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natural-infancy

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nature

natural-infancy, 8.

II. Theol.: An adherent of any form of Natural. 2. To receive or adopt as native or natural; as, to Law: The period of life under seven years of age.

ism. The word was used (1) by German writers as naturalize foreign words. It is usually held to be one destitute of all legal

an equivalent of Pantheist; (2) by English writers 3. To make familiar or well-known. responsibility.

for (a) one who rejects revelation, and (b) for one “Naturalizing to any degree authors, whose names only

who, while admitting that the Scriptures contain float amongst us."-Observer, No. 2. natural-key, s.

some truths, maintains that these truths are only a Music: The key of C. republication of natural religion, and so unneces

4. To accustom or habituate to a climate or counsary. (Blunt.)

try; to acclimatize. natural-liberty, 8. (LIBERTY.]

“[I] have appeared in the plain shape of a mere natu. II. Law: To adopt into a nation or state; to natural-marmalade, 8.

ralist myself, that I might, if it were possible, turn him confer the rights and privileges of a natural-born Bot.: Tho American name for the pulp of Achras off from downright atheism."--H. More: An Antidote subject upon. sapota. [ACHRAS.] Against Atheism. (Pref., p. 7.)

B. Intransitive: natural-modulation, s.

B. As adj.: The same as NATURALISTIC, 1 (q.v.).
"Sketches from Mr. Trollope's South African tour of a

1. To become naturalized: to become like a native Music: Diatonic, as opposed to chromatic modulation.

somewhat naturalist kind." -- Saturday Review, March 29, 2. To explain phenomena by natural laws, to the 1884, p. 415.

'exclusion of the supernatural. natural-obligation, 8. (OBLIGATION.) năt-u-ral-Ist:-ic, a. (Eng. natural; -istic.]

“We see how far the mind of an age is infected by this natural-order, 8.

1. In accordance with nature: natural: following naturalizing tendenoy." --Bushnele. (Annandale.) Bot. (pl.): The orders established under the or based on nature; realistic.

năt-u-ral-1ỹ, *nat-u-ral-lye, adv. (Eng. natu natural system of botany. [ORDER.)

“The rendering is of a naturalistio rather than of a ral: -lu.l natural-persons, 8. pl. prophetio character."--Athenaeum, Feb. 18, 1882.

1. In a natural way; according to nature; by tho 2. Natural, plain.

powers or impulses of unassisted nature; by na. Law: Such as are formed by God, in opposition to artificial persons, or those formed into corpora

"Such vivacious and naturalistio expletives as would ture, not by art or training. tions by human laws for purposes of government or

scarcely have passed the censor."-Athenæum, April 1, "Though I am not naturally honest, I am sometimes so

1882. society.

by chance."--Shakesp.: Winter's Tale, iv. 4.

3. Pertaining to the doctrines of naturalism natural-philosophy, s.

2. Spontaneously; without art or artificial treat

2. Spon (q. v.).

ment; as, A plant grows naturally in some places. 1. [PHYSICS.] “Ho was apt to resolve ... the whole work of Christ

3 According to nature; in a natural way, without 2. (MORAL-PHILOSOPHY.) into a fulfillment of a merely naturalistic order."---Brit.

affactation or artificiality; according to life. Quar. Review, 1873, p. 86. natural-pitch, s. *năt-u-ră 1 -1-tý, *nat-u-ral-1-tie, s. (French

"That part Music: The pitch of a pipe before it is overblown.

Was aptly fitted and naturally perform'd." naturalité, from Lat. naturalitatem, accus. of natu

Shakesp.: Taming of the Shrew. (Induct. 1.) natural-religion, s. ralitas, from naturalis (q. v.).] The quality or

4. According to the usual course of things; as, Comparative Religions : state of being natural; naturé.

This might naturally have been expected. 1. A theological system devised by human reason “The goddig by their naturalitie and power, close up without supernatural aid or revelation.

the furies, and governe the steares."--Golden Boke, let. x. năt-u-ral-něss, s. (Eng. natural; -ness.) 2. (See extract.)

năt-u-ral-i-zā'-tion, s. (Eng. naturaliz(e); 1. The quality or state of being natural; the “The term natural-religion is used in various and even -ation.]

state of being given or produced by nature. incompatible senses. Thus Butler, in his Analogy, signi. * I. Ord. Lang.: The act or process of naturalizing:

... 2. Conformity to nature; freedom from affecta. ties by natural-religion & primæval system which he ex

tion or artificiality. pressly argues to have been not reasoned out, but taught the state of being naturalized. first by revelation."--Tylor: Prim. Cult. (ed. 1873), ii. 356. II. Technically:

nā-ture, s. & a. (Fr., from Lat. natura, orig. (Note.)

fem. sing, of naturus, fut. par. of nascor=to bo

1. Law: The act of placing an alien in the posie natural-rights, 8. pl.

tion, or investing him with the rights and privi.

is born; Sp., Port., & Ital, natura.) Lau: Those relating to life and liberty, leges of a natural-born subject.

A. As substantive: T The naturalization laws of this country are 1. The universe, as distinguished from the Crenatural-science, s.

wholly the fabric of the Federal government, while ator: all that exists or is produced without artiScience: A torm formerly used as the equivalert the privileges attendant, so far as regards suffrage, ficial means; the world of matter and of mind; the of Physics (g.v.), now employed as a synonym for &c., are left to the discretion and gift of the various system of which we ourselves form a part; creation; Natural History (a, v.) in its most comprehensive state legislatures. For a foreigner to become a all created things, by which man is more immedisignification.

citizen of the United States it is necessary for him, ately surrounded, as land, oceans, plants, animals,

first, to declare his bona fide intention to become a &c. natural-selection, 8. (See extract.)

citizen, and the declaration must be made at least 2. By metonymy, the agent, producer, or creator "[The preservation of favorable individual differences

two years before final papers" are taken out. It of things: the powers which carry on the processes and variations, and the destruction of those which are

must be made before a United States circuit or of creation; the powers concerned to produce exist injurious I have called natural-selection... Natural.

district court, or (in a territory) before the supreme ing phenomena, whether in sum or in detail; the selection will modify the structure of the young in rela tion to the parent and of the parent in relation to the court or a district court, or in a state) before a personified sum and order of cansa and Affect. young. In social animals it will adapt the structure of court having a common law jurisdiction and a

"'Twas nature's will." each individual for the benefit of the whole community, clerk and seal. At the time of admission to citizen

Wordsworth: Excursion, bk. vi. if the community profits by the selected change. What ship, the applicant must have been, at least five natural-selection cannot do, is to modify the structure of years previously, a resident of the United States.

