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Wye

Wye

Half Yorkshire.

Hundred. Scarsdale Morleston and Litchurch Wirksworth Wirksworth High Peak Scarsdale Morleston and Litchurch High Peak High Peak Scarsdale Scarsdale Appletree Wirksworth High Peak Appletree High Peak Repton and Gresley High Peak High Peak Scarsdale Morleston and Litchurch High Peak Scarsdale Repton and Gresley Wirksworth

Half Staffordshire.

Half Leicestershire.

High Peak High Peak Appletree Wirksworth

Bridges. re

Over what River.
*Alfreton
Amber bridge

Amber
Ashbourn School-house

Back lane
Ashford (two)
Ashover

Amber
*Bailey brook bridge Bailey brook
Bakewell
Baslow

Derwent
Beighton

Rother

Rother
Belper

Derwent
*Bentley bridge, in Matlock Lumsdale brook
*Birching Lee

Derwent
Brailsford bridge

Over the brook
Broadbottom

Etherow
+Burton bridge

Trent
*Buxton

Wye
Calver (two)

Derwent
"Carnfield, 'in South Nor-

manton
ICavendish bridge

Trent
Chilbage

Lady-Bower brook
*Church bridge, in South

Amber
Winfield
Coldwall
Compton
Comstowe
Constrewe

Etherow
Copstall

Etherow
Cowwall

Dove
*Cromford

Derwent
Crowdycote
Dale, in South Winfield Amber
Darley

Derwent
Derwent

Derwent
*Doelee

Doelee
Doveridge

Dove
*Duffield

Derwent
Town bridge Ecclesbourne
Edensor

Derwent
"Fenney Bentley
Froggatt

Derwent
Glutton
Grindleford

Derwent
Hague

Etherow
Hanging bridge

Dove
Harrington bridge

Trent
Hartington

Dove
Hayfield
Hazleford

Derwent
Hognaston
Holme

Wye
Hope

Noe
Ilkeston

Erewash
Killamarsh

Rother
King's Newton
"Lady-Bower bridge Lady-Bower brook
*Langley Mill bridge Erewash
"Little Monk's bridges Dove
Malham

Derwent
Mappleton

Dove
Marple

Goyte
Matlock

Derwent
*Milford:

Derwent
Mitham

Derwent
Monk's bridge

Dove
*Morton
Nether Hall
New bridge
"Norbury

Dove
North bridge, at Staveley Dolee or Rother
*Okeover

Dove

Scarsdale
Wirksworth and High Peak
High Peak
Scarsdale
Appletree
Appletree
Appletree
High Peak
Wirksworth
High Peak
Wirksworth

Half Staffordshire.
High Peak
High Peak
Wirksworth

Half Staffordshire.
Morleston and Litchurch ! Half Leicestershire.
Wirksworth

Half Staffordshire.
High Peak
High Peak
Wirksworth
High Peak
High Peak
Morleston and Litchurch Half Nottinghamshire.
Scarsdale
Repton and Gresley
High Peak
Morleston and Litchurch
Morleston and Litchurch
High Peak
Wirksworth
High Peak
Wirksworth
Appletree

Private.
High Peak
Repton and Gresley

Half Staffordshire.
Scarsdale

Wye

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+ Burton bridge is repaired by the Marquess of Anglesea. Cavendish bridge and Harrington bridge are not repaired at the expense of the adjoining counties, as they are the property of private Companies.

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Bridges.

Over what River., *Packsaddle bridge

Markeaton brook "Park Mill bridge

Pye bridge Renishaw

Rother Rowlee 59 !

Ashop Rowsley.

