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public schools; or the pupils will be transferred for some time to localities where they can be taught certain manufactures and occupations that cannot be brought into the neighbourhood of the schools; as, for instance, the training for service at sea, or work in mines. Instruction in agricultural labour will, however, always be accessible for all the public schools; for the latter will, for sanitary reasons, be situated in the country.

The inculcation of useful and diversified work will accustom the young people of both sexes to the performance of that sacred duty of work without which they, when entering adult citizenship, would forfeit their right of existence; for the inexorable law that “those who will not work neither shall they eat” will be mercilessly enforced throughout the whole of the social state.

Art training also will not offer any difficulty; for as all elementary book-learning and industrial instruction is already combined with the practice of sciences and arts in their rudiments, the final perfection in any art or science, for which a pupil has shown a decided liking and talent, will be in the highest degree satisfactory, not only to the tutors, but also highly promotive of the progress of arts and sciences in general. In teaching sciences and art in their rudiments to young scholars, genius and peculiar talents will be discovered, and that great wrong which now deprives so many amongst the working classes of the opportunity of testing their special aptitudes to certain arts and sciences, and of evoking their genius, will no longer exist.

Indeed, it would be a great insult to the large number of the working classes to assume that all those of their rank who have not risen to great eminence and fame as engineers, mathematicians, chemists, painters, sculptors, actors, musicians, poets, etc., have remained in a humble and inferior station of life, because they have had no talents and aptitudes whatever.

We think the contrary to be the case, and sincerely regret that amongst a number of 246,000 coal-miners alone, thousands of great artists and scientific men would have come forth had they enjoyed that system of education and rudimentary training in arts and instruction in sciences which will prevail in the future state of society. The author, therefore, protests in the most solemn manner against the practice, which, under

the present social arrangement, deprives the intellectually and artistically inclined mind of working men and women of its natural development, and shuts it out from the sublime enjoyment of noble fame in science and literature. Well may certain philosophers preach self-help to the working man, and refer to the biography of George Stephenson and others; but they will not succeed in making any perceptible impression on the masses, because, as society is at present constituted, the greater number of all men and women must remain the drudges of labour, and can only be raised to the exalted practice and enjoyment of arts, sciences, and literature by the introduction of a new social order, in which physical labour is equally shared by all, and in which all mechanical contrivances and economical arrangements are employed in order to shorten labour, by which means the greater period of the life of all men and women will become available for voluntary artistic, scientific, and literary pursuits.

“Whatever can by man be known,
Common as grass-seed should be sown ;

Oh, stint not ! let it fall
Free, free--for all, for all !"

H. W. SUTTON. The diffusion of sciences and arts will, moreover, be powerfully promoted by the obligation which will be incumbent upon all artists, scientific and literary men, of imparting their skill and knowledge to others; and the future social state will enforce this duty by prohibiting anyone to practise any art or science who does not perform his duty of teaching to others what he himself knows and can do. The great violinist Paganini, although once the wonder of the world, remains a contemptible specimen of egotism; for he taught no one, and was most circumspect that no one should see, or even hear him practise, and thus his astonishing performance remains a mystery to the present day.

Laudable examples of an opposite character are, however, to be found amongst many of the old Italian schools of painters and sculptors; and the eminence they reached in the annals of art must, chiefly, be attributed to the great number of pupils whom many of the great masters took into their studios, lodged in their houses, and incorporated into their families, and whom they were always most anxious to teach and acquaint them with the manner of their work. The pupils not unfrequently endeared themselves to such a degree to their masters, that the latter very often defended them at the peril of their own lives, a devoted act of defence, of which Michael Angelo relates one of himself, by which he saved the life of one of his pupils.

Numerous and extensive schools of music, painting, sculpture, drawing, architecture, mechanics, chemistry, natural philosophy, metallurgy, physiology, anatomy, botany, pathology, in fact of all the known branches of human learning and art, can immediately be organized and opened as soon as the new social order is introduced ; for besides the professional men, there can be utilized a great number of amateur musicians, painters, sculptors, chemists, botanists, mathematicians, etc., who at present are only enjoying art and sciences as objects of luxury, without performing any other labour whatever; which is especially the case with many lady musicians, painters, sculptors, and authors.