3. The inherent or natural qualities of anything: one species, without giving it any advantage, for the good and must produce evidenco that he is a fit subiect

those peculiar characteristics and attributes which of another species." -Darwin: Orig, of Species (ed. 1859), upon whom to confer the rights of citizeuship, and

serve to distinguish one thing from another. ch, it. must, further, renounce allegiance to all foreign

4. The natural disposition of mind of any person; natural-steel, s. A steel obtained directly from princes and governments--particularly to the one to temper; personal character; individual constituthe richer and purer kinds of ore by reducing them which he was last subject. After admission he is. tion. with charcoal and refining the cast-iron thus pro- in all respects, a citizen of the United States and en "It may be in your power; but it is not in your nature." duced, so as to deprive it of part of its carbon. It titled, in every regard, to the same protection that -Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch. v. is principally used for making files and other tools. the native-born citizen is. In the case of children

5. Quality, sort, kind, species. It is frequently termed German steel, being largely of a foreigner, who, at the time of their f naturalization, were not of legal age, the act of the

"Your capacity is of that nature." produced in Germany. father is considered as conferring citizenship upon

Shakesp.: Love's Labor's Lost, v. 2. natural-system, s. them, and further process is unnecessary. Any

*6. Human life; vitality; natural existence. Bot.: The system of botany which attempts to alien of twenty-one or over, of good moral charac I would repent out the remainder of nature." arrange plants according to their natural affinities. ter, who has served in the United States army, and

Shakesp.: All's Well that Ends Well, iv. 3. (BOTANY.

resided, in the country for one year previous to natural-theology, s. application, is entitled to full citizenship upon affection of the heart and mind.

7. Natural affection; the innate and involuntary Theol. & Phil.: The science which deals with the

production of evidence establishing these facts.
Chinamen cannot be naturalized. The children of

“Fond nature bids us all lament." evidences for the being of God, drawn from purely

Shakesp.: Romeo and Juliet, iv. 5. citizens of this country, if born abroad, are Ameri. natural sources, without reference to revelation.

can citizens, and entitled to protection as such. 8. That which is in conformity with naturo, truth, *natural-writer, 8. A naturalist; a writer on Upon the naturalization of any foreigner, if he or reality; sentiments or images adapted to na natural history.

hold any title of aristocracy, such title must be ture, as distinguished from that which is affected, "Alapwing, which bird our natural-writers name Van- renounced. In some of the states a foreigner who artificial, or false. Qellus." -Browne: Miscell. Tracts, iv.

has declared his intention to become a citizen is 9. The natural course of things. *năt-u-ral-ěsque (que as k), 8. [Eng. natural; permitted to vote, while in others none but full

"My end il fledged citizens are admitted to that privilege. -esque.] Keeping pretty closely to tho characteris.

Was wrought by nature, not by vile offense." 2. Biol.: The introduction of plants through tics of nature; as, a naturalesque style of orna. human agency into new lands or regions. They are

Shakesp.: Comedy of Errors, i. 1. mentation. of a diversified nature. In Dr. Asa Gray's Manual

B. As adj.: Natural; growing naturally or sponnăt'-u-ral-işm, 8. [Eng. natural; -ism.) of the United States. 260 naturalized plants are te

taneously; as, a nature grass. (Scotch.) 1. Ord. Lang. : A state of nature; a natural state.

enumerated belonging to 162 conera. The sturdy 1. To go (or wall) the way of nature. To pari : plants of Europe introduced into New Zealand

e debt of nature: To die. 2. Theol.: The name given to all forms of belief cause the native plants to die out, as the Maori

"He's walked the way of nature." or speculation which deny or ignore the doctrine of vanishes before the colonizing European. (Darwin:

Shakesp.: Henry IV., Pt. II., v. 2 a personrl God as the author and governor of the

Origin of Species (ed. 6th), pp. 89, 163.) universe. It is opposed to Theism (q. v.).

2. In a state of nature: năt-u-ral-ize, v.t.& i. (Eng. natural; -ize; Fr. (1) Ord. Lang.: Naked, as when born; stark. năt-u-ral-ist, 8. & a. (Eng. natural; -ist.) naturaliser.)

naked. A. As substantive :

(2) Theol.: In a state of sin; unregenerate. A. Transitive: I. Ordinary Language:

(3) Good (or ill) nature: A naturally good (or I. Ordinary Language:

bad) temper or disposition. 1. One versed or learned in natural science in its 1. To make natural or accustomed; to accustom, (4) Laws of Nature, Natural laws: That instinct widest sense.

to render natural, easy, and familiar; to make a ive sense of justice, and of right and wrong, felt by 2. One versed or learned in natural history. second nature.

every human being. boil, boy; pout, Jowl; cat, cell, chorus, chin, bench; 80, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = £

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navigation

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nausity

2819 *nâus:-1-tý, s. (Eng. naus(ea); -ity.] Nausea, naval-crown, s.

navel-wort, 8. aversion,

1. Roman Antiq.: [CROWN, 8., A. I. 1 (1).).

Bot.: The genus Cotyledon (q. v.). The popular "It has given me a kind of nausity to meaner conver. 2. Her.: The naval crown is formed with the stern name has reference to the depression in the center sations." - Cotton: Montaigne, ch. lxxvi.

and square sails of ships placed alternately upon of the leaf. nâutch, 8. [Hind. nách a dance.) An entertain- the circle or fillet.

