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of its length, except the first three hundred yards, is driven in the “ Deep End or Squire's” coal seam, where it is of service for draining the works. The southern end of the tunnel is about eighty yards beneath the surface: it is six feet high and five feet and three quarters wide. The depth of water within it is two feet, on which boats are used twenty-one feet long and three feet and a half wide, holding seven corves, which weigh together about 20 cwt. When these tunnelboats arrive at the side of the canal, a crane is used to hoist up the corves and empty their contents into a canal boat. This curious colliery belongs to the Duke of Devonshire, and is worked under the direction of his Grace's colliery agent. Near the middle of the tunnel, there are sixtyeight yards of its course driven through a grit-stone, without the archway being bricked as it is in other places. On the north of Staveley, the canal is cut deep through the west Dolee ridge of hills. There is an aqueduct bridge over the Dolee, near Staveley, and another over the brook at Renishaw furnace. In Killamarsh there is a road arch under the canal. - Respecting the rates or tolls, we find that the Act limits the tonnage for lime to 1d. per ton per mile, and 1 d. per ton per mile for coals, lead, timber, stone and all other goods, except manures for the lands of any person whose estate has been cut through by the canal, which are to pay only £d. per ton per mile. Hay and corn going to be stacked, and materials for the repair of roads, may be navigated toll-free for five miles. Goods are not to remain more than twenty-four hours on the Company's wharfs without paying wharfage ; for the next six days 3d. per ton may be charged.

The Erewash canal had its origin in the desire of the owners of extensive coal mines, situate on the borders of Nottinghamshire, and an Act was obtained for its formation in the 17th year of George III. and another for the regulation of its tolls in the 29th.- The engineer was Mr. William Jessop, and, under his superintendance, it was completed in a very few years. The general direction of this canal is chiefly along the course of the Erewash valley, and by it the county exports coals, limestone, iron, lead, various kinds of stone and marble, and imports corn, malt and timber. It commences in the Trent navigation at Trent lock, near Sawley, and terminates in the Cromford canal at Langley bridge. On the north-east of Stanton-by-Dale it is joined by the Nutbrook canal, and about half a mile south o? Sandiacre it unites with the Derby canal. The whole length of this canal is ten miles and three quarters; and there are twenty-five bridges across it. Its northern end is elevated, and the rise is one hundred and eight feet and two-thirds, by means of fourteen locks. Over the Nutbrook, on the north-east of Stanton, and over the Erewash above Newmanley's mill, this canal is conveyed on aqueduct arches. Some of the coal-seams of the Newthorpe-common colliery are continued under this canal for a considerable distance, without any injury to the interests of the Canal Company. - By the Erewash canal much of the coal-trade is carried on, and previous to the year 1798, the quantity or weight allowed to a ton varied at almost every coal-wharf, so that the Navigation Companies were greatly inconvenienced in collecting their tonnage duties. Meetings of the committees from nine* Navigation Companies took place in the year above-mentioned, and it was agreed that weighing-houses should be erected upon the several canals, and that the ton should be fixed at 2,400 lbs. One of these weighing houses is situate on this canal at Sawley wharf.

The Nutbrook canal may be considered as a branch of the Erewash navigation. It commences in the last-mentioned canal, about a quarter of a mile south of Trowel, and terminates at Shipley wharf, from which there is a rail-way extending half a mile to the colliery. The Act for this canal was obtained in the year 1793. Edward Miller Mundy, esq. and the late Sir Henry Hunloke, bart. were the chief promoters of the undertaking. The Company was authorised to raise the sum of £19,500. in £100. shares. The extent of the canal is four miles and three quarters in the county of Derby, and its course is along the Nutbrook vale. Coal and limestone are the principal and almost only articles conveyed upon it. The proprietors of adjoining estates are allowed to make branches from it, and the agents of Earl Stanhope claim the carriage of ironstone and limestone, duty free, to the Dale-Abbey furnaces. A very large reservoir in Shipley park,

* The Erewash, Derby, Cromford, Grantham, Leicester, Melton-Mowbray, Nottingham, Nutbrook and Trent Companies.

der-l-chapel to Whaley-bridge to the Bar-moor or L bottom, and the de

and four smaller ones, in or near the park, supply this canal in part. It has also a feeder from Dale-Abbey brook.