Derwent Sandiacre

Erewash *Sandy-brook "Shotile bridge

Ecclesbourne *Slitting Mill bridge

Rother *South Winfield Mill bridge Amber Stanton-by-Dale

Erewash St. Mary's bridge

Derwent Stoke tu,

Derwent Ştony bridge

Lathkil Stretton bridge

Mease "Stretton Smithy Moor bridge "Sudbury

Dove Swarkstone

Trent *Taddington Vale

Wye "Temple Normanton Mun

ster bridge ! *Thorpe bridge, Shirland "Toadhole Furnace, Shirland Trowell

Erewash *Tupton Hagg bridge Hipper *Turnditch bridge

Ecclesbourne Tutbury

Dove Watstandwell

Derwent

Goyte
Windy Bottom
"Woolley bridge, in North

Winfield
Wormhill or Miller's Dale | Wye
Yorkshire bridge

| Derwent

Hundred.
Morleston and Litchurch
Scarsdale
Scarsdale
Scarsdale
High Peak
High Peak
Morleston and Litchurch
Wirksworth
Appletree
Scarsdale
Scarsdale
Morleston and Litchurch
Morleston and Litchurch
High Peak
Scarsdale
Repton and Gresley
Scarsdale
Appletree
Repton and Gresley
High Peak
Scarsdale
Scarsdale
Scarsdale
Morleston and Litchurch
Scarsdale
Appletree
Appletree
Morleston and Appletree
High Peak
Scarsdale
Scarsdale
High Peak
High Peak

| Half Nottinghamshire..

Half Staffordshire.

Whaley

The principal ferries in Derbyshire are on the Trent and Derwent. Those on the former are at Walton, Stapenhill, Willington, Twyford, Weston Cliff, King's Mills, &c. On the Derwent there is a ferry-boat between Matlock Bath and the village. At the Trent ferries, a strong chain or rope is stretched across the river by a block of pulleys, which prevents the boat from being borne down the stream, and assists the ferryman in towing it over the water. The toll for foot passengers is 1d.; for a horse 2d.; for a gig 1s.; for a one-horse-cart 6d.; for a cart and horses 18.; and for a four-wheeled coach or wagon 2s, 6d. There are fords across the Trent at Walton, Barrow, Willington and Weston; across the Trent and Dove at Newton Solney; across the Dove at Marston, Sudbury, Doveridge and Rocester; across the Derwent at Wilne Mills, Ambaston, Alvaston and Little Eaton. These fords are much neglected, and are considered to be very dangerous at times of high floods. They are seldom used except by persons in their immediate neighbourhood. About four years ago, a valuable team of horses, belonging to Mr. Fletcher of Cavendish bridge brewery, was lost in crossing Ambaston ford; and many lives have at different periods been sacrificed, through the want of guages being fixed on each side the river to point out the depths of the stream.

The Cromford and High Peak rail-way commences at the Cromford canal, about one mile below that place; the hill to the westward of the canal is ascended by two inclined planes, gaining together an elevation of four hundred and sixty-five feet; at each of which there will be two engines of twenty horses' power each, that will draw the wagons up at the rate of four miles per hour. From the head of the upper inclined plane, the rail-way passes by the Steeple House, near Wirksworth, and from thence to Middleton Moor, by an inclined plane which rises two hundred and fifty-three feet; and on Hopton rabbit warren is another inclined plane, making together an elevation of eight hundred and ten feet above the canal. The deep cutting on Hopton Moor is scarcely equalled by any thing of the kind in the kingdom, being nearly seventy feet in depth, and principally through limestone. From the top of the Hopton inclined plane, the railway proceeds in a north-westwardly direction, leaving the village of Brassington three quarters of a mile to the south-west, passing by Mininglow to near Newhaven, and pursuing the same

direction, crosses the Ashbourn and Buxton road near Haven Lodge. From the Hopton inclined plane, the rail-way is level to Hurdlow, a distance of about twelve miles : at which place there is an inclined plane, making the summit of the rail-way nearly one thousand feet above the level of the canal. From Hurdlow the course of the rail-way runs nearly parallel with the turnpike road to Brierlow; from thence skirting the hills past Harper Hill lime works, and along the foot of Axe-Edge to Burbage, leaving Buxton about one mile to the eastward; at Burbage Edge is a tunnel five hundred and eighty yards long, and about a mile and a half north of it, the rail-way descends into the valley of the river Goyte, by two inclined planes, falling four hundred and fifty-seven feet; and running level from thence, it crosses the Manchester road at Fernylee to the head of the next inclined plane (near Shallcross hall) which falls two hundred and forty feet.

