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descend low. The light emitted by the many millions of gaslamps in streets, in shops, and on the trucks and stands of costermongers, is then cast in such flaming masses on the dark sky, that it gives the reflex of a large conflagration extending for many miles, such as the burning of Babylon by Sardanapalus may have presented to its inhabitants.

This gigantic waste of gas would even seem strange if the Chinese or Hottentots lighted their towns in a similar wasteful manner; but that the civilized and highly intelligent Europeans should not yet have perceived the lamentable stupidity that adheres to their system of lighting streets and shops, is inexplicable.

We yearn for the time when all this will be changed, when the day will again be appointed for work, and the night for repose, and when the darkness of the night will again triumphantly reign in place of the glare of gaslights in shops and streets.

That no street-lamps will be lit in the towns of the new social state is evident from the fact that neither traffic nor pedestrians, nor security will require the burning of any such lights.

The streets, with all their shops closed, will at first present a strange and somewhat deserted aspect in comparison to the gaily and sumptuously arrayed shop-windows and show-rooms. which now so universally attract, not only the admiration and curiosity of the passers by, but are also eminently successful in awaking the purchasing propensities of customers.

The disappearance of the animating scene of sightseers and eager customers besieging the gaily dressed shop-windows will, however, have a beneficial effect in another direction. People will lay a much greater value on all articles that combine ornament with usefulness, when they do not see them exhibited to their eyes long time before they can get possession of them, and consequently, the members of the new social state will find themselves agreeably surprised by the reception of every article they draw from the national store-rooms.

The quietness of the streets will, even during the day, be greatly increased by the almost total cessation of the traffic now caused by the requirements of wholesale and retail dealers and their customers. The unloading of goods at the door of

every small shop, the redistribution from these shops by means of vans and carts, either drawn by horses or men, will become a thing of the past; and with this great decrease of the traffic the danger of being crushed to death under the wheels of the modern Jaggernauth will no longer be the sad and common spectacle of our streets.* Some solitary vehicle will, in the future, be seen slowly emerging from the national emporiums of raw materials, or from the store-houses of ready-made goods and articles of consumption; but there will be so few of them that street accidents will be reduced to a minimum. The danger of street accidents will also greatly diminish in consequence of the total disappearance of all private carriages, and of parties riding on horseback; for all these indulgences in luxury, the ultimate result of which is a far-spreading waste of labour, will find no permission to exist in a well-ordered state of society.

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In the new social community the hideous cry of the costermonger, his deafening ringing of bells and persistent shaking of rattles, will no more torment our ears; the uncalled-for visits of the itinerant dealer in small wares will cease, and the importunities of the pedlar and commercial traveller will no more trespass upon our time and patience.

By the clearance of all shops and warehouses, a great quantity of goods will immediately become available for distribution, by which the whole nation will at once greatly benefit.t

* The following were the street accidents during 1872 :—

NAME OF TOWN.

London

Birmingham

Leeds.

Liverpool

Manchester

Sheffield

Dublin

Glasgow

KILLED.
139

8

10

23

18

9

23

18

INJURED.
2,961

26

35

486

231

30

227

156

248

Total.

3,152

+"A GOOD TIME COMING.-It is understood that the most advanced section of the Ultra Liberals, consisting of the advocates of social progress to the utmost extent, and in particular to the extent of establishing the community of property, contemplate holding a torchlight demonstration

Wearing apparel of all kinds-coats, trousers, waistcoats, for men; and dresses and petticoats for women; shoes, hats, shirts, socks and stockings, neckties, towels, handkerchiefs, watches, etc.-will probably be found in such quantities, that, even after satisfying all just wants, there would finally remain a surplus. Of men's, women's, and children's clothes, shirts, shoes, etc., so much is certainly to be found as will suffice to clothe, most comfortably, every man, woman, and child who is now destitute of those comforts. Rags and poverty will then disappear as by enchantment, and every individual will at once be decently clad, sufficiently fed, and comfortably lodged. And the whole diffusion of these universal benefits will have arisen from the simple expedient of emptying the shops and warehouses in which goods fit for use have been stored up for years.

The waste that now is caused by goods becoming soiled, or otherwise damaged in private shops and warehouses, because they are not saleable in time, is a double disadvantage; for not only is the labour and material employed in their production lost, but society sustains another serious evil by being deprived of the use of necessary and ready-made articles of produce. This double waste will, however, be entirely obviated in the future, because it will lie in the power of the new social state to exactly proportion the supply from its manufactories and workshops to the requirements of the nation.

in Trafalgar Square, to demand the Abolition of Purchase in its universal sense, so as to be made applicable to commodities, in order that all persons in want of any may be enabled to help themselves."-- Punch, Nov. 15th, 1873.

SECTION II.

ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF LABOUR.

"All human interests, combined human endeavours, and social growth in this world, have, at a certain stage of their development, required organizing; and work, the grandest of human interests, does now require it."-CARLYLE.

IN

N order to give a comprehensive description of the new organization of labour, the author will have to review labour in a variety of aspects. In examining its great subdivisions, he will, in every instance, first consider the amount of labour required under the present system, and then indicate the reductions that will become practicable in the new organization.

The amount of labour performed in all the great sections of occupations and employments into which society is at present divided, can be exactly ascertained by the returns of the occupations of the twenty millions of people who, according to the census of 1861, inhabited England and Wales.

CHAPTER XXVIII.-DOMESTIC LABOUR.

OFF

F the 20,000,000, a class of persons, returned as belonging to the domestic order, will first be subjected to an analysis, in order to ascertain its real participation in domestic labour, and in how far it is superfluous, and therefore reducible.

The number returned under this class is surprisingly high, amounting to not less than 10,000,000 persons, including onethird of the male and two-thirds of the female population. These 10,000,000 persons, of whom the greater number is

more or less performing domestic labour, will, moreover, receive a not inconsiderable addition in the number of 1,318,000 wives who in the census are returned as engaged in other occupations, but who, nevertheless, are, to some extent, also engaged in domestic labour, either before they go to their usual work, or after they have returned from it.

Of all the persons forming the sub-orders of the domestic class, those known as domestic servants will first be considered. They number 1,127,000 persons, of whom the greater part are females, and include the following classes of servants :

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In calculating the amount of labour performed by this grandtotal of persons, regard must be paid to the nature of domestic labour to its irregularity, its frequent interception and consequent cessation, and other incidents by which momentary leisure is afforded to those engaged in it. This temporary cessation of domestic labour, which in every day's work amounts at least to an hour or two, becomes at certain periods of the year a lasting stagnation, and leads to a most scandalous practice indulged in by those servants who are left to guard the mansions of the rich, when the family have set out travelling or visiting watering-places. "Strange things," says the Daily News, in one of its leading articles, "are represented to occur in the shut-up mansions of Belgravia and Mayfair when their owners are away in the summer or autumn. There the farce of High Life Below Stairs' is said to be realized, and the domestics left to watch the premises enter into games of frolic

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