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CHAPTER XXXI.-CARRYING AND LOCOMOTION.

TO
TO this class belong the persons employed in the following

occupations :

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The reduction that will be effected in these employments will be very great, and will arise from the total suppression of the wholesale and retail trade, and from the introduction of another and more economical system of distributing produce, in which only the tenth part of the present number of porters, messengers, errand boys, warehousemen, packers, carriers, carters, seamen, lightermen, railway servants, road labourers, street sweepers, omnibus drivers, and coachmen will be required to do all the necessary work.

Very few cab and fly men will be wanted, for every individual of the great bulk of the people will have plenty of time to walk on foot to his work, and to return from it in the same fashion. With the exception of the conveyance of patients and doctors in cases of sudden illness or accidents, there will be a total cessation of the occupation of cab and flymen.

The railway service will also require a much smaller number of servants, owing to the diminution of the goods traffic; but will, on the other hand, probably want some more servants for the increased passenger locomotion arising from the frequent dislocation of the whole population, in order to convey all persons to their alternate occupations in factories and national workshops, and on the land. Still, this passenger locomotion

will even then, when embracing the whole nation, remain inferior in mileage and numbers to the present senseless railway travelling, used either for the purposes of trade and commerce, or for the gratification of pleasure-seekers.

A reduction to the tenth part of the carrying work now performed will reduce the present number of 174,600,000 working-days to 17,460,000, or, in round numbers, to 17,000,000 working-days, which, if divided among 12,000,000 workers, will be but one and a half day per individual.

CHAPTER XXXII.-- MINING LABOUR, AND OTHER HEAVY

WORK.

THIS
HIS kind of labour is likewise to be classed amongst the

series of those fit for equal distribution, not only because there does not exist any real difficulty in learning the work of the pitman, but because it is heavy, uncomfortable, and dan

gerous work.

The number of persons engaged in mines and other similar heavy work are the following:

360,000
31,000
18,000
20,000

Coal-mining

employs
Tin and Copper
Lead

Iron
To these may be added those employed,-

As coal-heavers
In stone quarries
In slate quarries
As nav vies.
As general labourers

17,000
22,000

9,000
43,000
300,000

Total

820,000

This grand total multiplied by 300 working-days for each individual gives 246,000,000 working-days, to which nearly the half falls to the lot of the pitman. This enormous burden of labour will, however, in the future social state, be at once lessened by one half of its ponderous weight, which now crushes about 1,000 persons annually;!for no time will be lost, and no obstacles encountered, in the introduction and universal application of the coal-cutting apparatus, –an ingenious inachine of recent invention, which is already at work in several collieries, but whose great success has not yet made any perceptible impression on the apathy, prejudice, or ignorance of the present coal-owners. This machine is said to cut, in eight hours' time, 350 feet of coal, yielding from seventy to seventy-five tons in weight-a production that represents the work of forty men for the same period. Three or at most four men are required to tend the machine, and its general adoption would, according to a calculation in the Times of Jan. 6th, 1873, render it possible to dispense with the labour of 300,000 of the 360,000 men now employed in the coal-mines of the country.*

The labour in the coal-mines, although so enormously reduced by machinery, will, in the future social state, be further lessened by the great decrease in the consumption of coal on account of the diminution of all manufactures, by the large reduction in the consumption of gas, and by the great saving of fuel in the Associated Homes.

One-tenth of the above number of 246,000,000 working-days will probably suffice for this class of work; and if 24,000,000 working-days are shared by 7,000,000 males (for females never ought nor never will have to participate in this heavy kind of work), it will only allot a fraction more than three days per annum to each man of the 7,000,000 of the adult male population.

Some of the coal-cutting machines now working at West Ardsly have been in constant use three or four years, and by their employment the equivalent of a man's power exerted for the whole day in cutting coal can be obtained at a cost in fuel of only 31d. The daily work done by one of these machines is about equal to the day's work of twelve average men, and the persons employed to work the machine are one man, one youth, and one boy.

CHAPTER XXXIII.-SKILLED LABOUR.

THIS

class of labour is performed by that great army of

in trades, have to employ special operations of intellect and skillfulness of manipulations, to which the appellation“ handicraft ” is most happily applied.

The following list contains, in round numbers, the principal trades of this kind, with the omission of those miscellaneous employments and small trades numbering less than 1,000 persons :

List of Skilled Trades. Agricultural implement makers.

1,000 Anchorsmiths, chainsmiths

4,000 Apprentices (undefined)

2,000 Artificers in H.M.'s dockyards

14,000 Artificial flower-makers

5,000 Bag and sack-makers

2,000 Bakers

54,000 Barge, boat-builders

3,000 Basket-makers.

9,000 Bedstead, mattress-makers

2,000 Bellhangers, locksmiths

5,000 Berlin wool-workers

1,000 Blacksmiths

108,000 Block, oar, mast-makers

2,000 Bobbin-makers, turners

2,000 Boiler-makers

13,000 Bonnet-makers

6,000 Bookbinders

11,000 Boot and shoe-makers

250,000 Box-makers

3,000 Braid-makers

1,000 Brass-manufacturers

16,000 Braziers

2,000 Bricklayers

79,000 Brickmakers

39,000 Bristle, flax manufacturers.

3,000 Brush and broom makers

11,000

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Builders
Burnishers (undefined)
Butchers
Cap-makers
Carpenters, joiners
Carvers, gilders
Carvers (wood)
Case-makers (packing)
Cellarmen
Cement, plaster manufacturers
Chair-makers
Chimney-sweepers
Cigar, tobacco manufacturers
Civil engineers
Clock and watch-makers
Clog and patten-makers
Coach-makers
Comb-makers
Coopers
Coppersmiths
Cord, rope-makers
Cork-cutters
Cutlers
Dressmakers
Embroiderers
Engine and machine-makers
Engine-drivers (railway)
Engine-drivers (undefined).
Engravers
Envelope-makers
Farriers
Fellmongers
File-makers
Fishermen .
French-polishers.
Furriers
Gasfitters
Glass manufacturers
Glaziers, painters, plumbers
Glovers

15,000

1,000 68,000

6,000 177,000

5,000 2,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 8,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 20,000

5,000 18,000

1,000 18,000

2,000 13,000 2,000

6,600 287,000

2,000 60,000 10,000 10,000 5,000 1,000 7,000 2,000 8,000 17,000 6,000 3,000 5,000 15,000 74,000 25,000

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