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ified substance. The he wholly ornamented with wavy lines:

něb'-r1-ą, 8. [NEBRIS.)

něb'-u-11st, 8. [Eng. nebul(a); -ist.) One who B. As substantive: Entom.: A genus of Carabidæ from arctic and holds or supports the nebular hypothesis.

I. Ordinary Language: temperate regions. The species, of small size, are ..něb'-u-lize, v. t. (NEBULA.] To reduce [

a 1. Anything necessary or indispensably requisite; numerous. Nebria arenaria, bright yellow with liquid] into spray for cooling, perfuming, disinfect. a thing which cannot be done without. (Generally black lines, is from the northern coast of Africa. ing, or other purpos

used in the plural.) něb'-ris, s. (Gr.) něb'-y-löse, adj. (Lat. nebulosus, from nebula

I must unto the road, to disembark Art: The skin of a fawn, worn by hunters and a cloud, mist. 1

Some necessaries, that I needs must use." others. In art it appears as the characteristic apant it anpaars as the characteristic ap- *1. Ord. Lana.. M

y, nebulous.

Shakesp.: Two Gentlemen of Verona, ii. 4. parel of Bacchus, bacchanals, fauns, and satyrs. 2. Bot.: Clouded (q.v.).

2. A privy, a water-closet. něb'-u-la (pl. něbi-u-læ), s. (Latin=a mist, a něb-u-los-Y-tý, s. (Lat. nebulositas, from nebu- II. Law: Such things as, though not absolutely little cloud, allied to nubes=a cloud; Gr. nephelē, losus=nebulose (q. v.).]

necessary for the preservation or support of life, are dimin. from nephos=a cloud, mist; Ger. nebel= *1. Ord. Lang.: The quality or state of being neb- or may be considered necessary to the station in life mist, fog.) ulous; cloudiness.

of any particular person. (Paley: Moral Philos1. Astron.: A slight cloudy patch of light, retain "Matter diffused in a state of heterogeneous nebulos. ophy, bk. vi., ch. xi.) ing its form unchanged except under keen and ity." --E. A. Poe: Eureka, p. 162.

necessary-truths, 8. pl. Such truths as from long-continued observation. More than five thou- 2. Astron.: The state of being nebulous: the their very nature cannot but be true. sand nebulæ, or star-clusters closely resembling state of apparently consisting of diffused light. them, have been found in both hemispheres, and in

*něc'-ěss-Ism. 8. [Lat. necesse=necessary; Eng. (Used of a luminous appearance around certain nearly every constellation. A few, as the great neb• stars, of the tails of comets, &c.)

suff. -ism.] The same as NECESSARIANISM (9. v.). ulæ of Orion, Argo Navis, and Andromeda, are vis.

ně-çěs-si-tär-1-an, a. & 8. [Eng. necessit(y); ible on very clear nights to the naked eye; the restněb-u-loŭs, a. (Lat. nebulosus, from nebula=

-arian.) are telescopic. When greatly magnified some are cloud, mist; Fr, nébuleux=Ital. & Sp. nebuloso.] found to be composed of many thousand remote I. Ordinary Language:

A. As adj.: Belonging to or characteristic of the stars, others remain only as diffused masses of

Doctrine of Necessity. light. Sir William Herschel divided them into six

1. Lit.: Cloudy, misty, foggy, dimmed, hazy.

“The necessitarian doctrines of Professor Clifford.". 2. Fig.: Foggy, hazy, bewildered, puzzled, be- Modern Review, 1880, p. 820. classes:

fogged. (1) Clusters of stars, globular or irregular in form.

B. As substantive: (2) Resolvable nebulæ, which look as if they might II. Astron.: Of, belonging to, or resembling a be resolved into stars under powerful telescopes. nebula.

Hist. & Philos.: One who holds any of the forms (3) Nebulæ which look quite irresolvable.

of the Doctrine of Necessity (q. v.). Hobbes may nebulous-star, s. (4) Planetary nebulæ, circular or slightly oval, like a

be considered the founder of the English Necessiplanetary disk, and oiten colored.

Astron.: A nebula with one or more stars through tarians (Leviathan, $ 108), and on the continent it (5) Stellar nebulæ, i. e., those having in their middle a it. They are sometimes circular, sometimes oval was developed by his contemporary Spinoza, and condensation of light.

or annular, or of other regular forms. When the later by Leibnitz, who was opposed by Dr. Clarke, (6) Nebulous stars (q. v.).

nebula is circular, the star is generally in its conter, Dean of Salisbury, in his turn opposed by Anthony The great nebula of Orion surrounds a multiple when it is elliptical, the two stars often constitute Collins, the author of a Philosophical Inquiry into star, Theta Orionis, consisting of six, apparently the foci of the ellipse.