*nā'-veled, a. (Eng. navel; -ed.) ment consisting in watching dancing by profes

s

, sional dancing-irls, called nautch-girls.

naval multia. 6. Part of the national guard, or 1. Lit.: Furnished with a navel.

ganized in & pumber of the States, wbose duty in 2. Fig.: Situated in the center. nautch-girl, 8. In the East Indies a native time.

a native time of war will be to man the coast and harbor de- (Byron : Childe Harold, iv. 173.) dancing-girl; one who dances at a nautch.

fense vessels, and also to operate in boat squadrons nã-vew (ew as ū), 8. (O. Fr. nâu'-tic-al, *nâu'-tic-all, *nâu'-tic, *nâu'- with torpedoes against any hostile fleets appearing naveau, navel; from Low Lat. tick. a. Lat. nauticus=nautical, from Gr. nauti in our waters.

napellus, dimin. of Lat. napus= kos=pertaining to ships; nautës=a sailor; naus=a naval-officer. s.

a turnip.) ship; Fr. nautique; Ital. & Sp. nautico.] Pertain

Bot.: The wild turnip (Brassica

1. In America: An officer of the United States ing to seamen, ships, or navigation.

d States campestris). It has lyrate, den- Leaf of NavelNavy: an officer who assists in collecting the customs tate. somewhat hispid leaves.

wort. nautical-almanac, 8. [ALMANAC.) on importations.

Hooker divides it into three subnautical-day, s. [DAY.)

2. In England: An officer of the Royal Navy.

species--B. campestris proper, the probable origin nautical-distance, s. The arc of a rhumb line *nā-valş, 8. pl. (NAVAL, B.)

of the Swedish turnip; B. napus, the rape or coleintercepted between any two places.

náv'-arch, s. [Gr. nauarchos, from nausra

seed; and B. rapa, the origin of the turnip. nautical-mile, 8. (MILE.] ship, and archo=to command.)

nā-vi-çěl'-la, 8. [Lat., dimin. of navis=a ship.] nâu'-tic-al-ly, adv. (Eng. nautical; -ly.) In a Greek Antiq.. The commander of a fleet; an ad. Zool.: A genus of Neritidæ, from fresh and bracknautical manner; in matters pertaining to naviga- miral.

ish waters of countries bordering the Indian Ocean tion.

and the islands of the Pacific. The shell is oblong,

*nāv-ar-chý, 8. (Gr. nauarchia, from nauar. nâu'-ti-form. 8. Grnausra ship, and Latin

smootb, and patelliform, with a small columellachos=a navarch (q. V.).] Skill in navigating.ves shelf beneath: operculum very small and shelly; forma=form, shape.] Shaped like the hull of a sels; nautical skill.

shell covered with a dark olive epidermis. Twenty

"Nararchy, and making models for buildings and rig- four species have been described. nâu-til-1-dæ, 8. pl. (Lat. nautil(us); fem. pl. gings of ships."-Petty: Advice to Hartlib, p. 6. adj. sutf. -idæ.)

na-vic-u-la, 8. (Lat.=a small vessel, a boat.) i. Zoöl.: A family of Tetrabranchiate Cephalo.

inhale. näve (1), 8. (A. S. nafu, nafa; cogn. with Dut. 200l.: A genus of Infusoria, shaped like an elonpods. Sutures of the shell simple; the siphuncle naas; Icel, nos; Dan. pau, Sw. nafi Ger. nabe, gated case or flattened cylinder, open at both excentral, sub-central, or near the concavity of the

Sansc, nábhi=the navel, the nave of a wheel, the tremities. curved shells: simple. By some naturalists it is center. ] NAVEL. divided into two sub-families, but the only recent 1. The central portion of a wheel, from which the na-vic-u-lar, a. (Lat. navicularis, from navic

spokes radiate: the hub. zenus is Nantilus (q. v.).

ula=a little ship; dimin. from navis=a ship; Fr.

naviculaire.) 2. Palæont.: The Nautilidæ proper have grad.

'Twas twisted betwixt nave and spoke." ually decreased from the Paleozoic, through the

Wordsworth: Alice Fell.

Ord. Lang.: Of or pertaining to small ships or

boats; shaped like a boat. Secondary and Tertiary periods, to the present day. 2. The navel. (Shakesp.: Macbeth, i. 2.)

II. Technically: nâu-t1-16id, a.& 8. [Gr. nautilos=the nautilus, nave-hole, 8. The hole in the center of a gun- 1. Anat.: Pertaining to the navicular bone (q. v.). and eidos=form, appearance.)

truck for receiving the end of the axle-tree. A. As adj.: Resembling a nautilus.

(Field, Dec. 6, 1884.) nave-shaped, a. (MODIOLIFORM.) B. As subst.: That which has the form or appear.

2. Bot.: (BOAT-SHAPED.)

nāve (2), *nef, s. (Fr. nef=a ship, a body of a ance of a nautilus.

navicular-bone, 8. church; from Lat. navem, accus, of navis= a ship, a nân-ti-lŭs, 8. (Lat., from Gr, nautilos=a sea- body of a church; Ital. & Sp. nave; cf. Ger.schil=

Anat.: The scaphoid bone of the hand or foot. man, a nautilus; nautés=a sailor; naus=a ship; a ship, a nave. That part of an ecclesiastical edi. navicular-rossa, 8. Gr. nautile; Ital. & Sp. nautilo.)

fice to the west of the choir, and in which the con- Anat.: A slight depression at the base of the inI. Ord. Lang.: A name popularly applied to two gregation assemble; the part of a church between ternal pterygoid process; it gives attachment to very different animals: the Paper Nautilus the the aisles. NAVY.)

the tensor palati muscle. (Quain.) Nautilus of poets, which belongs to the genus Argo- “Double rows of lusters lighted up the nave."--Eustace: năv-1-ga-bil -1-ty, 8. (Fr. navigabilité, from nauta (q.v.), and not to Nautilus (II. 1, 21; and to Italy, vol. i., ch. v.

navigable=navigable (q. v.).] The quality or state the Pearly Nautilus (Nautilus pompilius), for a nā'-vel. *nā-vel. s. A. S. nafela: cogn, with of being navigable; capability of being navigated. long period the only known species. The quotation

quotation Dut, navel, from naaf=a nave; Icel. nafli, from nof refers to the Paper Nautilus.

năv-1-ga-ble, a. (Fr., from Lat, navigabilis, =a nave; Dan. navle, from nav; Sw. nafle, from II. Technically:

from navigo=to navigate (q. v.); Sp. navegable; naf: German nabel, from nabe; Sanscrit nabhi. Ital. navigabile.) 1. 2001.: The typical and only recent genus of the [NAVE (1).]