The line crosses the Sheffield road at Horridge End, and runs to the Peak Forest canal at Whaley, at which place there is an inclined plane falling forty feet. The distance between the two canals, by the line of rail-way, is nearly thirty-three miles. The Act was obtained about seven years ago, and the estimated cost is £165,000. The advantages to the district through which it runs will be very great, as it will be supplied with coal at a much lower rate than it can now be procured; and lime, which is essentially useful to the agriculturist, will be rendered much cheaper.

A rail-way is projected to unite the Cromford and High Peak with the Manchester and Liver. pool rail-way: and should it be carried into effect, it will produce a considerable traffic in different descriptions of merchandise, such as cotton, groceries, &c. which now go by a circuitous route from Liverpool into the counties of Derby, Nottingham, &c. will find a direct conveyance by the new junction rail-way and along the Cromford and High Peak.

With respect to the High Peak rail-way, which is also connected with this canal, it appeared from a report of the Committee, which was laid before the proprietors at their annual meeting, on June 11, 1829, at Buxton, that nearly the whole line of rail-way was then prepared for laying down the iron rails, and that several miles of the rail-way was actually completed. It was then expected that the great deep-cutting and tunnel through the rock at Hopton, and the large em. bankment, would be accomplished by the following September. Of the tunnel at Buxton, four hundred and sixty yards were then completed, and the report contemplated the opening of the whole line of rail-way for general traffic in the course of the ensuing spring.

Some of the first rail-ways laid in Derbyshire were of wood; and in the construction of these, the flanch or projecting rib for keeping the wagon on the rail-way, was on the wheel, but now, the flanches of iron rail-ways are generally cast on the bar. The earliest use of flanched iron rails above ground (for they had been previously introduced in the underground gates of mines) is stated to have been at the Wingerworth ironstone pits, by Mr. Joseph Butler, about the year 1788. Inclined planes for rail-way wagons were probably first used on the east side of Chapelen-le-Frith, in connexion with the Peak Forest canal. — In a great many of the coal pits, enumerated at page 45, iron rail-ways are laid along the counter-head or working-gate, for conveying the trams or corves of coal to the bottom of the drawing shaft. The Thatch-Marsh collieries, near Hartington, are worked by a rail-way tunnel, driven at the expense of the Duke of Devonshire, for the better supplying of Buxton with coals. There are several private rail-ways in the county, connected with the collieries, ironstone pits, &c.

“ Your virgin trains on Brindley's cradle smiled,
And nurs'd with fairy-love the unletter'd child,
Spread round his pillow all your sacred spells,
Pierced all your springs, and open'd all your wells.
As now on grass, with glossy folds reveal'd,
Glides the bright serpent, now in flowers conceal'd;
Far shine the scales, that gild his sinuous back,
And lucid undulations mark his track;
So with strong arm immortal Brindley leads
His long canals, and parts the velvet meads;
Winding in lucid lines the watery mass,
Mines the firm rock, or loads the deep morass,

With rising locks a thousand hills alarms,
Flings o'er a thousand streams its silver arms,
Feeds the long vale, the nodding woodland laves,
And plenty, arts, and commerce freight the waves.
- Nymphs! who erewhile round Brindley's earlier bier
On snow-white bosoms shower'd the incessant tear,
Adorn his tomb! oh, raise the marble bust,
Proclaim his honours, and protect his dust!
With urns inverted round the sacred shrine
Their osier wreaths let weeping Naiads twine ;
While on the top mechanic genius stands,
Counts the feet waves, and balances the lands."