Human Liberty, which Dr. Clarke's Boyle Lectures revolving round their common center of gravity. něb'-u-loŭg-nēss, s. [English nebulous; ness.)

(1720, 1721) were designed to answer. Jonathan It has been found to alter its form very slightly. The quality or state of being

Edwards (1703-1758), President of Princeton ColThe late Earl of Rosse and his assistant, Mr. Storey,

lege, toward the close of his life published An ey: nebulous; cloudiness, foggi. detected in its densest part multitudes of minute

Inquiry into the Freedom of the Will; and Priestley ness. stars, but the bluish light of parts of it has remained

(1733-1804) published his Doctrine of Philosophical irresolvable, and Dr. Huggins has ascertained by neb'--ly, a. & 8. [Latin

Necessity Illustrated in 1777. means of spectrum analysis that this portion of it nebula=a cloud.]

ně-çěs-si-tär-1-an-işm, s. [Eng. necessitarian; is a gaseous body, containing hydrogen, nitrogen, A. As adjective: and an unidentified substance. The nebula in

ism.] *1. Ord. Lang.: Covered or

_Philos.: The Doctrine of Necessity. [NECESSITY, Andromeda is different, and may perhaps be wholly resolved into stars.

T (1).]

2. Her.: Applied to a lino 2. Pathology:

“Philosophical necessitarianism, on the other hand, drawn with undulations like Nebuly. (1) A slight speck on the cornea. (Caligo.]

merely asserts that certain causes, under certain condithe wavy edges of clouds, or (2) A mist or cloud suspended in the urine.

tions, must give rise to certain effects."- Nodern Reviere, to a shield or charge divided by several such lines 1880. P. 823. něb-u-lar, a. (NEBULA.) Of or pertaining to drawn across it.

ně-cēs -si-tāte, v. t. [Latin necessitas (genit. nebulæ.

B. As substantive:

necessitatis)=necessity.] nebular-hypothesis, 8. Her.: A line of partition of a wavy form.

1. To make necessary or indispensable; to render Astron.: An hypothesis first suggested by Sir nebuly-molding, s.

unavoidable. William Herschel, though the germs of it may be

“This consequently necessitates the frequent use of a found in Kant's General Natural History and The Arch.: (NEBULE-MOLDING.]

lower style."-Pope: Homer's Odyssey. (Post.) ory of the Heavens, printed in 1755. It was devel- *ně-cā'-tion, 8. (Lat. necatio, from necatus, pa. 2. To compel, to force, to constrain, to oblige. oped by La Place, with whose name it came to be par. of neco=to kill.] The act of killing ; murder. The contrary to liberty... is a person's being associated. The hypothesis assumes that origin. ally all suns were in a nebulous or ultra-gaseous n ěc-és-sär-l-an, s. [English necessary; -an. hindered or unable to conduct as he will, or being neces. state. The nebulous matter from which they were The same as NECESSITARIAN (q. v.)

sitated to do otherwise."-Edroards: On the Will, pt. i., 55. originally formed was at first scattered pretty uni. “The only question in dispute between the advocates tně-çěs-si-tā -tion, s. (NECESSITATE.] The act formly through all space, but ultimately began to for philosophical liberty and the necessarians, is this: of making necessary or indispensable; compulsion; gravitate toward certain centers. The particles whether volition can take place independently of mo- the state of being necessary. moving toward these centers not doing so with tive?”-Belsham: Philosophy of the Mind, ch. ii., $1. equal velocities or in the same direction, rotation

"Free from necessitation, I say, no man can be."

něc-ěs-sär-i-an-işm, s. (English necessarian; Hobbes: Of Liberty and Necessity. would be established in the entire nebulous mass, and the spherical form produced. If, by radiation •18m.] The same as NECESSITARIANISM (q. V.). *ně-çěs'-sit-ěd, adj. [Engli

1 of heat, the condensed body still further contracted, něc -ěs-sa-rieş, s. pl. [NECESSARY, B. II.] Compulsory. (Nabbes: Hannibal and Scipio, p. 2.) its velocity would increase. If the centrifugal force overcame that of gravity, a ring would be thrown

něç'-ěs-sạr-1-1ğ, adv. [Eng. necessary; -ly.] *ně-çěs'-81-tiěd, adj. [English necessity: -ed.) off, which would gradually becomeglobular, in fact 1. Indispensably; of necessity.

Driven by want to; wanting; in want of; necessiit would be a planet with an orbit almost or quito “The other officers which are necessarily required in tous. circular, moving in a plane nearly that of the cen- the commonwealth of Christ."-Tyndal: Works, p. 83.