1. That may or can be navigated; capable of family Nautilidæ (q. v.). The shell is involute, with

I. Ordinary Language:

being navigated by a ship; affording passage to an outer porcellanous and an inner nacreous layer. The soft structures of the animal were first den 1. In the same sense as II. 1.

ships. scribed by Owen in 1832, and its anatomy is elabo

The valleys of the Forth and Carron were navigable rately discussed by E. Ray Lankester in the Encyclo. *2. The central part or point of anything; the arms of the sea."-Wilson: Prehistorie Man, ch. vi. pædia Britannica (od. 9th, art. Mollusca). Three middle. (Cf. the use of the Gr. Omphalos =(1) a *2. Fit for navigation or sailing: sailing: engaged species are known: Nautilus pompilius (the Pearly navel, (2) the central point.)

in navigation. Nautilus). N. macromphilus, and N. umbilicatus, all *3. The nave of a wheel.

“The better supporting of navigable vessels."-Hakefrom the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

will: Apologie, bk. ii., ch. viii., 8 1. 2. Palaeontology : Range in time from the Upper And the axlo-trees, the navelles, spokes and shaftes were Silurian to the present day, with a maximum

năv-1-ga-ble-něss, s. (Eng. navigable; -ness.) all molten."-3 Kynges vii. (1551.) development in the Carboniferous period.

The quality or state of being navigable; navigaII. Technically:

bility. 3. Hydraul. Engin.: A form of diving-bell requir

1. Anat.: The cicatrix of the umbilicus whichn ăv'-I-ga-biš, adv. [Eng. navigab(le); -ly.) In ing no suspension. Water admitted through the

causes a narrow and deep impression on the sur. cock into pipes flows into the exterior chambers. face of the abdomen. It marks where the fetus

a navigable manner; so as to be navigable. causing the apparatus to sink. The workmen enter through an aperture at the top, closed by an air

was attached to the placenta by the umbilical cord. *năv-i-gant, subst. (Lat. navigans, pr. par. of

2. Ordn.: A perforated lug on the underside of a navigo=to navigate (q. v.).) A navigator, a sailor. tight cover, and can in still water move the machine

carronade which is engaged by a through bolt and in any required direction by stepping on the ground

“Under whose (God's] merciful hands navigants above and pushing. Air is condensed in a reservoir at the thereby secured to the carriage.

all other creatures naturally be most nigh and vicine."surface to a degree somewhat greater than the con- navel-bolt, 8.

Hackluyt: Voyages, i. 229. densation due to the depth, and passes through a Ordn.: The bolt which secures a carronade to its

năv-1-gāte, v. i. &t. (Lat. navigatus, pa. par. pipe into the chamberg rendering the machine spe- slide

of navigo=to sail, to manage a ship: navis=a ship, cifically lighter than water, and enabling it to lift

and ago=to drive; Fr. naviguer; Sp. navegar; Ital. stones or other objects below. A gauge indicates navel-gall, 8. (See extract.)

navigare.) the amount of lifting power attained as the air is “Navel gall is a bruise on the top of the chine of the A. Intrans.: To sail; to pass from place to place admitted, so that the supply may be cut off when back, behind the saddle, right against the navel, ocok by water; to manage a ship at sea. the requisite power is reached. sioned either by the saddle being split behind, or the

“The Phonicians navigated to the extremities of the stuffing being wanting, or by the crupper buckle sitting nautilus-propeller, 8. A water-jet propeller on down in that place, or some hard weight

western ocean."- Arbuthnot: On Coins. the reaction principle. Water is forced, by a tur. or knobs lying directly behind the sad.

B. Transitive: bine driven from the engine, through two nozzles,

dle."-Farrier's Dictionary. one on each side of the vessel, and directed fore or

1. To pass over in a ship; to sail on or over; to aft. It has proved practicable, but wasteful.

navel-hood, 8.

traverse in ships.

"Drusus, the father of the Emperor Claudius, was the *na-vā'-gi-ūm, a. (Low Lat., from Lat, navis= Shipwright.: A hood wrought

first who navigated the northern ocean."-Arbuthnot: On a ship.] A form of feudal tenure, being a duty on above the exterior opening of a

Coins. certain tenants to carry their lord's goods in a hawsehole.

2. To direct or manage in sailing, as a ship; as, ship.

navel-point, s.

to navigate a vessel. nā-val, *nã'-vall, a. & s. (Fr. naval, from Lat. Her.: The point in a shield be

năv-y gã-tion, s. (Fr., from Lat. navigationem, navalis, from navis= a ship; Sp. naval; Ital. na- tween the middle base point and Navel-point.

acc. of navigatio=a sailing; from navigatus, pa. vale. the fesso point; the nombril.

par, of navigo=to navigate (q. v.); Sp. navegacion, A. As adjective:

Navel-souls, s. pl. [OMPHALOPSTCH01.)

navigacion; Ital. navigazione.) 1. Consisting or composed of ships; as, a naval *navel-stead, s. The place of the navel, the

1. The act of navigating; passing from place to armament.

place in ships ; sailing. 2. Pertaining to ships or to a navy. Davel. (Chapman.)

2. The art or science of navigating or conducting *B. As subst. (pl.): Naval affairs.

navel-string, 8. The umbilical-cord (q. v.). vessels from one port to another, on the ocean, by boli, boy; póut, jowl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, ag; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.

navigation-laws

2820

neaped

the best routes. Navigation more especially means of time there came new ratings to provide for iron. fruit of the vine in any shape was forbidden, and no the art of directing and measuring the course of clads, and a rule was made that the latter should Nazarite night approach a corpse. The " law of ships, and of determining the position of the ship be rated by tonnage measurement and other vessels the Nazarite" is given at length in Numbers (vi. at any moment, and the direction and distance of by tonnage displacement. First rates included 1-21). Samson (Judges xiii. 5), Samuel (1 Sam. i. her destination. The management of the sails, steam vessels of not less than 4,000 tons displace- 11), and John the Baptist (Luke i. 15) were Nazasteering, and the general working of the vessel be- ment and ironclads of not less than 3.000 tons meas. rites. From Amos (ii. 11, 12) it may be gathered long rather to seamanship. There are two methods urement: third rates, of steamers of from 900 to that persons so dedicated to God had an organizaof determining the position of a ship at sea : the 2,000 tons displacement, and ironclads of from 1,200 tion like that of the prophets, and among the later first is by means of the reckoning; that is, from a to 2,000 tons measurement. Our new navy started Jews the vow was developed (1 Mac. iii, 49; Acts record which is kept of the courses sailed and off on a better system, and has kept to it tolerably xviii. 18, xxi. 23, 24). [RECHABITE. distances made on each course: the second is by well. There has been a simplification of ratings, "To vowe a vowe of a Nazarite to separate shimselfe] means of observations made on the heavenly bodies, making displacement the only tonnage standard. unto the Lorde."-Numbers ri. 5. (Geneva Bible, 1561.) and the aid of spherical trigonometry. The first method gives only approximate results; the second

navy-bill, 8.

