An Examination of Opinions Maintained in the "Essay on the Principles of Population," by Malthus: And in the "Elements of Political Economy," by Ricardo : with Some Remarks in Reply to Sir James Graham's "Address to the Land-owners"
J. M. Richardson, 1827
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advantage agriculture amount artificial assertion benefit bounty bour capitalist cause CHAPTER CHECKS TO POPULATION commodities consequence consumers crease cultivation currency degree demand for labour diminished dities duce duction effects employed employment England equal exchangeable value expended exportation fall farmer food and necessaries foreign greater holders immediate labour importation improvement income individuals interest landholders less levied machinery Malthus mankind manufactures marriages means of subsistence ment millions mode modities national debt natural price neral observed obtained paid paper money ployed poor laws portion pound sterling power of procreation present price of corn principle of population productive labour proportion quantity of labour raise the price rate of profits raw produce reduced rent rise of wages seignorage Sir James Graham society soil taxation thereby thing tion tithes tive trade tural unproductive value of money vice and misery wealth whole
Seite 164 - Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as Little as possible, over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the state.
Seite 269 - ... himself possessed? Does he even feel secure that, should he have a large family, his utmost exertions can save them from rags and squalid poverty, and their consequent degradation in the community? And may he not be reduced to the grating necessity of forfeiting his independence, and of being obliged to the sparing hand of Charity for support?
Seite 27 - Every increase or diminution of capital, therefore, naturally tends to increase or diminish the real quantity of industry, the number of productive hands, and consequently the exchangeable value of the annual produce of the land and labour of the country, the real wealth and revenue of all its inhabitants.
Seite 271 - Population invariably increases where the means of subsistence increase, unless prevented by some very powerful and obvious checks. 3. These checks, and the checks which repress the superior power of population, and keep its effects on a level with the means of subsistence, are all resolvable into moral restraint, vice, and misery.
Seite 65 - But if any provide not for his own, and especially for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel.
Seite 280 - ... society. As savages are wonderfully improvident, and their means of subsistence always precarious, they often pass from the extreme of want to exuberant plenty, according to the vicissitudes of fortune in the chase or to the variety in the produce of the seasons.
Seite 230 - It is the cost of production which must ultimately regulate the price of commodities, and not, as has been often said, the proportion between the supply and demand: the proportion between supply and demand may, indeed, for a time, affect the market value of a commodity, until it is supplied in greater or less abundance, according as the demand may have increased or diminished; but this effect will be only of temporary duration.
Seite 31 - Under a system of perfectly free commerce, each country naturally devotes its capital and labour to such employments as are most beneficial to each. This pursuit of individual advantage is admirably connected with the universal good of the whole. By stimulating industry, by rewarding ingenuity, and by using most efficaciously the peculiar powers bestowed by nature, it distributes labour most effectively and most economically : while, by increasing the general mass of productions, it diffuses general...
Seite 63 - It is not to be understood that the natural price of labour, estimated even in food and necessaries, is absolutely fixed and constant. It varies at different times in the same country, and very materially differs in different countries.* It essentially depends on the habits and customs of the people.