"If her fortunes ever stood tral body's equator and revolving in its orbit in 2. By inevitable consequence: as a necessary con

Necessitied to help."-Shakesp.: All's Well, v. 9. the same direction in which the central globe rotated. Further contraction producing increased by

ně-çěs'-si-toŭs, a. [Eng. necessit(y); -ous. ] sequence or result. velocity, ring after ring would be cast off, till the “It necessarily followeth that ... the churche of 1. In a state of need or want; pressed with porcentral body or sun generated a whole system of Ch

Christ hath alway and neuer fayleth yt right understand. erty. planets revolving around it. They, in turn, might ing of scripture."-Sir T. More: Workes, p. 148.

"They who were envied, found no satisfaction in what in the same way produce satellites. La Place be- 3. By fate or necessity; not of free will.

they were envied for, being poor and necessitous."-Clar. lieved that the sun thus produced our earth and the

endon: Civil War.

Eng. necessary; ness other attendant planets. On this hypothesis the

2. Narrow, pinched; as, necessitous circumstances. rings of Saturn were produced by Saturn himself. The quality or state of being necessary. and have remained in the annular form instead of něc -ěs-sar-ý, *nec-es-sar-ie, a. & s. (French,

ně-cěs'-si-toŭs-1ğ, adv. [Eng. necessitous, -ly.] condensing into nearly spherical satellites. Many nécessaire, from Lat. necessarius=needful, from



In a necessitous manner; in need. people supposed that the resolution of various neb- necesse=unavoidable, necessary; Sp. necessario.] ně-çěs'-si-toŭs-něss, s. (Eng. necessitous; -ness.] nlæ into stars [NEBULA] was necessarily fatal to

A. As adjective:

The quality or state of being necessitous or in need ; the nebular-hypothesis, but the discovery that some are not only irresolvable, butcan be actually proved 1. Inevitable, such as cannot be avoided : such as need, want, poverty, necessity, necessitude.

“Where there is want and necessitousness there will be by spectrum analysis to consist of glowing gas, has inust come or be. re-established it upon a tirmer basis than ever,

Death, a necessary end,

quarreling."-Burnet: Theory of the Earth. though the original theory may need revision in

Will come when it will come."

ně-çěs'-sl-tūde, subst. [Latin necessitudo, from points of detail.

Shakesp.: Julius Caesar, ii. 2. necesse=necessary.] *něbi-ule, 8. (Lat. nebula.] A cloud, dimness. 2. Following as an unavoidable consequence or 1. Necessitousness, need, want, poverty. O light without nebule, shining in thy sphere." result; conclusive.

“The mutual necessitudes of human nature necessarily Chaucer: Ballade in Commend, of Our Lady. 3. Indispensably requisite or needful; essential; maintain mutual offices between them."-Hale: Orig. nebule-molding, s.

such as cannot be done without or dispensed with. Mankind, p. 68. Arch.: An ornament of the zigzag form, but witb

"'Tis necessary he should die."

*2. Intimacy, close connection, alliance or relaout angles ; it is chiefly found in the remains of

Shakesp.: Timon of Athens, iii. 5. tion. Saxon architecture, in the archivolts of doors and 4. Acting from necessity or fate; not free; as, a “Between kings and their people ... there is windows. necessary agent.

great & necessitude." Jeremy Taylor. fāte, făt, färe, amidst, whãt, fâli, father; wē, wět, hëre, camel, hēr, thêre; pine, pit, sire, sir, marîne; go, pot,

endonere envicto envied




columne harrow part h

necessity be


in the bearing; che contracted po

ně-çěs'-sI-tý, *ne-ces-si-tie, 8. (Fr. nécessité, II. Technically:

*něck, v. t. [NECK, 8.) To behead, to decapitato, from Lat. necessitatem, acc. of necessitar=neces. 1. Anatomy:

“The next [hour] after that shall see him necked." sity, from necesse=necessary; Ital. necessità; Sp. (1) of a bone: The narrow part toward the ex.

Keats: Cap and Bells, X. necesidad.] tremity, supporting the head.

něck-a-teē, 8. (NECK.) A neckerchief. I. Ordinary Language :

(2) of the body: The narrowed portion of the 1. The quality or state of being necessary or body connecting the trunk with the head. It has

něck-beēf, s. [Eng. neck, and beef.] The coarse unavoidable; unavoidableness, inevitableness. seven cervical vertebræ, nerves, veins, arteries,

flesh of the neck of cattle, sold at a low rate. I will show you such a necessity in his death." fasciæ, and anterior, lateral, and prevertebralněck-cloth, neck-cloath, 8. [Eng. neck, and Shakesp.: Othello, iv. 2. muscles.

cloth.) A band of cloth or linen worn by men round

2. Architecture: 2. The quality or state of being necessary or in

the neck.

(1) The narrow part between the astragal of the dispensable; absolute need, indispensableness.