The Peak Forest canal navigation was constituted and regulated by Acts passed in the 34th, 40th, and 45th of George III. Mr. Benjamin Outram was the engineer, and Mr. Thomas Brown superintended the construction. In 1797 it was completed with the exception of the Marple locks, which were opened in 1803. The extent of this canal is about twenty miles and a quarter in the counties of Lancaster, Chester and Derby; and the articles principally conveyed by it are Peak Forest limestone, coals, paving stones, iron, deals, &c. It branches out of the Ashtonunder-Lyne canal, near Dunkinfield bridge, and crossing the river Tame, passes Denton and Marple-chapel to Whaley-bridge, where it enters Derbyshire; and thence a rail-way extension passes on by Chapel-en-le-Frith to the Bar-moor or Loads-Knowl and Dove-hole quarries. The width of the canal is thirty feet at top and fifteen at bottom, and the depth five feet and a half. The locks are seventy-two feet long and eight wide, and their general rise about thirteen feet each. Sixteen locks occur in the space of one mile and a quarter below the Marple lime-works, but the places of the Marple locks were at first supplied by a steep rail-way, or inclined plane for trams, from 1797 to 1806. On the great inclined plane, about half a mile east of Chapel-en-leFrith, there is a double rail-way, with a large inclined wheel or pulley, over which is passed an immense endless chain: to this the trams are linked, and are continually ascending and descending. There is also an inclined plane with a double rail-way at the Loads-Knowl quarry: it is three and thirty yards in extent, and has a horse-gin wheel at the top which draws up the loaded trams and lets down those that are empty. The rail-way extension was at first made single, but in 1803, it was re-laid with a double road. The bodies of the trams are made of rolled plate-iron, and carry 45 cwt. each.— The great Marple aqueduct bridge, over the Mersey, about a quarter of a mile below the junction of the Etherow and the Goyte, is among the most considerable of the works of this kind in the kingdom. It consists of three equal semi-circular arches of sixty feet span each ; the middle one is seventy-eight feet high, and the whole structure has an elevation of one hundred feet. The river, except in times of floods, is confined to the middle arch. The lower halves of the piers are constructed of rough red masonry, from Hyde-bank quarry: the upper part is of handsome white hewn masonry. Four cylindrical apertures are worked through the haunches of the arches in order to lighten them. The abutments widen downward in large proportioned curves, and the walls diminish upward in the same manner. The building unites solidity with elegance, and its position amidst the wild features of nature gives it a bold and romantic character. “Where the river, after passing Marple bridge and winding through the meadows, withdraws from the scene,” says Mr. Rhodes in his Peak Scenery,“ the aqueduct of the Peak Forest canal, spans the busy stream and frets and foams over its rocky channel in the glen below. This elegant structure has the appearance of a Roman bridge of three arches, and it emerges from the woods with uncommon grace and dignity. A finer object in landscape is but seldom seen ; and when the mild radiance of an evening sun is playing amongst the trees with which it is connected, and tipping the topmost branches with light, whilst all below is reposing in shadow, the view from Compstall House* is one continued scene of beauty.” There is also a smaller aqueduct of two arches, which sustain the canal over the Goyte and a bye-road, at Bottomhall near Whaley-bridge; besides several others beyond the limits of this county. — The Peak Forest canal is wholly supplied by flood-waters, reserved in the Coomb’s-brook reservoir of forty, five acres, at Tunstead Milltown. The water for the canal passes through iron pipes which are laid under the bed of the Goyte.— The rates on this canal are 1d. per ton per mile for stone and coal; 1 d. per ton per mile for burnt lime, and 3d. wharfage. The Company was authorised, by the Act of Parliament in 1794, to raise £150,000. in £100. shares; and eight years afterwards the shares bore a premium of £10. per cent. They subsequently obtained permission to increase the number of shares; and we have been informed, that the works, which are every where exe

• The residence of G. Andrews, esq. proprietor of the cotton-printing works at Marple.

miles and three and it penetrates one and grindinga

cuted with great skill, over one of the most discouraging tracts of country, considerably exceeded the original estimate.