Năz-ar-ite-ship, s. (English Nazarite; -ship.) admits of great accuracy. The position of the ves. 1. A bill drawn by an officer of the navy for his The condition or state of a Nazarite. sol being known at any moment, the direction and pay, &c. (Eng.)

Năz-ar-It-ic, a. [Eng. Nazarit(e); -ic.] of or distance of any other point may be determined 2. A bill issued by the admiralty in payment of

" pertaining to the Nazarites or Nazaritism. either by the aid of a chart, or by the application stores for ships and dockyards. (Eng.) of the principles of trigonometry. To the approxi. Navy Department, s. One of the executive de Năz'-ar-it-ism, s. (Eng. Nazarit(e); -ism.] The mate methods of determining a ship's position it is partments of the government, presided over by the vows or practice of a Nazarite. necessary to add frequent checks by astronomical Secretary of the Navy. (NAVY.] observations. The principal objects to be attained navy-yard, 8. A ship-yard where the war vessels

nāze, s. [A. S. næs, nes=(1) the ground, (2) a by astronomical observations are, to ascertain the of a national navy are built and repaired.

els promontory; Icel, nes; Dan. nees; Sw. näs.) A latitude, the longitude, and the variation of the

promontory, a headland: specif. applied to: (1) The needle, for correcting the dead reckoning.

na-wâb', subst. (Hind.) A viceroy, a deputy, a southern extremity of Norway, near the entrance

to the Skager-rack; (2) the eastern extremity of "I have greatly wished there were & lecture of navi. nabob (q. v.).

Essex, five miles southeast of Harwich; (3) a headgation read in the cities."-Hackluyt: Voyage. (Epis. Ded. *3.)

nãy, *næi, *nai, adv. & s. (Icel. nei=no; Dan. land of Senegambia, to the southeast of Cape Verd. nei: Sw. nej.] There was originally a distinction 1

va distinction [NESS. 3. Shipping; ships in general.

in the use of nay and no; the former was used to N. B. [See defs.) “Tho' the yesty waves answer simple questions, the latter was used in Confound and swallow navigation up."

1. A contraction for Latin nota bene mark or answer to questions framed in the negative. Shakesp.: Macbeth, iv. 1.

note well or carefully... A. As adverb: (1), Aerial navigation: The act, art, or science

2. A contraction for North Britain-that is, Scotof sailing or floating in the air in balloons.

1. A word expressing negation or refusal; no. land. (2) Inland navigation: The navigating or pass. “Therefore Iesus seith to hem, children wer yhe han *nē, adv. [A. S. ne=not; cogn. with 0. H. Ger. ni; ing of boats, vessels, &c., on canals, lakes, or rivers ony soupyng thing! thei answeriden to him, nai."-Wy- M. H. Ger, ne; Goth. ni; Russ. ne, Ir., Gael., & in the interior of a country; conveyance by boats in cliffe: John xxi.

Wel. ni; Sansc. na=pot; Lat. ne (in nonne). In the interior of a country.

2. Not only so; not this or that only; implying Mod. Eng. we find this particle represented in nor, .navigation-laws, 8. pl. something intensive or amplifying to be added.

nay, neither, none, nangbt, never, &c.] Not, never.

In Middle English ne is frequently found coaLaw: By common law, a river is considered as

"Nay, curs'd be thou! since against his thy will,
Chose freely what it now so justly rues.”

lescing with the verbs have, be, and urill: as, nam= navigable only so far as the tide ebbs and flows in it.

ne am=am not, nis= is not, nill=ne will=will not, This is also the doctrine in several of the United

Milion: P. L., iv. 72.

nadde=ne hadde=bad not, &c. States. In other states, the doctrine of the civil B. As subst.: A denial, a refusal. law prevails, which is, that a navigable river is a *T To say nay: To deny, or refuse.

*nē, conj. (Fr.) Nor. river capable of being navigated, in the common "The stork would not be said nay."-L'Estrange: Fa

ně-æ-ra, 8. [Gr. Neaira, the name of a girl sense of the term. (Kent.) bles.

mentioned by Horace (Od. ii. 14, 21; Ep. 15, 11), năv-1-gã-tõr, *nav-i-ga-tour, 8. [Lat. navi. *nay-saying, *naye-sayinge, s. Denying, con

Virgil (Ecl. iii. 3), and Tibullus (iii. el.1, 2, 3, 4, 6): gator, from navigatus, pa. par. of navigo=to sail; tradiction.

used in modern poetry=a sweetheart, as in Milton Fr. navigateur; Sp. navegador ; Ital. navigatore.)

(Lycidas, 69.)] 1. A sailor, a seaman; one who navigates or sails; nay, vl. a T. INAY nay, c.i. & t. [NAY, adu.]

Zool. & Palæont.: A genus of Myacidæ (q. v.), one who is skilled in the art of navigation

A. Intrans.: To deny, to refuse, to say nay. with twenty-two species. It commences in the “By means of it (the mariner's compass) navigators “Death cruell turneth awaie fro wretches, and naieth Jurassic period. found that at all seasons, and in every place, they could for to close wepyng iyen."-Chaucer: Boecius, bk. i.

nēaf, * neif, *neve, *neive, *yeve, * neffe, discover the North and South with so much ease and ac. curacy." - Robertson: America, vol. i., bk. i.

B. Trans.: To deny, to refuse.

*neefe, s. [Icel. hnefi, nefi; Dan. næve; Sw. näfre.] *2. A navvy (q. v.).

“Ne he shal not nay, ne deny his sinne."-Chaucer: The fist, the hand. Persones Tale.