“Will she with huswife's hand provide thy meat, column and the annulet of the capital. One of his men ... showed what necessity b

And ev'ry Sunday morn thy neckcloath plait !" (2) A short shaft. longed to it."-Shakesp.: Timon of Athens, iii. 2.

Gay: Shepherd's Week; Tuesday. 3. Botany: 3. Irresistible power or force applied; compul. (1) The upper tapering end of a bulb.

něcked, a. (Eng. neck; -ed.) sion, whether physical or moral.

(2) A name sometimes used for the caulicle of a 1. Having a neck. Only in composition, as stiff. "So spake the fiend, and with necessity, seed. [CAULICLE, 2.)

necked. The tyrant's plea, excused his devilish deeds." 4. Chem.: The beak or rostrum of a retort.

2. Applied to ears of corn bent down and broken Milton: P. L., iv. 392.

5. Fort.: The narrower part of an embrazure. off by the wind. (Prov.) 4. In the same sense as II. The mouth is the outer or wider part.

něc:-kēr-a, 8. [Named after N.J. Necker, a Ger “Making a virtue of necessity." 6. Machinery:

man botanist.) Shakesp.: Tuo Gentlemen of Verona, iv. 1. (1) The jib of a crane.

Bot.: A genus of Bryaces. It consists of beau. 5. The absoluto determination of the will by (2) A tubular projection to recoivo a collar, as tiful mosses found in woods, upon trees and rocks. motives. that on a stove which receives a pipe.

něck -ěr-chief, 6. (Eng. neck, and kerchief 6. That which is necessary for a purpose: a neces (3) A short shaft sary; something essential or indispensable

(4) A diminished portion of a shaft where it rests (q. v.l.). A kerchief for the neck; a neck-tio or *These should be hours for necessities,

neckcloth. Not for delights."

7. Metall.: The contracted portion of a furnace něck-ing, 8. (Eng. neck; -ing.] Shakesp., Henry VIII. v. 1. between the heating or melting chamber and the Arch.: The annulet, or series of horizontal mold. 7. Extreme wantor indigence; pinching poverty; stack, passing over the bridge.

nings which separates the capital of a column from pressing need, distress.

8. Music: That part of instruments, of the violin

and guitar class, which lies between the peg-box "God comfort him in this necessity."

the plain part or shaft. Shakesp.: Henry VI., Pt. 1., iv. 3. and the belly. To its upper surface is attached the něck-lace (a as ē), 8. [Eng. neck, and lace II. Lar: Constraint exercised upon the will. by linger-board or fret-board. The strings are pressed (9. V.).] upon the neck by the fingers in playing. Some necks

inary Language: act of which his judgment disapproves, and which have frets ; the guitar, for instance.

1. Lit.: A string of beads, precious stones, or (it is presumed) his will, if left to itself, would 9. Naut.: (bOOSENECK.

10. Ordnance: reject or refuse to do. Of this nature is the obliga.

other ornamental objects worn by women round the tion of civil subiection whereby the inferioris. (1) The part joining the knob of the cascabel to " .

*2. Fig.: A halter. constrained by the superior to act contrary to what the base of the breech, called the neck of the casca.

"What's the crime committed, his own reason would suggest, as when a legislature

That they wear necklaces." establishes iniquity by a law, and commands the (2) The small part of a gun where the chase meets subject to do an act contrary to morality. the swell of the muzzle.

Beaum. & Flet.: Bonduca, iv. i. "Another species of compulsion or necessity is what

(1) Neck and crop: Completely. [CROP, 8.) II. Nautical:

(2) Neck or nothing: At all or any risks. our law calls duress per minas; or threats and menaces,

1. A strap round a mast carrying leading-blocks. which induce a fear of death or other bodily harm, and

(3) To tie neck and heels: To forcibly bring the 2. A chain to which the lower ends of the futtockwhich take away, for that reason, the guilt of many chin and knees of a person together, and keep them shrouds are secured. crimes and misdemeanors. There is a third species of in that state for a longer or shorter time.

necklace-shaped, a. (MONILIFORM.] necessity, viz., when a man has his choice of two evils, (4) Neck and neck: Running very close together: and being under a necessity of choosing one, he chooses very close. (A metaphor taken from racing.)

necklace-tree, 8. the least pernicious of the two. Where, for instance, "After two other neck and neck votes the same evening. Bot.: Ormosia, a genus of papilionaceous plante, man, by the commandinent of the law, is bound to arrest

the final numbers were 54 against 54."--Earl Stanhope: tribe Sophoreæ. The seeds, which are red with a another for any capital offense, or to disperse a riot, and

Life of Pitt, ch. xxii. resistance is made to his authority: it is here justifiable

black eye, are well adapted for making necklaces. and even necessary to wound or perhaps to kill the offend. (5) A stiff neck:

něck-laced (a as ē), a. [Eng. neeklac(e); -ed.) ers, rather than permit the murderer to escape, or the Script.: Obstinacy in sin.

