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to be destroyed, that he might have more horses to assist his flight towards the settlements, and less lumber to remove. He was there met with requests from the governors of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, that he would post his troops on the frontiers, so as to afford some protection to the inhabitants; but he continued his hasty march through all the country, not thinking himself safe till he arrived at Philadelphia, where the inhabitants could protect him. This whole transaction gave us Americans the first suspicion, that our exalted ideas of the prowess of British regular troops had not been well founded.*

In their first march, too, from their landing till they got beyond the settlements, they had plundered and stripped the inhabitants, totally ruining some poor families, besides insulting, abusing, and confining the people, if they remonstrated. This was enough to put us out of conceit of such defenders, if we had really wanted any. How different was the conduct of our French friends in 1781, who, during a march through the most inhabited part of our country, from Rhode Island to Virginia, near seven hundred miles, occasioned not the smallest complaint for the loss of a pig, a chicken, or even an apple.

Captain Orme, who was one of the General's aidsde-camp, and, being grievously wounded, was brought off with him, and continued with him to his death, which happened in a few days, told me, that he was totally silent all the first day, and at night only said, "Who would have thought it?" That he was silent again the following day, saying only at last, "We shall

*There are some errors in this account of Braddock's defeat. A full description of that event may be seen in Washington's Writings, Vol. II. p. 468.-EDITOR.

better know how to deal with them another time;" and died in a few minutes after.

The secretary's papers, with all the General's orders, instructions, and correspondence, falling into the enemy's hands, they selected and translated into French a number of the articles, which they printed, to prove the hostile intentions of the British court before the declaration of war. Among these I saw some letters of the General to the ministry, speaking highly of the great service I had rendered the army, and recommending me to their notice.* David Hume, who was some years after secretary to Lord Hertford, when minister in France, and afterwards to General Conway, when secretary of state, told me, he had seen among the papers in that office letters from Braddock, highly recommending me. But, the expedition having been unfortunate, my service, it seems, was not thought of much value, for those recommendations were never of any

use to me.

As to rewards from himself, I asked only one, which was, that he would give orders to his officers not to enlist any more of our bought servants, and that he would discharge such as had been already enlisted. This he readily granted, and several were accordingly returned to their masters, on my application. Dunbar, when the command devolved on him, was not so generous. He being at Philadelphia, on his retreat, or rather flight, I applied to him for the discharge of the servants of three poor farmers of Lancaster County, that he had enlisted, reminding him of the late general's orders on that head. He promised me, that, if the masters would come to him at Trenton, where he


* See Washington's Writings, Vol. II. p. 78.


should be in a few days on his march to New York, he would there deliver their men to them. They accordingly were at the expense and trouble of going to Trenton, and there he refused to perform his promise, to their great loss and disappointment.

As soon as the loss of the wagons and horses was generally known, all the owners came upon me for the valuation which I had given bond to pay. Their demands gave me a great deal of trouble. I acquainted them, that the money was ready in the paymaster's hands, but the order for paying it must first be obtained from General Shirley, and that I had applied for it; but, he being at a distance, an answer could not soon be received, and they must have patience. All this, however, was not sufficient to satisfy them, and some began to sue me. General Shirley at length relieved me from this terrible situation, by appointing commissioners to examine the claims, and ordering payment. They amounted to near twenty thousand pounds, which to pay would have ruined me.*


Before we had the news of this defeat, the two doctors Bond came to me with a subscription paper for raising money to defray the expense of a grand firework, which it was intended to exhibit at a rejoicing on receiving the news of our taking Fort Duquesne. I looked grave, and said, it would, I thought, be time enough to prepare the rejoicing when we knew we should have occasion to rejoice. They seemed surprised that I did not immediately comply with their proposal. "Why the d-l!" said one of them, "you surely don't suppose that the fort will not be taken?" "I don't know that it will not be

* See General Shirley's letter, Vol. VII. p. 94. Also, p. 96.

taken; but I know that the events of war are subject to great uncertainty." I gave them the reasons of my doubting; the subscription was dropped, and the projectors thereby missed the mortification they would have undergone, if the firework had been prepared. Dr. Bond, on some other occasion afterwards, said, that he did not like Franklin's forebodings.*

* At this time, in conjunction with several other gentlemen, Franklin was actively engaged in carrying into effect a benevolent plan for improving the condition of the German population in America. At his press was printed a tract entitled, “A Brief History of the Rise and Progress of the Charitable Scheme, carrying on by a Society of Noblemen and Gentlemen in London, for the Relief and Instruction of poor Germans and their Descendants in Pennsylvania and the adjacent Colonies in North America. Published by Order of the Trustees appointed for the Management of the said Charitable Scheme. Philadelphia; 1755." The Trustees were James Hamilton, William Allen, Richard Peters, Benjamin Franklin, Conrad Weiser, and William Smith. The objects in view were to provide missionaries and teachers of schools, and to render such relief as particular cases might require. For an interesting letter on the condition of the Germans in Pennsylvania, see Vol. VII. p. 66.- EDITOR.

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Appointed One of the Commissioners for appropriating the public Money for military Defence. - Proposes a Militia Bill, which passes the Assembly. - Commissioned to take Charge of the Frontier, and build a Line of Forts. Marches at the Head of a Body of Troops. Account of the March. Operations at Gnadenhutten. Indian Massacres. - Moravians at Bethlehem. - Returns to Philadelphia. -- Chosen Colonel of a Regiment.-Journey to Virginia. - Declines accepting the Governor's Proposal to lead an Expedition against Fort Duquesne. - Account of his Electrical Discoveries. Chosen a Member of the Royal Society. Receives the Copley Medal.

GOVERNOR MORRIS, who had continually worried the Assembly with message after message before the defeat of Braddock, to beat them into the making of acts to raise money for the defence of the province, without taxing among others the proprietary estates, and had rejected all their bills for not having such an exempting clause, now redoubled his attacks with more hope of success, the danger and necessity being greater. The Assembly however continued firm, believing they had justice on their side, and that it would be giving up an essential right, if they suffered the Governor to amend their money bills. In one of the last, indeed, which was for granting fifty thousand pounds, his proposed amendment was only of a single word. The bill expressed, "that all estates real and personal were to be taxed; those of the proprietaries not excepted." His amendment was; for not read only. A small, but very material alteration. However, when the news of the disaster reached England, our friends there, whom we had taken care to furnish with all the Assembly's answers to the Governor's messages, raised a clamor against the Proprietaries for their meanness and injustice in giving their governor such instructions; some

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