“ To Percevelle e dynt he yefe “There's enough of me to make a good navigator if all | nãy-ward, 8. [Eng. nay; - card.) A tendency

In the nekk with his nefe." trades fail."--C. Kingsley: Yeast, ch. xi. to denial.

Syr Percyrelle, 2,087. *na-viġ -ēr-oňs, a, (Lat. navis=a ship, and

“Howe'er you lean to th' nayoard." gero=to bear, to carry.) Capable of bearing or

tnēal, *neale, *nele, v. t. & i. (A contraction of

Shakesp.: Winter's Tale, ii. 2. floating ships.

anneal (q. v.).] nãy'-word, s. (Eng. nay, and word.) năv-vý, s. (An abbreviation of navigator, the

A. Trans.: To anneal; to temper by heat. name having been originally applied to laborers em1. A byword; a proverbial term of reproach.

“Swords and glaiues, in furneis neale they tough." ployed on canals for inland navigation.] A com. " Gall him into a nayroord, and make him a common

Phaer.: Virgil's Eneidos, vii. mon laborer employed in the construction of such recreation."--Shakesp.: Twelfth Night, ii. 3.

B. Intrans.: To be tempered by heat. works as canals, railways, &c. (Eng.)

2. A watchword.

“ Reduction is chiefly effected by fire, wherein, if they nā'-vỏ, *nā'-viě, 8. [0. Fr. narie a ship, a safe avis. ro F

i era shina “And we have a nayroord how to know one another."- stand and nele, the imperfect metals vapor away." navy, from Lat. naria=a ship, a vessel ; navis= a Shakesp.: .

every Wires of Windsor, v. 2.-

Bacon: Dr. Meverel; Touching Metals. ship; Gr. naus: Sansc. naura ship, a boat; A.S. Năz-a-rē-an, s. (Heb. netser=a branch.)

nē-a-10'-tūs, a. (Gr. nealotos=newly caught.) naca=a boat: Icel. nökhvi; Ger. nachen. From the Church Hist.: A Jewish sect mentioned by Epiph. Ichthu.: A genus of Trichiuridæ. Body incomsame root as Lat. no=to swim ; Gr. nao=to flow. apius (Hær. xviii.). They aimed at a patriarchal pletely clothed with delicate scales. Two dorsals, *1. A fleet.

religion in place of a Mosaic Judaism, and rejected the first extending to the second; each ventral 2. The shipping of a country collectively.

the history of Genesis and the Mosaic Law. They represented by a small spine; dagger-shaped spine “None but wood ships were built, either for the war were found in Galaaditis, Basanitis, and other behind the vent. One specimen only Vealotus navies or the merchant navies of the world."-Brit. parts beyond Jordan. (Blunt.)

tripes), ten inches long, has been obtained off Quart. Review, 1873, p. 89.

Năz-a-rēne, s. [Gr. Nazarēnos=an inhabitant Madeira; it lives at a great depth, and comes to the 3. The war-ships belonging to a country collect

of Nazareth, from Gr. Nazaret; Eng. suff. -ene.] surface by accident. ively: the naval establishment of a country, in.

1. Scripture and Church History: cluding the ships, officers, men, armaments, stores,

nēap, «neēp, a. & s. [A. S. nép, in the comp.

(1) A native of Nazareth (Matt. ii. 23). &c., intended for use in war. As early as 1840 the

nép-flod =low tide, as opposed to heáh-flod=bigh

(2) (PI.): A name applied reproachfully to building of ironclad vessels was suggested to the

tide. Originally=scanty, from the verb to nip United States Government by Mr. Stephens, of New

early Christians by the Jews (Acts xxiv. 5). ((1)) (q.v.); cf. Icel. neppr, hneppr=scanty: Dan. knap

(3) (PL.): A heretical sect from among the Juda- =scanty, strait, narrow; knap, neppe=scarcely. York, and it was in this country that the first sea

izing Christians of Hebrew descent, so frequently going ironclad cruisers were built. Previously to

in conflict with St. Paul, which arose about the end A. As adj.: Low. (A term applied to those tides 1810 the ships of the line of the British navy were all sailing vessels; in 1841 steam began to be sub

of the first century, contemporaneously with the which happen in the middle of the second and

Ebionites and at first holding similar tenets. Je fourth quarters of the moon, taking place abont stituted for sails. 4. The collective body of men enlisted in the serv.

rome (Ep. 79) says: "Desiring to be both Jews and four or five days before the new and full moons. ice of the Navy; as, He is the admiral of the Vary.

Christians, they are neither the one nor the other." They occur when the attractions of the sun and [ The United States Navy is under the control of

9: They made use of the Gospel to the Hebrews, ob- moon act on the waters of the ocean at right angles

served the Mosaic ceremonial law, and to the last to each other.) the Secretary of the Navy, with headquarters at

t retained belief in the divinity of Christ, while the “The waters ... have their neap and spring tides" Washington. The service is divided into various Ebionites ultimately rejected it.

-Bishop Hall: Sermons; Lent. (1641.) stations as follows: North Atlantic, Pacific, Asiatic, 2. Ornith.: Didus nazarenus, a species of Dodo, South Atlantic, and the Apprentice Training Ships.

B. As subst.: A neap-tide; the time of neap-tide. ips. said to have existed in the island of Rodriguez, The Navy yards are located as follows: Ports.

“High springs and dead neapes."-Hakerill: Apologie, near Mauritius. mouth, N. H.; Boston, Mass.; Newport, R. I.; New

bk. ii., ch, viii., § 1. London, Conn.; League Island; Washington, D. Năz-ar-ite, s. (The word, which should have

neap-tiae, 8. A low tide. ( NEAP, a.] C.; Norfolk, Va.: Brooklyn, N. Y.: Pensacola, Fla.: been Nazirite, is from Heb. nazir=separation. Ab. Mare Island, Cal.

stinence, consecration (?); or=crowned one (?).] nēaped, a. (Eng. neap; ed.] Left aground. The classification of the vessels in the Navy Jewish Church: A man or woman set apart by a (Applied to a ship when left aground, particularly prior to the construction of the recent vessels was vow for the service of God, either for a definite pe on the height of a spring tide, so that she will not based on the number of guns carried, but in process riod or for life. The hair was allowed to grow, the float off till the next spring-tide.)

fāte, făt, färe, amidst, whãt, fall, father; wē, wět, hëre, camel, hēr, thêre; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; gó, pot,

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Nebraska Nő-a-põi-1-tan, a. & 8. [Lat, Neapolis, from is neere leg'd before”-i.e., foundered in his fore. 3. Complete in character, skill, &c.; adroit, fidGr. Neapolis=tho New City: nea=new, and polis= feet; having, as the jockeys term it, "never a foro ished, clever, sharp. a city.)

leg to stand on." (Malone, followed by Dyce.) "Is not this a neat design?”-South: Sermons, vol. ix., A. As adj.: Of or pertaining to Naples or its in near-side, s. The left side. (NEAR, a., 9.)

ser. 7. habitants.

near-gighted, a. Short-sighted: not able to dis. 4. Pure, unadulterated, unmixed. B. As subst.: A native or inhabitant of the city tinguish objects at a distance. [MYOPIC.)