The commercial communications throughout the county have been greatly facilitated by the canals, which were commenced about the year 1770. The first of these was planned by the celebrated Brindley, in order to effect a union between the rivers Trent and Mersey, and thus to open a communication between the east and western coasts of England, and with London. This canal is frequently called the Grand-Trunk canal.* Its general line of direction is nearly southeast, with a bending course to the south, through the counties of Chester, Stafford and Derby. Its principal objects are the export of coals, limestone, freestone, gypsum, lead, pig and bar-iron, pottery wares and other manufactured articles, cheese, corn, and other agricultural products; and for the import of numerous foreign and other goods: thus, forming a grand inland communication (the first effected) between the ports of Liverpool, Hull, Bristol and London. — This canal commences in the Bridgewater canal at Preston-brook in Lancashire, and terminates in the lower Trent navigation at Wilden ferry in this county. Near Swarkstone, it connects with, and is crossed by, the Derby canal. For sixteen miles, at its south-eastern end, between Wilden ferry and Burton bridge, this canal runs parallel to what was formerly the upper Trent navigation, but in 1805, the interest in that navigation was purchased of the Earl of Uxbridge by the GrandTrunk Canal Company. The width of this canal, from Preston-brook at its north-western extremity to Middlewich wharf, and from Wilden 'erry, at its south-eastern extremity, to Horninglow wharf, is thirty-one feet at top, eighteen feet at bottom, and five feet and a half deep; the locks there being fourteen feet wide, and adapted for river barges of forty tons burthen: but the middle parts of this canal, and its branches, are only twenty-nine feet wide at top, sixteen feet at bottom, and four feet and a half deep, and the locks are seventy-five feet long and seven feet wide, adapted for boats, carrying from twenty to twenty-five tons burthen. Boats are built at Derby and Shardlow. At Monk's bridge, between Derbyshire and Staffordshire, this canal is carried across the flat meadows of the Dove valley, on an embankment thirteen feet high, for a mile and two furlongs, with aqueduct bridges containing twenty-three arches, from fifteen feet to twelve feet span, twelve of which arches are over the main branch of the Dove. There are numerous smaller aqueducts and culverts along the main line of this canal and its branches. The whole length of the Grand-Trunk canal, reckoning through the Wolverhampton branch, is one hundred and thirty-nine miles and a half, with a fall of one thousand and sixty-eight feet; but the main branch, called the Trent and Mersey canal, is ninety-three miles, with a fall of six hundred and forty-two feet.t - Mr. James Brindley, Mr. Hugh Henshall, Mr. John Smeaton, Mr. John Rennie, Mr. - Potter and other engineers, were employed or consulted on the works of this canal or its branches. These works were begun in July, 1766; in April, 1773, the line eastward of the Harecastle tunnel was completed; and in May, 1777, the whole line, and the branch to Caldon Low was completed and opened. The Leek and the Colridge branches were undertaken since 1797; the Lane End, Handley Green and Burslem rail-way branches, were projected in 1802. In 1807 the Uttoxeter branch was undertaken, and extended from Frog-hall to Oak-moor in August, 1808; to Alverton, in May, 1809; and to Uttoxeter, September 3, 1811. -The tonnage allowed to be taken is 1 d. per ton, per mile, with reasonable wharfage after twenty-four hours, on all kinds of goods; but paving-stones, and road-materials (limestones excepted) and marl and other manures may pass toll-free on the pounds and through the locks, when water runs waste thereat. The usual price of freight has been mentioned at id. per ton, per mile. Until about the year 1785, men were employed in large gangs, to drag the boats on

* Acts of Parliament, for the construction and regulation of this canal, were passed in the 6th, 10th, 15th, 16th, 23rd, 25th, two in 37th, 42nd and 48th of George III.

+ From the Bridgewater canal to Middlewich, eighteen miles is level; thence to Talk, eleven miles, there is a rise of three hundred and twenty-six feet, by thirty-five locks; thence along the summit pound of the line (said to be four hundred and twenty feet above the Thames at Brentford) through Harecastle tunnel (which is a mile in length) to the Caldon-branch at Etruria, six miles, is level; thence to the Staffordshire and Worcestershire canal, seventeen miles, there is a fall of one hundred and fifty feet, by nineteen locks; thence to the Coventry canal, thirteen miles, is a fall of about thirty-two feet, by four locks; thence to Horninglow wharf, twelve miles, is about eighty-six feet fall, by eleven locks; thence to the Derby canal, ten miles, is about eight feet fall, by one lock at Stenson; and thence to the lower Trent navigation, six miles, is about forty feet fall, by five locks.

