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great inundation.—69, 70. The King at war with his Barons.71. Prince Edward comes to Bristol.72. Licentiousness of the people and mismanagement of the King's friends.73, 74. The King taken prisoner; garrison of Tunbridge march to Bristol : attempt to release Prince Edward.75. Some Barons desert the earl of Leicester. Bristol Castle surrendered : the townsmen procure a pardon.76, 77, 78, 79. Progress of the war.-80. Sir William de Berkeley lands in Somersetshire.-81. Death of king Henry III.

$1. On the death of king John, those few Nobles who remained faithful to him, or at least wbo had refused to enter into any agreement with prince Lewis and the French, “ held (a) a meeting at Gloucester. And because Westminster, which was the place usually appointed for the Coronation, was at that time besieged by the King's enemies, Henry the eldest son of the late King, at that time only nine years old, was anointed King and solemnly crowned by Gualo, the Pope's Legate, before the high altar of the conventual church in Gloucester, on Oct 28 1216 : after which most of the Nobles of the land in a short time returned to the young King, who had no wise offended them, and faithfully adhered to him. William Mareshall, earl of Strigul and Pembroke, was the person who principally contributed to these events; and he was appointed Regent of the kingdom, and the King's Governor. Immediately after the Coronation, the King attended by the Regent, and all his friends, came to Bristow, probably as being a place of greater security than Gloucester.” “On St Martin's day (Nov. 11] the Legate held a Council, in which he compelled eleven Bishops of England and Wales, who were present, and other prelates of inferior degree, and Earls, and Barons and Knights, who were there met together, to swear fealty to king Henry.“The (6) King continued at Bristow, and spent his Christmas here: while the Barons of his party actively exerted themselves in his favor, and took the castle of Hereford and many others; so that the Legate absolved them from the sentence of excommunication'

(a) Matth’ Westm' and Ann' Waverley.

(6) Matth' Westm'.

denounced against them in the last reign; and the remainder of them who still continued in London, successively returned to their allegiance to their natural lord ; to which the sentence of excommunication much contributed, which the English dreaded more than any other nation.'

§ 2. Robert of Glocester gives the following account of this affair: I translate his Anglo-saxon rhymes into plain English prose.

. Then began a new disturbance : for men liked their own natural lord better than Lowis of France; and by counsel of holy church, they began to annul the engagement, which they made with him, although they had brought bim hither. Therefore the legate Galon and the barons of the land held a council at Martinmas at Bristowe. There the Legate absolved high and low from the homage which they had done to Lowis : and he made all the bishops present, who were no more than seven, and the earls and barons and knights, swear to the young King, that they would be true to him ; and he excommunicated all the English, who were against him. Many persons soon had themselves crossed in their bare flesh, in token that they would live and die with him, and drive out Lowis. Some principal men of England, who were with Lowis, through natural affection had their hearts with king Henry.'

§ 3. Of the abovementioned synod holden here a more particular account may be redd in (c) our Church history. “ After the coronation of Henry III, Gualo, the Pope's Legate, held a council at Bristow on the feast of St Martin ; in which he compelled eleven bishops of England and Wales who were present, and other prelates of a lower class, and the earls, barons, and knights that were convened, to swear fealty to king Henry. He put all Wales under an interdict, because it held with the barons, and he excommunicated the barons with all their accomplices, in which Lewis was put at their head.”

§ 4. Our historians usually call this Legate Gualo; but his true name and title is Cardinal Guala Bicherius. He was the Legate of

(c) Wilkins's Concilia, Vol 1, p' 546; translated by Barrett, p' 668.

Pope Honorius in England A’ D’1216. My learned and excellent friend Benjamin H'Bright, Esq’, writing from Milan, refers me to his life published there with the following title. “ Gualae Bicherii, Presbyteri Cardinalis S’ti Martini in montibus, vita et gesta ; collecta à Philadelpho Libico. Mediolani. 1767, 4to pp' 178. He was a native of Vercelli ; and to the passion, which Italians have in common with yourself, to commemorate fellow-townsmen, we owe this piece of biography. The Author, however he may be concealed under an assumed name, has collected his materials from the best authorities, English and foreign, with which, as notes and extracts, he has filled the half of every page. The Council of Bristol is little more than mentioned:” the passage is transcribed in the (d) note ; and from thence it appears, that the court of Rome considered the late King's resignation of his crown to be an actual transfer; and the Cardinal accordingly called together the national Council by the Pope's authority, appointed a guardian to the young King, intended to chuse a wife for him, by the privilege of feudal lords, and in the whole affair acted as Sovereign.