“The hogsheads of neat port came safe."-Steele: Sper

tator, No. 264. or of the former kingdom of Naples.

near-sightedness, 8. The quality or state of Neapolitan-sixth, s. being near-sighted; short-sightedness. [Myopy.)

*5. Fres or clear of deduction ; net. (II.)

“It is this surplus which is neut or clear profit." Music: A name given, apparently without much nëar, *neare, v. t. & i. (NEAR, a.)

Smith: Wealth of Nations, vol. i., bk. i., ch. ix. reason, to a chord occurring on the subdominant A. Trans.: To come near: to approach.

6. Simple and elegant; free from bombast or taw. of a minor key, and consisting of a minor third and minor sixth.

“On nearing the bridge they slightly quickened up."- driness; expressed in few and well-chosen words; London Morning Post.

chaste. (Said of style or language.) Neapolitan-violet, 8.

B. Intrans.: To come near or nearer; to approach. “The expression humble, yet as pure as the language Hort., &c.: Viola odorata, pallida-plena.

"And still it neared and neared,"

will afford; neat, but not florid; easy, and yet lively." Neapolitan-yellow, s. (NAPLES-YELLOW.]

Coleridge: Ancient Mariner, iii. Pope. (Todd.) näar. *neare. *neer. Aner *nere in @ nē-arc-tic, a. [Pref. ne(0-), and English arctic 77. Spruce, finical, foppish. prep. (A.S. neár, comp. adv. from neáh=nigh; (q. v.).) Belonging to the northern portion of the

"A certain lord, neat, and trimly dressed." New World. Icel. næer (adv.)=near; Dap, nær.]

Shakesp., Henry IV., Pt. I., i. & nearctic-region, s. A. As adjective:

II. Commerce: [NET, a.' Zool.: A region comprising all temperate North to 1. Nigh, close; not far distant, not far off ; not

*neat-handed, a. Clover and tidy; deft, dex. America and Greenland. The arctic lands and

terous, neat. (Milton: L'Allegro, 86.) far removed in place or position; adjacent, at

a islands beyond the limit of trees form a transitional neath, prep. (A contracted iorm of beneath "Thus Satan talking to his nearest mnte."

territory to the Palæarctic region. The southern (q. v.).] Beneath, under. (Poetical.) *5 w norm 107 limit between this region and the Neotropical may nēat'-hērd, *neat-heard, *nete herd, s. (Eng.

be drawn at about the Rio Grande del Norte on the neat, s., and herd (q. v.).) One who has the care 2. Not far removed in point of time; close at east coast, and a little north of Mazatlan on the of neat cattle; a cowkeeper, a herd. hand.

west. In the central plateau it should perhaps us “When their deaths be near."

“So hee departed very angerly, and went to the kinges include all the open highlands of Mexico and Guat. neteherdes house."--Barnes: Workes, p. 190. Shakesp.: Sonnet 140.

emala. (Wallace : Geog. Dist. Animals, i. 79.) 3. Closely related or allied by blood. nëar-1ğ, adv. (Eng. near; •ly.]

*neat-hērd-ěss, subst. (Eng. neatherd; -ess.] A

female neatherd; a neatress. (Herrick: A Bucolic; "A near kinsman unto Charles." Shakesp.: Henry VI., Pt. I., v. 3.

1. Closely; at a short distance; not far; not re. or, A Discourse of Neatherds.)

motely. 4. Touching or affecting one's interests or feel. " "Now more nearly to the walls he drew."

*nēat-1-fy, *net-i-fie, v. t. (Eng. neat, a.; suff. ings; closely; coming home to one..

ofy. To make neat.

Hoole: Oriando Furioso, bk. vi. 5. Intimate, familiar;, closely united by ties of 2. Closely; by close ties of relationship or con• man: Homer's Iliad, ii. (Comment.)

"The worke of a woman to netine and polish."-Chap affection, confidence, or intimacy.

nection; as, They are nearly related. "You are very near my brother in his love." *3. Closely. intimately, pressingly.

nēat'-18, adv. (Eng, neat, a.;-ly.] Shakesp.: Much Ado about Nothing, 11. 1. "What most nearly appertains to us both."-Shakesp.:

1. In a neat manner; tidily, cleanly. 6. Keeping closely to the original or model; not Lear, i. 1.“

“Wearing his apparel neatly."-Shakesp.: AX's Well deviating from an original; literal; not freo or

that Ends Well, iv, 3.

#4. In a near, parsimonions, or niggardly manner. loose; not rambling.

5. In a manner approaching to, or not falling

2. In a neat or tasteful manner: with good taste.

i “Hannibal Caro's, in the Italian, is the nearest ... short of, what is proposed.

With neatness and skill; skillfully, deftly. of any translation of the Æneid."- Dryden.

" His poem so exactly limn'd

"As nearly as I may, 7. So as barely to escape danger, hurt, or loss;

I'll play the penitent to you."

And neatly jointed."

Drayton: To H. Reynolds, Esq. close, narrow; as, a near escape.

Shakesp.: Antony and Cleopatra, ii. 2. 8. Serving to lead to a place or object by tho 6. Closely: with close adherence to or following

4. In neat, simple, appropriate, and elegant style shortest way; short, direct, straight. of the original model; as, Ho copied it as nearly as

or language; as, an idea neatly expressed.
“To catch the nearest way."
possible.

nēat-něss, *neat-nesse, subst. [Eng. neat, a.; Shakesp.: Macbeth, i. 5. 7. Within a little; almost.