The Cromford canal takes a course of fourteen miles and three quarters in the counties of Derby and Nottingham. Its northern parts are considerably elevated, and it penetrates the east Derwent ridge by a tunnel. Its object of transit downwards are coals, limestone, mill-stone and grindingstones, freestone, marble, chert, lead, iron, &c. while in its upward transit, it carries malt, and timber as well as coals from the lower pits. It commences in the Erewash canal at Langley bridge and terminates at the town of Cromford. From Codnor lower park and other places, there are cuts from three furlongs to twenty furlongs in length; and the connecting rail-ways are numerous. In the village of Fritchley, the Crich rail-way passes over a stone bridge and again over a private road on a wooden bridge, and enters the limestone quarry by a tunnel, one hundred yards in length. At Bull-bridge this rail-way is continued to machines on a high bank, where the contents of the trams are shot down an inclined plane into iron boats.— The width of this canal is twenty-six feet at top, and the regular canal boats are eighty feet long, seven feet and a quarter wide, and three feet and a half deep. From the Erewash canal to the Pinxton branch, the extent is three miles and a half, with a rise of eighty feet; thence to Pentrich-lane, four miles level; thence to the south end of Bull-bridge aqueduct, one mile level; thence to Lea-wood cut, at the east end of the Derwent aqueduct, four miles and a half level, and thence to Cromford wharf, one mile and three quarters, also level.— The tunnel at Butterley is driven through coalmeasures, two thousand nine hundred and seventy-eight yards in length and about fifty-seven yards below the ridge: it is lined with brick, except where the perforated rock appeared capable of its own support. The crown of the arch is eight feet above the water's edge, the water being at its surface nine feet wide. The expense of the tunnel was £7. per yard.

Near Bull-bridge, there is a short tunnel through the limestone. At Wigwell, this canal is carried over the Derwent in a large aqueduct bridge, two hundred yards long and thirty feet high : the river-arch is eighty feet span, and there is a smaller arch on each side for private roads. This aqueduct was built in 1792.-Over the Amber river at Bull-bridge there is an aqueduct of equal length, and fifty feet in height. These two aqueducts cost upwards of £6,000.- This canal is supplied with a very considerable stream of warm water from Cromford sough, and it is probably in consequence of such supply that this canal, west of Butterley tunnel, very rarely, if ever, freezes. The Company is authorised to require mine-owners, within a thousand yards of their line and branches, to lift their water high enough to run by proper feeders into this canal; the Company paying any extra expense. Coal-masters are restrained by the Act, from working under the canal, until they shall have given notice to the Company, to purchase the coals under the same at a valuation : but it being found that little damage is done to the canal-works by such working of the coal-seams, the Company has for several years past, left the coal-owners to their own determination. The Act for this canal was obtained in the 29th year of George III. The engineers employed were Mr. William Jessop and Mr. Benjamin Outram, besides Mr. Dadford, Mr. Sheasby and Mr. E. Fletcher. The canal was opened in 1793. The tonnage allowed to be taken in this cana), is not to exceed 1d. per ton per mile, for coals, coke and limestone, and 1 d. per ton per mile for all other goods that have not passed from the Frewash canal ; 2d per ton per mile for all goods that have so passed ; 3d. per ton extra on all goods (except coals, coke and limestone) passing from or to this canal and the Erewash canal : 1s. per ton extra, on coals navigated between the Amber aqueduct and Cromford, or within two miles east of that aqueduct, and passing towards it. The tonnage upon this canal was in the year 1828, as follows, viz. : 230,000 tons of coal or coke ; 24,000 tons of lime and limestone; 12,000 tons of gritstone ; 24,000 tons of timber, slate, &c.; 17,000 tons of iron, ironstone and lead; 18,000 tons of corn, groceries, &c. making in the whole 325,000 tons; and the dividend to the share owners was £19. upon the original £100. shares. These shares are now worth about £400. each. - In 1810 the dividend per share was £10.- The canal has been completed about thirty-seven years. By Act of Parliament, the Company was authorised to raise £46,000. in £100. shares; and to borrow £20,000.

on interest or mortgage of their tolls. The total cost of making the canal was little less than £80,000. which obliged the Company to call upon the original share-owners for a surplus of £20.

