Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
[graphic][subsumed]

CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY.

1. Rhea. 2. Saturn. 3. Cvbele. 4. Jupiter. 5. Juno. 6. Neptune. 7. V

[graphic]

Pluto. 9. Ceres. 10. Bacchus. ii. Minerva. 12. Apoilo. 13. Diana. 14. Mars. 15. Venus. 16. Cupid. 17. Mercury. 18. Vulcan alia. 25. Ganymede. 26. Bacchante. 27. Silenus. 28. Bacchanal procession. 29. Tritons and nereids.

Neptune. 7. Veste Plut ene. 23. Erato. Mialia.

mythic

They have been divided into philosophical and historical myths, myths of observation, nature-myths, Sec.

(2) Spec: A philosophical myth. The evolving of an imaginary fact from an idea, to be distinguished from a legend, which is the evolving of an idea from a fact. When the Romans of the Augustan times, out of the idea how their polity arose, created the narrative of jEneas, his misfortunes, his wanderings, and his settlement in Italy, they framed! a myth: when real historic facts become embellished by fiction, they are legendary.

2. Figuratively:

(\) Any statement partly or wholly fabulous.

(2) A euphemism for a falsehood.

(3) A person or thing which does not exist; as, He is a myth.

mfth -Ic, mf th'-Ic-al, a. [Eng. myth; 4et -teal; Fr. mythique.] 1. Lit.: Of or belonging to myths in the literal

*2. Fig.: Of or belonging to fabulous narrations or falsehoods.

mf th -Ic-al-ly\ adv. [Eng. mythical; -ly.] In a mythical manner; by means of myths or mythical fables.

mfth 1-C0-, pre/. [MTTnic] (For definition see compound.)

mythico-hlstorlcal, adj. Partly mythical and partly historical; partaking of the nature both of myth and of history.

•m^th-6-clas -tic, a. [Qr. mythos=a fable, and hlast^s— a breaker; klad—to break.] Destroying faith in myths and legends.

*' In this mythoclastic age."—Spectator, Oct. 15, 1881.

m^-thSg -rapher, subst. [Qr. mythos = a fable, a myth, and grapho=to write.] One who writes myths ; one who narrates myths, fables, or legends.

"The statues of Mars and Venus had been copied from Falgentius, Boccacio's favorite mythographer."Warton: Hist. Eng. Poetry, vol. L (Addenda.)

myt-th5r-c*-&5r1 s. [Or. mythologo8=deai'mg in fables.J [mythology.] The same as Mythologist

(q. ▼■)■

mytth-6-16 -£I-an, a. [Eng. mythology; -an.] A Aiythologist.

myth-o-loer-Ic-al, *myth-o-l5$ -Ic, a. [Grook mythologikoa, from mj/fAo*oQia=mythology (q. v.).] Pertaining or relating to mythology; containing or of the nature of a myth; fabulous, mythical, legendary.

** And taught at schools much mythologio stuff,
But sound religion sparingly enough."

Voteper: Tirocinium, 107. myth-o-l5£'-Ic-ftI-ly\ adv. [Eng. mythological; •ly.~\ In a mythological manner; according to mythology; by the use of myths.

"An essay . . . philosophically, mytholog {colly, and emblemutically offered."—Wood: Athena Oxon., vol. ii.; Basset Jones.

mf-\h&l -6-fcIst, subst. | Eng. mytholog(y); -ist. ] One who is versed in mythology; one who writes or discourses on mythology.

mye-th6T-i-$ize, v. i. [Eng. mythology); -tze.] To relate or discourse on mythology or fabulous history. (Saturday Review^ November 10, 1883, p. 607.)

■hnyth'-6-l5gTief 8. [mythology.] A myth or fable invented for a purpose.

"May we not consider his history of the Fall as an exeellent my thologuef—Qeddes: Trans. Bible (Pref,).

m^-th6T-6-eTyti s. [Fr. mythologie, from Latin mythologia; Gr. mythologia, from mythos= a fable, and logos=a word, a discourse; lego=to tell.]

1. Gen.: The science of myths or legends; that branch of science which investigates the meaning of myths, and the relationship between the myths of different countries or peoples; a treatise on myths.

"Parts of mythology are religious, parts of mythology are historical, parts of mythology are poetical, but mythology an a whole is neither religion nor history, nor philosophy, nor poetry. It comprehends all these together under that peculiar form of expression which is natural and intelligible at a certain stage, or atcertain recurring stages in the development of thought and speech, but which, after becoming traditional, becomes frequently unnatural and unintelligible."—Max Miitler; Science of Religion, pp. 252, 253.