•ness. 9. On the left; left. (Opposed to off in riding or nëar-něss, *neare-ness, s. (Eng. near; -ness.)

1. The quality or state of being neat; tidiness. driving.)

"Her garden ... had lost 1. The quality or state of being near or close at “The motion will draw up the off leg into the same hand: closeness in time, position, or place; near

Its pride of neatness."

Wordsworth: Excursion, bk. L. position as the near leg, and the horse will go down on

approach. his knees."-Art of Taming Horses (1859), p. 77.

2. Close relationship or connection; close alliance

2. Taste, tastefulness; simple elegance; as, the

neatness of a design. 10. Close, niggardly, parsimonious; not liberal. by blood or affection.

3. Skillfulness, dexterity, cleverness, adroitness; "Mr. Barkis was something of a miser, or, as Peggotty

“Our nearness to the king in love."

as, the neatness of a repartee. dutifully expressed it, was a little near."-Dickens: David

Shakesp.: Richard II., 1. 1.

*něat -rēss, *neat-resse, subst. [Eng, neat, s.; Copperfield, ch. x.

43. Parsimony, niggardliness, closeness in expen- ress.] A woman who has charge of neat cattle. 11. Characterized by parsimony or niggardliness. diture.

něb, *něbb, *nebbe, *nib, 8. [A. S. nebb=the “I always thought he lived in a near way."-Steele: “Now for neareness Galba was noted extremelie.”- face; cogn. with Dut. neb=the bill, beak, mouth; Spectator, No. 402. Savile: Tacitus; Historie, pt. i., p. 11.

Icel, nef=the pose; Dan. næb=the beak, the bill: According to Mr. Smythe Palmer (Folk-Etymol. nēat, *neēt, 8. & a. [A. S. neát=neat cattle; Sw. näbb. An initial 8 has been lost; ef. Dut. sneb ogy), near in the last two senses is a corruption of cogn, with Icel. naut=cattle, oxen; M. H. Ger. nóz, =a bill, beak; Ger. schnabel=a bill, a beak.) A.S. hneáw=sparing, niggardly; Icel. hnöggr; but noss; from A. S. neótan, niótan=to use, to employ; *1. A face, a countenance. cf. Close, a., 1.2 (22).

Icel. njóta; M. H. Ger. niezen: 0. H. Ger. niozan; 2. The bill or beak of a bird: the nose.
B. As adverb:
Ger. geniessen; Goth. niutan=to enjoy.]

“Beholde she had broken off a leaf of an olyue tre and

bare it on hir nebb."-Coverdale: Genesis viii. 11. 1. Close, not far, nigh, at hand.

A. As substantive:
“Beetles black, approach not near."
1. Cattle collectively; as bulls, oxen, and cows.

*3. A neck.
Shakesp.: Midsummer Night's Dream, IL 2 "Neat or buffles, called uri or bisontes,"-P. Holland,

“Take a glass with a belly and a long neb."-Bacon,

Nat. Hist., § 27. 2. Close in point of time; at hand.

Pliny, pt. ii., p. 323. 3. Closely; in a manner atfecting one's interests 2. A single head of cattle; a cow, an ox, &c.

ně-bā-li-a, 8. (From a proper name. (Agas. or feelings.

siz.)]
· Who both by his calf and his lamb will be known,
May well kill a neat and a sheep of his own."

Zool.: The only marine genus of Phyllopoda "Ely, with Richmond, troubles me more near." Shakesp.: Richard III., iv. &

Tusser: Husbandrie.

(q. v.). The carapace is large, with a novablo rosB. As adi. : Pertaining or relating to animals of well-developed antennules, antennæmandibles,

trum; eyes large and pedunculated. There are 4. Within a little; almost. 5. By close ties of relationship, intimacy, or con. the neat kind; as, neat cattle.

and two pairs of maxillæ, the anterior of wbicb fidence.

neat-cattle, s. The same as NEAT, A.

ends in a long palp. (Huxley.) * Near allied unto the duke."

Shakesp.: Two Gentlemen of Verona, iv. 1 neat-house, s. A house or shed for neat cattle; něb'-něb, s. [An Egyptian word.) C. As preposition: a cowhouse.

Bot.: The legumes of Acacia nilotica, used by the 1. Close to, nigh, not far from. neat-land, 8.

Egyptians for tanning. 2. At. Law: Land let out to yeomanry.

Ně-brăs-ka, 8. A Commonwealth of the United "At the brink of chaos, near the foot neat's-foot, 8. The foot of an ox, a cow, &c.

States of America. A name first applied to a river, of this new wondrous pontitice."

It is of Indian origin, signifying "Shallow Water." Milton: P. L., x. 347. Neat's-foot oil: An oil obtained from the feet of Nebraska Territory organized May, 1854. Few set.

tlements till 1864. Idaho cut off March, 1863, and *near-dweller, subst. A neighbor. (Keats: En. neat cattle. dymion, i.)

nēat, *nett, a. [Fr. net (m.), nette (f.); from present boundaries fixed. Bill to admit July, 1866, near-hand, a. & adv.

Lat. nitidum, accus. of nitidus=shining. cleanunsigned by President Johnson, and another Janu.
Deat; niteo=to shine.)

ary, 1867, vetoed. Bill passed over veto February, A. As adj.; Close, near at hand, not distant, not

1867. Admitted that year. School system superior, far ofl.

I. Ordinary Language:

school endowments liberal. Union soldiers fur B. As adv.: Close at hand; nearly, almost, inti. 1. Keeping things in perfect order; tidy, orderly,

nished, 3,157. Climate: Dry, salubrious, and free not slovenly. mately.

from malaria. Temperature averages summer 73°, 2. Characterized by or indicating neatness; in winter 20'. Rainfall east of 100th meridian, includ. near-legged, a. Knock-kneed, bandy. perfect order; tidy.

ing snow, 25 inches, heaviest in May. At west pre. | This, according to Mr. R. Grant-White, is "tho

“Is all ready, and all things neat"

cipitation falls to 17 inches. Rainfall gradually reading of the original." The spelling in the folio

Shakesp.: Taming of the Shrere, iv. 1. increasing. boil, boy: pout, jowl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = £.

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