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of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution: but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.


1. The ratification of the conventions of nine states, ghall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same. Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the

states present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America, the twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.



President, and deputy from Virginia.

John Langdon, George Read,
Nicholas Gilman. Gunning Bedford, jun.

MASSACHUSETTS. John Dickinson,
Nathaniel Gorham, Richard Bassett,
Rufus King

Jacob Broom.

Wm. Samuel Johnson, James M'Henry,
Roger Sherman. Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer,

Daniel Carroll.
Alexander Hamilton.


John Biair,
William Livingston,

James Madison, jun.
David Brearly,

William Patterson,

William Blount,
Jonathan Dayton.

Richard Dobbs Spaight,
PENNSYLVANIA. Hugh Williamson.
Benjamin Franklin,

Thomas Mifflin, John Rutledge,
Robert Morris,

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney,
George Clymer, Charles Pinckney,
Thomas Fitzsimons, Pierce Butler.
Jared Ingersoll,

James Wilson,

William Few,
Governeur Morris. Abraham Baldwin.




Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.


A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

ARTICLE III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.*

ARTICLE IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searcbes and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

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No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other. wise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in tine of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

ARTICLE VI. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the *It is not perceived, that the “manner" of quartering soldiers in time of war, without the consent of the owners of houses, has yet been prescribed by law.

right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assis. tance of counsel for his defence.


In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

ARTICLE VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.


The enumeration in the constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

ARTICLE X. The powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

ARTICLE XI. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.


1. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for president and vice president, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with theniselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as vice president; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as president, and of all persons voted for as vice-president, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate; the president of the senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted: the person having the greatest number of votes for president, shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as president, the house of representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the president. But in choosing the president, the votes shall be caken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the house of representatives shall not choose a president whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following. then the vice-president shall act as president, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the president.

* See article 2, section 1, clause 3.

2. The person having the greatest number of votes as vice-president, shall be the vice-president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the senate shall choose the vice-president: a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.

3. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of president, shall be eligible to that of vice-president of the United States.


If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or retain any title of nobility or honor, or shall, without the consent of congress, accept and retain any pie. sent, pension, office, or emolument of any kind whatever, from any emperor, king, prince, or foreign power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the United States, and shall be incapable of holding any ofice of trust or profit under them, or either of them.


All officers retained, shall sub


In Congress-September 20, 1776. Resolved. That from and after the publication of the following articles, in the respective armies of the United States, the rules and articles by which the said armies have heretofore been governed,* shall be, and they are, hereby repealed.

† SECTION 1. ARTICLE 1. That every officer who shall be retained in the army of the United States, shall, at the time of scribe these rules his acceptance of his commission, subscribe these rules and regulations, and regulations.

ART 2. It is earnestly recommended to all officers Divine service and soldiers diligently to attend divine service: and all and penalty for officers and soldiers who shall behave indecently, or irreverently, at any place of divine worship, shall, if commissioned officers, be brought before a general courtmartial, there to be publicly and severely reprimanded by the president; if non-commissioned officers or sol. diers, every person so offending shall, for his first offence, forfeit one-sixth of a dollar, to be deducted out of his next pay; for the second offence, he shall not only forfeit a like sum, but be confined for twenty-four hours; and, for every like offence, shall suffer and pay in like manner; which money, so forfeited, shall be applied to the use of the sick soldiers of the troop or company to which the offender belongs.

ART. 3 Whatsoever non-commissioned officer or so! - Profane sweardier shall use any profane oath or execration, shall in- therefor. cur the penalties expressed in the foregoing article; and if a commissioned officer be thus guilty of profane cursing or swearing, he shall forfeit and pay, for each and every such offence, two-thirds of a dollar.

ART. 4. Every chaplain who is commissioned to a re- Chaplain-pe. giment, company, troop, or garrison, and shall absent absence himself from the said regiment, company, troop, or garrison, (excepting in case of sickness or leave of absence) shall be brought to a court-martial, and be fined not exceeding one month's pay, besides the loss of his pay

* See resolutions of 30th of June, and 7th of November, 1775-contained in supplement to this volume.

+ These rules and articles with their supplements, were adopted for the army of the United States, under the constitution, and remained in force till 1806, when they were repealed and supplied— See chap. 11, sec. 4, and chap. 50, sec. 3.


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