Structures of Reform: The Mercedarian Order in the Spanish Golden Age

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Bruce Taylor
BRILL, 2000 - 506 páginas
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During the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries the Mercedarian Order of friars, founded in the 1220s, underwent a period of reform from which it emerged utterly transformed. This study sets out to examine not only the context of that reform - the policies of the crown and the papacy, the condition of Catalonia and Spain at large, the circumstances prevailing within the Order and the dialogue with its past - but also to grasp the essence of monastic reform itself against this diverse background. The imposition of other than purely religious criteria onto the reform agenda alerts us to the deeper implications of monastic change in Early Modern Europe. For the Mercedarians the result by 1650 was a wholly new Order; the evolution of this process, by turns calculated and unexpected, is here explored.
 

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Índice

Introduction
1
Change and Continuity The Order from its Origins to 1467
5
The Vision of the Past
8
The Origins of the Mercedarian Order
10
Growth and Development 123572
16
The First Mercedarian Observance
18
The Redemption of Captives
25
Confraters Beatas and Nuns
29
The Path to Reform 156770
186
The Campaign Opens 15678
187
Reaction and Evasion in Catalonia 1567 8
192
The Catalans Stifled
197
Visitation and Repression in the Crown of Aragon 15689
202
Division and Uncertainty in Castile 15689
208
The Chapter Provincial of Guadalajara 1569
217
An Agenda for Reform
224

The Rise of the Clerics 12721301
31
Crisis and Mutation 130117
33
A New Constitution 131730
36
The Albertine Observance
38
The Structure of the Order
42
A Clericalized Order
47
XTV Decline Patronage and Survival 13301429
49
Crisis and Division 142967
52
New Frontiers The Rise of Castile 14671561
56
Vocation and SelfPerception
59
New Men
63
A Vocation Consolidated
67
The Mercedarians and the Question of Reform
71
Spectres of Reform 14851515
75
Humanism Heresy and Messianism
78
Establishment and Expansion 1514 35
82
Patronage and Jurisdiction
85
Crisis and Recovery after 1535
87
Retrenchment and the Decline of Learning in the Crown of Aragon
96
The Castilian Reform Movement
98
Reform and Government
103
Government and Representation
105
Violence and Defiance
108
The Church and Religious Culture in Catalonia
114
The Religious Policy of Philip II
117
The Idea and Practice of Reform
122
Trent and Monastic Reform
130
Reform and the State
134
The Opening of the Reform Campaign 15617
140
The End of the Beginning
148
An Order to be Reformed 1561 7
151
Royal Overtures 1561 3
152
Reform and Mudanza
156
Legend and Reality
163
The Mercedarian Constitution in Crisis
167
Castile on the Eve of Reform
172
The Crown of Aragon on the Eve of Reform
179
On the Threshold
183
The Orders the Crown and the Papacy 15679
230
The Progress of Reform 15705
237
The Apostolic Visitation of Castile 15702
238
Revenge in Valencia 156970
245
A Reconnaissance of the Crown of Aragon 15701
247
A Reform Programme for the Crown of Aragon 1571
251
The Quest for Mercedarian Observance
255
Rejection in the Crown of Aragon 15713
258
The Task in Hand
262
The Chapter General of Guadalajara 1574
267
The Guadalajara Constitutions
270
The Crisis of Reform 157593
276
Resistance in the Crown of Aragon 15746
282
Reform and Redemption 157593
292
Violence and Banditry
298
Escalation 15778
300
Over the Brink 15789
304
The Reform Defeated 157982
310
The Catalan Religious Order in Crisis
313
Litigation 15824
315
Survival and Recovery 15846
319
The Reform Triumphant 15879
323
A Last Throw of the Dice
329
A New Order 15931648
333
Jurisdiction and Realignment
334
Patronage and Advancement
340
The Apogee of Mercedarian Scholarship
345
Challenge Probity and Expansion
358
A Debt Repaid
365
The Mercedarian Discalced Movement
374
Politics and Opposition
392
The Politics of Canonization
399
Epilogue
410
Structures of Reform
413
Major Visitation Campaigns 156785
438
Sources and Bibliography
451
Index
481
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Sobre el autor (2000)

Bruce Taylor was educated at the University of Manchester, and at Oxford where he received his D.Phil. In Modern History in 1996. He is currently a Research Affiliate of the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles.

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