G g

this canal and on the Trent river near it, but horses are now universally used for towing. The Act, 33 George III. for the Derby canal, granted to the Grand-Trunk Canal Company, certain rates on goods crossing this canal or passing out of it into the Trent navigation, by the detached parts of the Derby canal. — The Company have been authorized, by their different Acts, to raise £334,250. The shares were originally £200. each, but the 42nd Geo. III. empowered the Company to increase the number of shares at £100. At Shardlow, Willington, Horninglow, &c. there are warehouses for the accommodation of the trade, and numerous public wharfs.— The number of road and foot bridges over this canal is two hundred and fifty-eight. The tunnels belonging to this line of canal were the first enterprises of this nature in England. The Harecastle tunnel is two thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight yards long, through coal-measures, at seventy yards beneath the ridge. It is arched twelve feet high and nine feet wide. In its course, it intersects several valuable seams of coals, some of which are worked by means of small branch tunnels. The cost of driving this tunnel was £3. 10s. 8d. per yard run, in the year 1776; and being the first public canal tunnel constructed in Britain, it attracted for several years more attention than it now deserves. There are other tunnels on the line of this canal in other counties; and there are rail-ways, connecting the neighbouring collieries with this canal in various parts of its line.

The Chesterfield canal was projected by Brindley, and a survey of the country through which it was to be carried was made by that eminent engineer about the year 1769. Iu 1770 an Act of Parliament was obtained, authorising the Company to raise £100,000. in shares of £100. each. The canal was completed in 1777, and on June the 4th, in that year, the first vessel was brought to the town of Chesterfield. The Act obtained by this Company also warranted their borrowing £50,000. at £5. per cent. interest on mortgage of the tolls, or to raise that sum by new shares, at the discretion of the committee. By reports made to the Company by their committee, it appears that £2482. 3s. 6d. is annually paid out of the tolls, being the amount of interest at £5. per cent. on the sum of £49,643. 10s.; and from the same documents we learn that there are nine hundred and eighty-six share-holders, who obtain a profit upon the original £100. subscribed, of from £6. to £8. per cent. The expense of cutting the canal, with the charges for the survey and the Act of Parliament included, amounted to £160,000.— The general direction of this canal from Chesterfield is nearly north-west, by a crooked course about forty-five miles in length, in the counties of Nottingham, York and Derby.* It commences in the Trent near its junction with the Idle, at West Stockwith, about three miles and a half from Gainsborough, and terminates at the town of Chesterfield. The western part is considerably elevated above the sea, and crosses the East Rother ridge of hills by an extensive tunnel. The objects of this canal are chiefly the export of coals, lead, cast-iron, limestone, freestone, and pottery wares; and the returns are foreign timber, grain, bar-iron, &c. The first part of this canal, from the Trent to East Retford, is constructed for large boats of fifty or sixty tons burthen, and above this, the width is twentysix or twenty-eight feet, and the depth from four to five feet only. In the chain of locks between Shire Oaks and Sand-hill close, there are eighteen (numbered from 38 to 21) which from their proximity have been named the Giant's Staircase : and at the west end of the tunnel there are four locks, formed by only five gates, and below these there are six locks united together.— The Hollingwood Common tunnel is a mile and three quarters long. It is not connected with the level of the canal, but kept one foot lower, by means of a culvert under the canal. The whole

• From the tide-way in the Trent to Drake-hole wharf, about six miles, three furlongs, there is a rise of twentyseven feet and a quarter; thence to East Retford wharf, eight miles and a quarter, there is a rise of seven feet ; thence to Babworth, two miles and five furlongs, a rise of thirty-one feet and three quarters; thence to Worksop, seven miles and a quarter, a rise of twenty-eight feet; thence to Peck-mill, five miles and a quarter, a rise of one hundred and fifty-six feet to the summit, level two hundred and fifty feet above the Trent. From Peck-mill to the east end of the tunnel, half a mile, the course is level with the tunnel, which extends two miles to Norwood; thence to Gander-lane, half a mile, is a fall of one hundred feet; thence to Norbrigs branch, six miles and a quarter, level; thence to Hollingwood common, two miles, level ; thence to Wilden's mill, two miles, a rise of twenty-nine feet ; thence to the basin, at the north-east of Chesterfield, one mile and five furlongs, is a rise of eleven feet, by one lock, the canal in this last distance having crossed the Rother.

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