Having or wearing a necklace; marked as with a riot to continue." - Blackstone: Comment., bk. iv., ch. 2. *(6) On (or in the neck of: Immediately after; on necklace (1) Doctrine of necessity: the heels of; following closely on or after.

*něck-land, 8. (Eng. neck, and land.) A neck Philosophy:

"And in the neck of that tasked the whole state." 1. Fatalism, taken in a wide sense, either with or

- Shakesp.. Henry . PL. 1. v. 3. or narrow strip of land connecting two larger without reference to a Creator and Governor of the


(7) To break the neck of anything: (BREAK, V., II. universe; the doctrine that everything happens 42.17

*něck'-vērse, *necke-verse, 8. (Eng. neck and according to fixed laws which cannot be changed. (8) To lay on the neck of: To impute to.

verse.] "Since Priestley there has been no writer of distinction

1. The verse formerly given to an accused or con.

“Men must lay their murders on your neck." among those who have maintained the Doctrine of neces.

demned person, the reading of which entitled him

Shakesp.: Othello, v. 2. sity, but it has been extensively held by the Unitarians

to benefit of clergy, said to have been the first rerse and the Rationalists."-Blunt: Diot. Sects, p. 365.

(9) To harden the neck: To grow obstinate, per of the fifty-first Psalm. [BENEFIT, B.)

verse, or rebellious. 2. The doctrine that man's will is not free to con (10) To tread on the neck of: To subdue or put verse." -Marlowe: Jew of Malta, iv. 4.

“Within forty foot of the gallows conning his neckotrol his actions, but that these proceed necessarily down completely; to crush utterly ; to oppress. and inevitably from the direction given to them by

2. A means of escape. the Creator.

neck-band, 8. The part of a shirt which goes3. A verse or saying on the correct utterance of 3. (See extract under Necessitarianism.)

round the neck, and to which the collar is attached. which one's life depended; a shibboleth. (2) Logical necessity: That necessity which con. *neck-collar, 8. A gorget. (Palgrave.)

"These words, 'bread and cheese,' were their neck sists in the circumstance, that something cannot be neck-mold. neck-molding. 8.

verse or shibboleth to distinguish them."-Fuller: Church conceived different from what it is.

Hist. (3) Moral necessity: The same as NECESSITY, A, 5. Arch.: A small convex molding surrounding a

něck'-weēd, 8. (Eng. neck, and weed.) (4) Physical necessity: That necessity which column at the junction of the shaft and capital. arises from the laws of the material universe.

*neck-pieces. An ornamer
*neck-piece, s. An ornament or a defense for the as furnishing material for halters.

1. Ord. Lang.: A slang or sportive term for hemp, něck, *necke, *nekke, s. [A. S. hnecca; cogn, neck. with Dut. nek=the nape of the neck ; Icel. hnakki; *neck-question, s.

2. Bot.: Cannabis sativa.

*neck-question, 8. A question or matter of life Dan. nakke: Sw. nacke: Ger. nacken: 0. H. Ger.

něc-ræ-mi-a, 8. (Pref. necr(0-), and Gr. haima T: and death; a vital question. hnack: Norw. nakke=nape, neck; nakk=a knoll:

=blood. Fr. nuque=the nape of the neck.)

neck-rope, e. A wooden bow to come round the Pathol.: Death of the blood from mortification.

neck of a bullock, and fastened above to a small I. Ordinary Language: transverse beam by which bullocks are fastened

něc-ro-, pref. (Gr. nekros=dead.] (See etym.) 1. Lit.: In the same sense as II. 1. with a cord.

ně-cro-bi-a, 8. [Gr. nekros=death, and bios= 2. Figuratively: (1) Life; referring to death by hanging or be neck-strap, 8.

life. Named by Latreille, as the species Necrobia

ruficollis, which he discovered when a prisoner in heading.


the Grand Séminaire at Bordeaux awaiting trans“The conspirators became sensible that their necks 1. A strap round the neck of a draft horse; a temwere in imminent danger."- Macaulay: Hist. Eng., porary expedient.

portation to Guiana, was the means of interesting

Bory de St. Vincent on his behalf, and obtaining oh. xvi.

2. A halter strap around the neck; a part of a

the revocation of his sentence of exile. The whole (2) Anything corresponding to or more or less re- martingale. sembling the neck of an auimal; as

story will be found in Latreille's Histoire des neck-tie, s. A band of cloth, silk, or satin, worn (a) Along narrow piece of land connecting two round the neck and tied in front.

