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The author is not able to give an estimate of the number of persons required in administrative labour. But as this kind of labour is not equally divided amongst the population, but is allotted by election; and as no one is eligible to serve in the administration who has not previously discharged his duty in physical labour, a statement of the number of civil servants is less important than in any other kind of work that is obligatory on all. Ministers of the national administration will be elected by the whole of the people, boards of directors mostly by the trades, and sections by the boards.


UNIVERSAL diffusion of sciences and arts being one of A

the great principles of the future reconstruction of society, the author will here indicate the arrangements by which each individual is to participate in the enjoyments of the practice of arts and sciences. To become proficient in any science or art, time is required for study and practice. The new social organization has for this purpose most admirably contrived to spare the greater time of a man's life for his pursuits in arts and sciences; and we can prognosticate such an incursion into these fields of culture, that there will not be found a single person who is not either a painter, a sculptor, a musician, a mathematician, a linguist, a lawyer, a physician, an engineer, or an architect, etc.

Scientific and artistic labour, offering the most powerful attraction, and giving the purest and noblest enjoyment to the mind, is by its very nature so inviting that compulsion for its performance is not needed; and the future social state will therefore leave the study and practice of arts and sciences optional to every individual.

There will, however, exist a slight exception to this rule in the artistic and scientific training of the children in elementary schools, who will all have to undergo a rudimentary process of artistic and scientific inculcation, in order to evoke latent genius or special aptitudes. In teaching singing, notation, and the use of various instruments to all pupils, the musical talents of the pupils will be discovered. The same in teaching drawing, modelling, perspective, and the use of the brush and colours : any special aptitudes and liking for the art of painting will be brought out.

We put with confidence the greatest reliance in the efficacy of this initiatory system and mode of evocation ; and we expect from it the most marvellous results, both concerning the great number and high quality of the discovered talents and special aptitudes.

But notwithstanding genius and talent are so highly fostered and favoured by the new educational system, mediocrity nevertheless enjoys ample protection; because it may often procure pleasure and enjoyment to inferior artists, and amuse their friends and companions. If all cannot be firstrate painters, musicians, sculptors, actors, etc., the second and third-rate artists may, each, severally, derive as much enjoyment from their inferior artistic or scientific production, as the most eminent individuals in the profession. The new social state recognises this enjoyment as legitimate, and will therefore protect all inferior artists by granting them all the necessary assistance in the exercise of their arts, however mediocre it may be. The musician will be provided with music and musical instruments, the painter with colour and canvas, the sculptor with marble and chisel, the draughtsman with drawing boards and compasses.

There is no doubt that by the initiatory system of education which will prevail in the future social state, the most satisfactory results will be obtained, not only with regard to the pleasure that arts and sciences will cause to each separate individual, but also with regard to the general advancement and progress of the sciences and arts themselves.

There remains, however, to be considered, the question in how far the dissemination of science and arts could be proceeded with, if the present social order should suddenly collapse, and be replaced by a new educational arrangement.

Although the present staff of artists, both in professionals and amateurs, is not a very large one-and this circumstance is certainly not creditable to modern civilization it will nevertheless suffice to furnish all the agents, teachers, and professors for a successful beginning with the universal diffusion of arts and sciences. Every artist and scientific person, both professionals and amateurs, will, at the introduction of the new social order, be immediately called upon to undertake the art training and scientific instruction, not only of children, but also of adults. The 5,450 artist painters could instantly open 5,450 schools of painting for adults; and if each school were attended by 100 persons, there would in a very few years be an accession of 545,000 new artists to the profession. Besides, the 5,450 artists could also attend at as many elementary schools and teach rudimentary drawing and painting to children. The physicians, lawyers, mathematicians, botanists, etc., although partially engaged in their present professional duties, would have to find time to act also as teachers to all adults, who, at the introduction of the new social order, will gain the time, and should feel desirous of getting an insight and knowledge of medicine, law, mathematics, and other sciences. The benefits that society will thus derive from the universal diffusion of arts and sciences will be enormous. It will in the first instance break up that affectation of superiority which men of distinction in the fine arts and learned professions now surreptitiously assume; for they do not consider that others might have attained the same professional skill, fame, and distinction, had they been blessed with the same superior education. This assumed superiority of the professional classes must inevitably disappear when not only every man and woman will understand law, medicine, mathematics, painting, sculpture, or some other art and science, but amongst whom there will be found a prodigious number of rare geniuses and mighty minds.

A universal dissemination of sciences and arts will also procure the advantage of lessening the professional labour required of each individual. Thus, for instance, the more physicians and surgeons there are, the less work will there be for each one of them, and the less time will they spend in visiting and attending their patients. The time thus saved will allow them to be also employed in industry, agriculture, navigation etc.

The contingent that physical labour will recruit from the learned professions will be a considerable one; for divinity, law, and medicine alone are presently constituting in the aggregate an array of 106,000 men, who with their wives and children would fill a large city of 500,000 inhabitants.

The number of these three professions, stated by the census of 1861, is as follows :Divinity

35,000 Law

34,000 Medicine


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This, in the present state of society, is exorbitantly large, because their work, especially that of the clergy and the lawyers, is comparatively small and easy, when contrasted with the hardships and dangers of physical labour. The learned professions and fine arts seem in this respect to be so many places of refuge in which persons seek a secure protection against the bane and evils of labour, to which they might otherwise be exposed in the factory, in the mine, on the sea, on the locomotive, or on some other dangerous post, exclusively and unjustly assigned to those now called the working classes.

We subjoin here the statistics of the whole of the learned professions and fine arts, as given by the census of 1861:General and local government

87,350 Post-office

22,000 Magistrates

2,500 Divinity

35,000 Law

34,000 Medicine

35,000 Teachers (men)

30,000 (women).

80,000 Musicians

15,000 Painters

5,450 Sculptors

610 Engravers

4,600 Actors.

1,300 Actresses





This number, if multiplied by five, to represent families and servants, increases to the enormous amount of 1,414,800 persons, living on professional labour,-a number nearly the tenth part of the whole population of 20,000,000 people. If compelled to enter the ranks of the common artizans, the professional classes will reduce the work of the former by one-tenth; that is to say, thirty working-days will be taken off from their 300 annual working-days.


THE equal distribution of skilled and physical labour will,

in the future social state, be facilitated : 1. By the time that is left to each individual after the discharge of the three months' duty spent in the performance of national labour, which will give him the opportunity of preparing himself for any other trade or occupation.

2. By the industrial training of all children in state establishments; by which means they will all gradually become initiated into the handling of tools and management of materials.

3. By a sense of duty that will induce all members of the community to participate in the requirements of those trades and occupations which, by their nature, are either repulsive, unhealthy, or dangerous.

4. By the attractive nature of skilled labour itself, which not only requires bodily exertion, so eminently conducive to health, but also calls into requisition the mental powers and intellectual abilities of the workman.

5. By a desire for a variety of labour in order to escape that painful monotony which by year-long continuation must render any labour and occupation tedious and even repulsive.*

* The delegate of the Brussels section of the International Workingmen's Congress of 1874 said : “A better education and technological training, combined with the progress of inventions, may, at no distant date, enable a man to work at various trades without undergoing a long apprenticeship in any."

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