The rail-road from Pinxton to Mansfield is connected with the Cromford canal. It was com. pleted about the year 1819. The amount of tonnage from 1819 to 1826 is stated to have been as follows, viz.:

tons cwt. Coal to Pinxton ....

52,366 1 Mansfield

175,326 14 Lime and plaster

7,495 16 Stone and bricks

20,958 2 Sand .........................

21,038 Iron and metal

2,007 6 Timber and slate

3,555 18 Lead ..........

73 15 Merchandise ................

7,595 11 Corn and malt ..........

3,548 15 Clay and minium ............

713 0

metal ..........

making a total of 294,679 tons. — In the year 1826, the amount of the tonnage-dues was £12,707. 3s. and a dividend of £3. on each share was paid in May, 1826.

The Ashby-de-la-Zouch canal, obtained the authority of an Act of Parliament in the year 1795. The Company were permitted to raise £200,000. in £100. shares; and it is stated, that the late Marquess of Hastings took eighty shares, and expended £30,000. in erecting an iron furnace on its banks at Warren-hill. The general direction of this canal and its rail-way extension, passes into the counties of Warwick, Leicester and Derby; its greatest elevation being about two hundred and ninety feet above the high-water mark at Gainsborough. Its principal objects are the carrying of limestone from Ticknall and Cloud's-hill, and coals from different collieries in the Ashby-de-la-Zouch field. The commencement of this canal is at Marston-bridge, near Bedworth, in the Coventry canal ; and at Willesley wharf, about a mile north of Measham, the rail-way commences, and proceeds to the lime-works on the east side of Ticknall. From Willesley wharf, a branch proceeds past Donisthorpe colliery to the pits on Ashby-Wolds. From the tunnelhouse, one mile north of Ashby, there is a rail-way branch, and from Measham another rail-way branch extends about a thousand yards northward. — From Marston-bridge to Willesley wharf, the length is twenty-eight miles and three quarters without any locks, and the Donisthorpe branch is also level, and the whole forms, together with the summit pound of the Coventry canal and its branches, and the adjoining pound of the Oxford canal, the longest level piece of artificial water in Great Britain or perhaps in Europe, being seventy-five miles and three quarters in length! It is at the same time a singular circumstance, that this level line of water crosses the Grand ridge without a tunnel. On the eastern side of the Grand ridge, the ridges of the Mease branch out,* and through these ridges, which are somewhat higher than the Grand ridge near Bedworth, the line is tunnelled. Through the tunnel there are six hundred yards of single railway ; but from Willesley wharf to the entrance of the tunnel, the rail-way is laid double. This canal is wide and deep and is adapted for boats of sixty tons burden. At Willesley wharf, boats formed of wrought-iron plates, rivetted together, are sometimes used in the carriage of limestone, The whole extent of this line, with its branches, is about fifty miles. The tonnage-rate varies on different kinds of articles from 2d. to id. per ton per mile.

The Act of Parliament for the Derby canal was obtained in the year 1793. The Company was authorised to raise £90,000. in £100. shares, on which the dividends are never to exceed £8. per cent. annually. When £4000. should be accumulated as a stock for contingencies, it was ordered that the tolls should be reduced. Separate rates of tonnage are limited by the Act, on different parts of the canal and its branches. Manures are to pass free, and puncheons* or clogs of wood for the adjacent coal pits; and it was also enacted, that if the Derby and Mansfield turnpike-road tolls, should be reduced below £4. per cent. on their debt, the Company was to make them up to that sum ; and it was further enacted, that five Thousand tons of coals, annually, should be allowed to pass to Derby, toll free, for the use of the poor : and that three members of the corporation, with the same number of the share-owners, should be chosen to distribute such coals. The engineer for this canal was Mr. Benjamin Outram, and it was executed with great skill and despatch. -It commences on the Trent and Mersey canal, north of the Swarkstone bridge, and proceeding to the town of Derby, it branches off to Sandiacre, where it terminates in the Erewash canal.