Elementary teaching requires at present no fewer than 30,000 men and 80,000 women; a number that is much too large, not only in proportion to the small number of children who now frequent elementary schools, but this number of teachers would even not be required if all the children went to school, provided that the system of teaching were arranged on the plan now at work in Germany, where one teacher is able to teach in a most efficient manner a number of 100 children of the same age, and in one and the same schoolroom, and forming one class in the scale of progress. As the total of all children living between the ages of five to fifteen is 4,450,000, the number of teachers on the German system of teaching in large classes ought to be only 44,500, and not 110,000.* This disproportion is chiefly owing to the number of 24,000 governesses, who each teach a limited number of pupils, very often only one child. These governesses, who now teach the children of private families in the houses of the parents, would instantly become serviceable as teachers in elementary schools. The staff of teachers could, moreover, be largely recruited from all well educated persons-gentlemen and gentlewomen *—and whilst the large number of teachers now employed is objectionable, especially in the case of private governesses and tutors, any large number of teachers will, however, be a great benefit in the future social state, because it will permit the work of teaching to be accomplished by alternate relays of teachers.

* Lancaster, the celebrated educational reformer, and founder of the system of teaching bearing his name, combined skill and economy to such an extent that one master and one book were sufficient to teach 1000 children, and that for every £1 he received, he was able to conduct the education of three children for a year.

Arts will immediately receive a great impulse by rendering teaching compulsory on all artists; of whom the census of 1861 counts the following numbers :Musicians

15,000 Painters (men)

4,600 (women).

850 Sculptors

612 Actors.

1,300 Actresses

890 Drawing masters

160 Civil engineers

3,300 Teachers of languages

1,500 Professors of mathematics

460 Architects

3,800 Authors and authoresses

1,600

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All these artists, professors, and writers will be immediately available to be enlisted into the educational staff of the future social state, and the training of numerous novices will soon provide more artist teachers and training masters; the relays will become gradually more numerous, and less educational work will then be required from each individual.

* “ Nowhere is there so abundant a reserve of high moral and intellectual power lying idle or running to waste as in the middle and higher strata of English society. There rises from it one great cry,—“Nothing to do.” Is it quite impossible that this should come to the aid of our elementary schools, threatened, as we are told, with a real degeneracy, under a show of success? If ladies and gentlemen will not teach little children their elements, may they not teach the teachers ?- The Timesof the 15th of Oct., 1875.

CHAPTER XXXVII.--DEFENSIVE, PROTECTIVE, AND

CHARITABLE LABOUR. DEFENS EFENSIVE labour relates chiefly to military service, both

in the army and navy, the labour required in the building of fortresses and war-ships, and the manufacture of all necessary war material.

It is to be hoped, however, that the standing armies of modern states will be disbanded with the advent of the universal republic, which, under the name of “The United States of Europe,” will unite all the nations of this continent into one common brotherhood. But if the future social republic cannot be established on such an extended area, it will be advisable that its defence be intrusted to a military force, into which every citizen capable of bearing arms is to be enlisted. Defensive labour is, therefore, to be obligatory on all.

Protective labour will be chiefly required for the defence of order and public security in the social state. Although crimes and outrages of all kinds will be greatly diminished under the new social arrangements, there will, however, remain, inseparable from the imperfection of human nature and social institutions, occasional outbursts of passion, infringements of the law, disturbances of order, and commission of crimes; and these acts, although they may be of the rarest occurrence, will necessitate a police force for the detection of crimes, and arrest of criminals, and prisoners will have to be guarded by warders. Protective labour of this kind will also be obligatory on all.

Charitable labour includes the attendance on the sick in hospitals, on lunatics in their asylums, on the blind and infirm in their institutions. The work of the fire-brigades, the management of lifeboats, and the working of any life-saving apparatus is also to be considered charitable labour. Although this kind of labour will also be declared obligatory on all, it may, however, be predicted that compulsion will rarely need to be resorted to in order to obtain a sufficient number of persons to do the work of nurses and waiters in hospitals, of attendants on lunatics and blind people, of the sailors who man the lifeboat, of the members of the fire-brigade, and of those who work the rocket apparatus to save people from ship

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