Insectes, ix. 154.)

Entom.: A xenus of Cleridse lo.v.). The beatlarger tracts; an isthmus.

known species, widely distributed, are Necrobia (b) The slender part of a bottle.

neck-twines, 8. pl.

ruficollis and N. rufipes, metallic-blue or groen, (c) An intervening and connecting portion; as, Weaving: In fancy weaving, small strings by

hairy insects, with red thorax or legs. They feed on the neck of a bayonet connecting the blade and which the mails are connected with the compass.

"passe dried animal substances. socket.

board. (d) The instep.

neck-yoke, 8. A bar, usually of wood, by which něc-ro-bl-o-sis, 8. (NECROBIA.) (3) The tapering part of the trunk of a tree.

the end of the tongue of a wagon or carriage is sup P hysiol.: Molecular death of a tissue without "And sturdiest oaks

ported. The breast-straps or chains pass through loss of continuity, especially seen in the various Bow'd their stiff necks." Milton: P. R., iv. 418.

the rings on the hames, or, in the case of carriages, forms of atrophy and degeneration. (Quain: Dict. *(4) The turning up, or plait, of a cap.

the straps pass around the lower part of the collar. Med.) doi, boy; pout, Jówl; cat, çell, chorus, çhin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.

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needle-setter nec-tar-ý, něc-tär:-1-ŭm, 8. (Mod. Lat. nec 2. To be bound; to be ur. ler necessity or obliga. 6. Min.: A needle-shaped crystal. tarium, from nectar; Fr. nectaire; cf. also Gr. tion.

7. Nautical: nektarion=ap unidentified plant.)

“As virtuously given as a gentleman need to be."

(1) The seaman's and sailmaker's needles are Bot.: A term used by Linnæus, at first for any Shakesp.: Henry IV., Pt. I., iii. 3.

seaming, bolt-rope, and roping needles; they are part of a flower which secreted nectar, i.e., honey, I Need is commonly used as an auxiliary with "(2) The polarized steel of a mariner's compass.

three-sided. but afterward extended by him to any accessory other verbs, especially in interrogative and nega. CASTATIC, DIPPING-NEEDLE.) portion of the flower, even though it had no honey. tive sentences, with the force of obligation, or !

8. Sewing-mach.: The eye-pointed instrument for něc-to-, pref. [Gr. nēktos=swimming.) necessity; as, You need not come; Need ho go?

carrying thread through the cloth. Nat. Science: Aquatic; used for swimming.

fneēd-dom, 8. (Eng. need; -dom.] A state of 9. Surg.: A name given to sundry long and sharpněc-to-căl-y-cine, 8. (Mod. Lat. nectocalyx want or need.

pointed surgical instruments used for sewing up (genit. nectocalycis); Eng. adj. suff. -ine.] Of or

neēd -ēr, 8. [Eng, need; -er.] One who needs or wounds, couching for cataracts, acupuncturing, &c. wants. (Shakesp.: Coriolanus, iv. 1.)

10. Teleg.: A magnetized needle used in the pertaining to a nectocalyx (q. v.).

needle-telegraph (q. v.). něc-to-ca'-15x (pl. něc-to-căl--çēş), s. (Pref. knead; A. S. gnidan=to rub; Dan. gnide; Swed, eye to receive a lifting-wire in a Jacquard loom. neēd-fîre, s. [Lit. friction fire, from need=to I

11. Weaving: A horizontal piece of wire with an necto-, and Eng., &c., calyx (q. v.).]

gnida.) 200l.: The swimming-bell or disc of a Medusa, or Anthrop.: A quasi-sacrificial rite, probably a sur

To get the needle: To become irritated or an. Jelly-fish. The margin is produced inward to form vival of some form of sun-worship, having for its

noyed. a species of shelf running round the margin of the object the protection of cattle from murrain. The

Needle-ironstone, Needle iron-ore = Göthite; mouth of the bell: this distinguishes the necto- Mirror (June 24, 1826) records the performancə of

Needle-ore = Aikinite: Needle-stone = Aragonite.

Natrolite: Needle-spar=Aragonite; Needle-zeolite calyx from the somewhat similar umbrella of the this rite by a farmer near Perth.

=Natrolite, Lucernarida.

