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a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of the state for which he shall be chosen.

4. The vice-president of the United States shall President be president of the senate: but shall have no vote ate. unless they be equally divided.

5. The senate shall choose their other officers, and Oficers. also a president, pro tempore, in the absence of the vice-president, or when he shall exercise the office of president of the United States.

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all Impeachimpeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the president of the United States is tried, the chief justice shall preside ; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

7. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not And extent extend further than removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit, under the United States; but the party con- Party liable victed shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.

of judgment in cases.

according to law.


1. The times, places and manner of holding elections Elections

how regulafor senators and representatives shall be prescribed tears in each state, by the legislature thereof, but the congress may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the place of choosing senators.

2. The congress shall assemble at least once in Meetings of every year, and such meeting shall be on the first congress. Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.



1. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, To judge of returns and qualifications of its own members, and a of its memmajority of each shall constitute a quorum to do bars business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide.



2. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with a concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

3. Each house shall keep a journal. of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

4. Neither house, during the session of congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.





1. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United

States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felPrivilege. ony and breach of the peace, be privileged from

arrest, during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, or in going to or returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

2. No senator or representative shall, during the the holding time for which he was elected, be appointed to any

civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.


of oflices.


Revenue bills.

Power and duty of

1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

2. Every bill which shall have passed the house

of representatives and the senate, shall, before it the presi. dent in rela- become a law, be presented to the president of the tion to bills. United States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but

if not, he shall return it with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall en. Proceed. ter the objections, at large, in their journal, and pro- returned by ceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, thenes two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases, the vote of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays: and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the Joint resoconcurrence of the senate and house of representa- lutions; edo tives may be necessary, (except on a question of ad- journment, journment) shall be presented to the president of the the same United States; and before the same shall take effect, bing shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the senate and house of representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

sanction as


Power of



The congress shall have power,

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises; to pay the debts, and provide for the common congress defense and general welfare of the United States; taxes. but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States:

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States:

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes :

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies tion. throughout the United States : 5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and

Moncy: of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures :

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeit- Countering the securities and current coin of the United feiting. States:


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7. To establish post offices and post roads :

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries :

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court. To define and punish piracy and felony committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations :

10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water :

11. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of mɔney to that use, shall be for a longer term

than two years: Navy.

12. To provide and maintain a navy:

13. To make rules for the government and regula-
naval forc- tion of the land and naval forces :
Militia. 14. To provide for calling forth the militia to ex-

ecute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections,
and repel invasions :

15. To provide for organizing, arming and disci-
plining the militia, and for governing such part of
them as may be employed in the service of the Unit-
ed States, reserving to the states respectively, the
appointment of the officers, and the authority of
training the militia according to the discipline pre-

scribed by congress.
Legislation 16. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases
trict, etc. whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten

miles square) as may by cession of particular states,
and the acceptance of congress, become the seat of
government of the United States, and to exercise like
authority over all places, purchased, by the consent
of the legislature of the state in which the same
shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arse-
nals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; and

17. To make all laws which shall be necessary and
proper for carrying into execution the foregoing
powers, and all other powers vested by this constitu-
tion in the government of the United States, or in
any department or officer thereof.

SECTION IX. 1. The migration or importation of such persons · portation of

of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the congress

over a dis

Laws neceg. sary for the execution of their powers.

Of the im

certain per

as any

sons, etc.



prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for such

person. 2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall Writ of hanot be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion beas corpus. or invasion, the public safety may require it. 3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall

Attainder, be passed.

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, Direct taxunless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported or com. from any state. No preference shall be given by any the states, regulation of commerce or revenue, to the ports of etc. one state over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear,

duties in another. 6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but or expendiia consequence of appropriations made by law; and tures. a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

14. No title of nobility shall be granted by the No nobility United States, and no person holding any office of and no presprofit or trust under them, shall, without the consent ents acceptof the congress, accept any present, emolument, officers, etc. office or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

or pay


1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance or powers proconfederation ; grant letters of marque and reprisal; the individcoin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but ual statos. gold or silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

2. No state shall, without the consent of the con- Powers gress, lay any impost or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for exercise executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of the sanc all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports gress. or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of congress. No state shall, without the consent of congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of

which the states can

tion of con

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