* See pages 5 and 7.

The general object of this navigation is the supply of Derby with coals, building-stone, gypsum and other articles, and for manufactured goods, for cheese and other agricultural purposes. It is also convenient for conveying the Peak limestone into the south-eastern parts of the county.From Derby a short branch of this canal extends to Little Eaton, with two arms to the quarries on Little Eaton common. On the north-east of Derby, a short cut and a lock serve to conduct boats into the pound of the river above the silk-mill dam, near St. Mary's bridge; and there the river is navigable to Darley mill. Towards the south of the town there is a large wear, above which the canal-boats are towed across the river, by means of the towing-bridge mentioned at page 221. The Derwent was formerly navigable downwards from this wear to the Trent, and on the construction of the Derby canal, a connexion was entered upon with the Derwent Navigation Company; but this was speedily dissolved, and the Derby Canal Company paid £40,000. as a compensation to the members of the Derwent Navigation, which the canal had rendered entirely useless. Over the Markeaton brook, on the south-east side of Derby, in the Morledge, the canal is conveyed in a low, cast-iron trough or aqueduct, erected in 1795. On Sinfen Moor there is a small aqueduct and a high and long embankment, and at Chaddesden, Ockbrook and Risley brooks, there are small aqueducts.t-At St. Alkmund's, in Derby, there are large warehouses under which the boats pass to load and unload.— This canal is forty-four feet wide at top, twenty-four at bottom, and five feet deep. The summit pound of the Little Eaton branch, for about a mile and three quarters in length, is cut six feet deep, in order to act as a reservoir. A market boat, decked over, with seats and a fire-place, for the accommodation of passengers, starts from Swarkstone every Friday morning, to carry market-people to Derby ; and leaves Derby at four o'clock for Swarkstone.

The Adelphi canal is a small private navigation, constructed about the year 1799, as an appendage to Mr. Ebenezer Smith’s iron-furnace, at Long Duckmanton. It is serviceable in conveying goods from the Duckmanton-works to Staveley, in their way to Chesterfield canal; and it is also intended to act as a reservoir for the use of several steam-engines at the works. The water which supplies it is almost entirely lifted from the coal-mines. The small boats used upon it do not carry more than thirty hundred weight each.

The Wood-Eaves canal was constructed about the year 1802. It is a private navigation of about ten furlongs in extent, belonging to the cotton-mills at Fenny Bentley.

There are private rail-ways in various parts of the county, generally connecting the colliery or iron-works with the canals.

The only natural navigation remaining to this county is a short part of the lower Trent, to the extent of about five miles, from the mouth of the Erewash river to Wilden ferry in Shardlow.

• Almost throughout Derbyshire, the principal appropriation of the under-wood is to puncheons or supporters for the coal pits : for which purpose the underwood should stand from twenty-one to twenty-eight years.

+ From the Trent and Mersey canal to the stop-lock at Cockpit-hill wharf, Derby, five miles and a half, is a rise of twelve feet, by two locks; thence across the Markeaton or Morledge brook and the Derwent (through the lower dam) to the Darley-mill branch, and the warehouses in St. Alkmund, a quarter of a mile is level; thence to the Little Eaton branch, three furlongs, level; thence to the Erewash canal, eight miles and five furlongs, with a fall of twenty. nine feet, by four locks. The detached part of three furlongs has a fall with three locks, to the Trent. The Little Eaton branch, three miles, with a rise of seventeen feet, by four locks. - The lengths on the rail-way extension are as follows: from the wharf at Little Eaton, to the branches into Little Eaton common quarries, five furlongs ; thence to the Denby-hall branch, four miles and six furlongs; thence to Roby west-field colliery, five furlongs.

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