“When a murrain has broken out and the herds have

need e-bar, 8. nec-to-gā'-lē. 8. Pref. necto-, and Gr. galēra suffered much harm, the farmers determine to make a

need fire. On an appointed day there must be no single 1. Knitting : In a stocking-frame, a bar in which weazel. Zool.: A genus of Soricidæ, from Thibet, contain:

flame of fire in any house or any hearth. From each the needles are fitted with their leads.

house straw, and water, and brushwood must be fetched, 2. Sewing-mach.: The reciprocating bar to the ing a single species, Nectogale elegans. The toes

and a stout oak-post driven fast into the ground, and a end of which tho needle is attached. are webbed, and there are adhesive pads on the

hole bored through it; in this a wooden windlass is stuck, under surface of the feet, which enable the animal well smeared with cart-pitch and tar, and turned round

needle-beam, s. to preserve its hold on smooth stones at the bottom so long that, with the fierce heat and force, it gives forth Civil Engin.: A transverse floor-beam of a bridge, of rushing torrents.

fire. This... is increased with straw, heath, and resting on the chord or girders, according to the něc'-to-să c, 8. Pref. necto-, and Eng, sac (o. y.).brushwood, and the cattle and horses hunted with whips construction of the bridge.

and sticks two or three times through it."-E. B. Tylor: Zoöl.: A term proposed for the interior of the Early Hist. Mankind (ed. 1878), p. 256.

needle-bearer, needle-carrier, 8. nectocalyx (q. v.).

neēd-fúi, *nede-ful, *neod-ful, *ned-fol, adj. Surg.: A porte-aiguille forming a handle for a ouTu, 100 ,

needle. něc'-trl-a, 8. [Greek něktris, fem. of nēktēs=a (Eng. need; ful(l).) swimmer (?).]

*1. Full of need or necessity; in want, or distress; needle-book, s. Pieces of cloth or flannel, like. Bot.: A genus of Ascomycetous Fungi, sub-order needy, distressful.

the leaves of a book, protected by book-like covers, Sphæriacei. They have naked bright-colored periSpheriacei. They have naked orsommon on the needful in his necessity

“Thou art the poor man's help and strength, for the

used for sticking needles into. thecia. Nectria cinnabarina is common on the needful in his necessity."-Coverdale: Isaiah xxv. 3.

needle-carrier, 8. [NEEDLE-BEARER.)

ocenentu roonisite. dead twigs of currant bushes.

2. Necessary; absolutely or urgently requisite.


needle-case, s. ně-cỹd-a-li-næ, s. pl. [Mod. Lat. necydal(is); The needful: That which is wanted; specif., 1. A needle-book (q. v.). Lat. fem. pl. adj. suff. -inæ.) ready money, cash. (Slang.)

2. A case in which to keep needles. Entom.: According to Swainson, a sub-family of neēd -fúl-1ỹ, adv. [Eng, needful; -ly.) Neces- needle-chervil, s. Lepturide. sarily; of necessity.

Bot.: Scandix pecten-veneris. ně-cỹd-a-lis, s. (Lat. necydalus; Gr. nekyd

"He more needfully and nobly prove
The nation's terror."

needle-file, s. A long, round, narrow file used by alor=the larva of the silkworm.]

Crashaw: Hymn in Epiphany. jewelers. Entom.: A genus of longicorn beetles, founded

neēd-fül-ness, s. (Eng. needful: ness. The by Linnæus and modified by Fabricius, &c. The

needle-fish, 8. abdomen is long, narrow, and contracted. They quality or state of being needful; necessity. . Ichthy.: Syngnathus acus, known also as the feed on flowers. Necydalis major is the typical neēd:-1-1ỹ, *nede-ly, *ned-ly, *need-i-lie, adv.

Great Pipe-fish, Sea-adder, and Tangle-fish. (PIPEspecies: it has very short and abruptly-terminated [Eng. needy; -ly.

FISH, SYNGNATHIDA.] elytra. It is found in continental Europe.

1. In need; in poverty; in distress.

needle-forceps, 8. An instrument to hold a dee 2. Of necessity; necessarily; needs.

dle to sew up wounds that cannot be reached by *něd-dőr, *ned-dyr, 8. [A. S. næddre.] An adder.

Needilie great inconuenience must fall to that

. the hand, or to hold very minute needles in opere. - Holinshed: Richard II. (an. 1393.)

tions about the eye or in staphyloraphy, něd-dỹ, s. A dimin, from Ned, the familiar ab

neēd-1-něss, *ned-i-nesse, 8. (English needy; breviation of Edward.) An ass, a donkey.

needle-furze, s. -ness.) The quality or state of being needy or in Bot.: Genista anglica. née (pron. nå), pa. par. or a. (Fr., fem. of the need; poverty, distress.

needle-guard, s. pa. par. of naitre=to be born.) Born, by birth; a “Their nedinese and pouertie is such."-Stow: Henry word sometimes placed before a married woman's VU Tan. 1527

Sewing-mach.: A sliding piece which moves witb

the needle and keeps it in line during rapid movemaiden name, to show the family to which she belongs.

nee-dle (as nedl), *ned-el, *ned-le, #neelde, ment, so that it shall not strike wide of the hole in need. *nede. *neod, 8. (A.S. nýd, niéd, neád, ned; Icel. nál; Dan. naal; Sw. nal; Ger. nadel; 0. H.

