat, in the vigor serve their interest; and nothing can be better than of manhood, and with his abilities sharpened by the mode in which the parados is supported. With experience, sided with the government, and recalled regard to others again, who had not so clear evi- the whole clan of the Frasers who had gone to join dence against him, he took the easier course of the rebels. As soon as they returned, he put himindignant denial :
self at their head, and along with Duncan Forbes, “I believe," he writes from Liege to a Scotch Jaco- reduced the town of Inverness, on the day that the bite,“ all the devils are got loose to torment me- -with battle of Sheriffmuir was fought. This quieted the you I am abused, ruined, and my reputation torn. north. It prevented many from engaging in the Here I suffer by those whom I served, and am rebellion, and cut off the communication between