$5. While the young King continued at Bristow, he probably granted a charter to the town, authorizing the burgesses to choose from among themselves a chief magistrate called a Mayor, as Winchester, London, Lynn, and perhaps others, were allowed to do, some few years before. Adams's Calendar is as follows, “1216. This year

the pope's legate convoked a synod in this city and excommunicated prince Lewis of France and all bis adherents, who had been invited to England to”

(d) After the coronation at Glocester, given chiefly from Matth' Paris, he writes "Heic autem substitisse providentiam Gualæ Bicherii, minimè puta: misso siquidem nuncio coronationis Henrici peractæ ad Honorium (vide epistol' Honorii 164, lib' 1 apud Raynald ad ann' 1217, num' 67 & 68) et tradito statim Henrico Rege custodiendo Guillelmo sive Willelmo, Comite Pembrocii, (non Glocestriæ, uti visum Spondano ad annum 1216 n' 5) duci fortissimo et regio castrorum magistro, cui ejiciendi Ludovici è Britanniâ provincia tunc quoque commissa ; subiit Legato absoluturo munera Curatoris Regis, injuncta sibi vel à Pontifice maximo, congregare 3 Idus Novem’ Bristolii Concilium, ut induceret XI Episcopos Angliæ et Walliæ, cæterosque venturos ad illud, ad pollicendam jurejurando fidem Henrico, hujusque bosteis et rebelles devovendos Diris ; et etiam rogare Honorium vellet proponere puellam regiam aliquam nuptui tradendam Henrico indigo Principis affinis auxiliorum ad obsistendum Ludovico, ac tandem hortari rebelles ad consilia sauiora. Verum Honorius &c.

join the barons against the king. This year king Henry kept his Christmas in this city.” Another is thus : “

Another is thus : “King John having greate troubles with bis Barons dies, and leaves young K’ Henry III ingulfed in the same:

with his councellors and tutors he came to Bristoll as to a safe place; in which he permitted the town to choose a Mayor after the manner of London: and with him were chosen two grave, sad, worshipful men which were called Prepositors, there being neither Sheriffe nor Bayliffe.” It is unquestionable that at this time leave was given to the burgesses to choose a Mayor annually; all our calendars assert it, they all name Adam le Page as the first Mayor, and Stephen Hankin and Rainold Hazard as the first Prepositors, and they continue the series without interruption from them, and from this time they contain a regular chronicle of events; yet so far as I can find, no charter for the election of a Mayor has been discovered, or quoted by any succeeding charter.

$ 6. About the year 1220 the Hospital and Church of the Gaunts was founded in the cemetery of the monastery of S'Austin, now the College Green, on the side opposite to that monastery. It was founded by Maurice de Gaunt, son of Robert, second son of Robert Fitzharding; which Maurice took the name of de Gaunt from the family property of his wife Alice de Gaunt.And about the same time the two Orders of Friers were established and came over into England : but there is considerable variation among historians in settling the date. The Dominicans, oterwise called the Friers-preachers and the Black-friers, are said to have been established in 1215; one of our MS Calendars says that they came into England in A'D' 1220. They founded a large convent here (e) before A'D' 1228 or 1229 on a plat of ground between Rosemary lane and the Ware. About the same time or soon after (in 1220 as some say) the Order of the Franciscan fryers was established, otherwise named the fryers-minors, but generally called in England the grey-fryers. Some of our Calendars say that they came into England in 1223; one of them adds that it was on the feast of St Burien in that year; and that in 1226 St Francis, the founder of the

(e) Barr' p'400.

order, came to Bristol, and that he himself founded the

nunnery

of Lacock in Wiltshire. The Convent of the grey-friers was in Lewin's mead, where the buildings occcupied the northern side of that street: and it being one of their chief houses in this country and built before (f) the year 1234, it might possibly have been founded by S’ Francis himself, while he continued in this neighbourhood. Knighton writes, that the Friers-preachers came into England in 1217, and the Friers-minors on St Bartholomew's day 1224. Leland (g) writes, “ This year [1221] came the frere Preachers first into England. This year [1225] on St Boreheus day the frere Minors first came into the Realm. This year began first the order of the Augustine Friers in England.”

§ 7. The following account of the origin of these two orders is extracted from the Chronicle of Hemingford. • In the time of King John two new Orders began, the Friers-preachers and the Friers-minors. St Dominic was the founder of the Preachers in the neighbourhood of Thoulouse, where he constantly preached against the heretics by word and by example. When he had been employed for ten years in preaching and collecting brethren [friers], he applied to Pope Innocent III to confirm the Order. While the Pope was hesitating and rather averse to the proposal, he saw in a dream the Lateran church in a state which threatened an immediate fall ; whereupon the man of God, St Dominic, ran up and supported the tottering fabric on bis shoulders. Leave was now given to proceed ; and the friars at that time only sixteen, being themselves Preachers by name and in fact, chose the Rule of St Augustin, who was a famous preacher; and they took on themselves moreover the practice of a stricter life. The Order was confirmed by the Pope in 1216. He died at Bologne A'D' 1221; and before his death he pronounced his Will, saying thus: these are the things which I bequeath to you as to my sons ; have love to each other; observe humility; keep a voluntary poverty : and he pronounced a terrible imprecation against any one, who should presume to defile the order of Preachers with the dust of earthly riches. They first came into England A'D' 1217. ?

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