62*nelde, e. _[A. S. ncédl; cogn. with Dut. naald; the cloth-plate. cogn. with Dut. nood; Icel. naudh; Dan. &

needle-gun, 8. W. Ger. nádela: Goth. nathla. From the same root as wod. Goth. nauths: Ger. noth; 0. H. Ger. not; O. H. Ger. náhen: Ger. nähen=to sew | Lat. neo; breech with a cartridge carrying its own fulminate,

Firearms: A firearm which is loaded at tho Russ. nujda.) 1. A stato requiring supply or relief; a state in Gri neu=to spin.]

and which is ignited by a needle or pin traversing which something is urgently needed; pressing oc- I. Ord. Lang.: A pointed instrument of steel for the breech-block driven by a spiral spring, or struck casion for something; urgent want, necessity.

carrying a thread through any material. It usually by the hammer

passes through the fabric and drags the thread “I spake with vehemence; and promptly seized after it, but it is otherwise with eye-pointed nee

needle-holder, 8. Whate'er abstraction furnish'd for my needs

dles. In a wider sense the term is applied to instru. 1. A draftsman's instrument for holding a prick. Or purposes." Wordsworth: E.ccursion, bk. iii.

ments of iron, steel, bone, wood, &c., used for ing-through needle. 2. Want of the means of subsistence; indigence, interweaving or interlacing thread or twine in 2. (NEEDLE-FORCEPS.) necessity, poverty, destitution.

embroidery, knitting, netting, &c. The earliest *needle-house, *nedylhows, 8. A needle-case. "Need and oppression starveth in thine eyes." needles were of bone; those of ancient Egypt were

needle-instrument, 8.
Shakesp.: Romeo and Juliet, v. 1. of bronze. Needles are known as sharps, betweens,
nosi. and blunts, according to the relative fineness of

Surv.: An instrument which owes its accuracy 3. An emergency, an exigency, a strait: a posi- and brants, accorums

and value to the magnetic needle only, such as the tion of difficulty, distress, or danger.

their points. “Which in his greatest need will shrink from him."

“It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a plain or the Vernier compass or the Vernier transit.

needle than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of needle-ironstone, 8. (NEEDLE, 8., 1.) Shakesp.: Richard III., v. 2.

Sod."- Mark x. 25. 4. Urgent necessity, compulsion.

needle-loom, 8. A form of looin in which the II. Technically:

weft is carried by a needle instead of a shuttle. The "I have no need to beg."-Shakesp.: Richard II., iv.

1. Arch.: A piece of timber laid horizontally, and usual form of loom for the inanufacture of narrow need-be, 8. Something indispensable or abso- supported on props or shores under some superin- wares, such as ribbons, tapes, bindings, &c. lutely necessary.

cumbent mass to serve to sustain it temporarily, *needle-money. 8. (See extract.) “There is a need-be for removing."-Carlyle: Fr. Revol., while the part underneath is undergoing repair.

"I could wish, for the honor of my countrywomen, pt. iii., bk. i., ch. iv.

2. Blasting: A tool for pricking the cartridge to

that they had rather called it (Pin-money] needle-money, need not something unnecessary or super make connection between the charge and the prim' which might have implied something of rood house. fluous. ing.

wifery." --Addison: Spectator, No. 295.

3. Geog. (pl.): Cliffs which rise to a great height, need, *nede, v. t. & i. (NEED, 8.] tapering upward from a narrow base. Applied

needie-ore, 8. (NEEDLE, 8., .) A. Trans.: To want; to be in need or want of; to specially to the Needles, off the Isle of Wight, Eng *needle-point, 8. A sharper. require.

land, and to a like formatiou in California on the needle-pointed, a. Pointed like a needle. “They that are whole need not a physician."- Matthew

Santa Fé railroad. ix. 12.

4. Hoisting: A beam projecting from a building

projecting from a building needle-setter, 8. B. Intransitive:

with a pulley at its outer end, tho fall worked by a Sewing-mach.: Anattachment allowing the needle crab inside the building.

to be set in its bar, so that the eye shall be at the 1. To be wanting; to be necessary. (Never used 5. Hydr.: One of a set of rertical square bars of proper distance from the end of the bar, in order with a personal subject.)

wood in a timber frame in a weir. These stand that the loop may be properly formed and at the "Besides true will, there need heroio gifts."-Carlyle: close together, and close the sluice-way. They may right place for the hook or shuttle beneath the Letters and Speeches of Cromwell, iii. 1.

be removed separately to open a way for the water. fabric. boil, boy; pout, Jówl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, ag; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.

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