Spec: A system of myths or fables in which are embodied the beliefs of a peoplo concerning their origin, deities, heroes, cVc.

"What we call a religion differs from mythology in the same way as a civilized state does from a savage tribe."— Sayoe.- Comparative Philology (1874), p. 290.

\ Comparative mythology: The comparison of the mythologies of all nations. Professor Sayce considers that it is but a branch of the science of language. Mythology, he says, is founded on words.

2805

and the history, therefore, of words must explain its external side, which is its most important one. The religious instinct will explain the internal one. The leading mythologies of classical literature are the Greek and Latin. As the Latin was to a great extent derived from the Greek, there is a similarity, varied only in detail (and nomenclature in some instances) to be noted between the two. The following are the names of the principal Greek deities and their Latin equivalents;

Greek Qods. Roman.

Zeus Jupiter (Dio vis-pater).

Plouton (Aides, Hades) Pluto.

Poseidon Neptune.

Here or Hera Juno.

DemetSr Ceres.

Hestla Vesta.

Persephone Proserpine.

Dionysius Bacchus.

Jupiter's Children.

Apolldn Apollo.

Ares Mars.

Hermes Mercury.

Hephaistos Vulcan.

Athena or Athene Minerva.

Aphrodite Venus.

Artemis Diana.

The chief Hindu gods are Brahma thecreator, Vishnu the preserver, and Siva the destroyer, but there have been many changes in the Hindu Pantheon.

m.y'th 6 plasjin, s. [Gr. mythos = a fable, and plasma anything molded, a fiction; plassd=- to mold.] A narration of mere fablo.

mytth-6-poe -Ic, *my!th-6-p6-e't -Ic, a. [Greek mwfftopoio«=making legends or fables: mythos=a fable, and po(ed=tQ make.] Myth-making; suggesting or giving rise to myths.

"These mythical genealogies . . . do not belong to the earliest mythopoeio ages."—Cox; Introd. to Mythology, p. 37.

tm^th-ft-p6-6 -sis, S. [Gr. mythos = a myth, and poiesis^a making.] The growth of myths.

"It is in keeping with the principles of Mythopoesis that Calypso's land . . . should be In the midst of the sea. —Keary: Outlines of Primitive Belief, p. 320. (NoteS.)

my-tll'-I-dsa, s.pl. [Lat. mytil(u8)-=a sea-mussel; fem. pi. adj. surf, -fdae.]

1. Zo6l.: Mussels; a family of Conchiferous Mollusks division Asiphonida; shell, ovai and equivalve; edges closely fitting, ligament internal, hinge edentulous. The Mytilidapare mostly marine, and attached by a byssus. Chief genera, Mytilus, Modiolus, Lithodomus, and Drcissena.

2. Palceont.: The family is Palaeozoic, some members being from the Lower Silurian, others from the Coal Measures and the Permian.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

ljj"-tl-ltts, s. [Lat., from Gr. my tylos-Mytilus edulis. (See def.) J

1. Zo6l.: Truo Mussel; the typical genus of the family Mytilidss (q.v.). Shell, wedge-shaped, umbones at end; it moors itself to piles and stones by a strong and coarse byssus. World-wide in distribution ; seventy_recent species have been described. Mytilus edulis is the Common Sea Mussel (q. v.). Horace (Sat., 11.4,27) (if mytilus be not a misreading for mug(lus), attributes purgative qualities to it, and it is mentioned by Martial (iii. 60) as far inferior to the oyster.

2. Palceont.: Apparently came into existence in Permian times.

mffx-a-mce -bae, s. pi. [Gr. myxa=mucus, and Mod. Lat. amoeba}.]

Zool.: A name given to Myxomycetie in a certain stage of development.

mjfx I n8, s. [Gr. myxinos—a smooth sea-fish, a slime-fish.]

Ichthy.: The typical genus of the family Myxinidss (q. v.). There is one external branchial aperture on each side of the abdomen, leading by six ducts to six branchial sacs. Three species are known, from the North Atlantic, Japan, and the Straits of Magellan. Myxino descends to a depth of 345 fathoms, and is generally met with in the Norwegian fjords at 70 fathoms, sometimes in great abundance. (GUnther.)

m^x-In'-I d», s.pl. [Mod. Lat. myxin(e); Lat, fern. adj. suff. -idcp.j

Ichthy.: A family of cyclostomatous fishes, with two genera, Myxine and Bdellostoma. The fishes

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

THE fourteenth letter and the elevonth consonant in tho English alphabet. It is a dental nasal, and is formed by placing tho tip of the tongue against or closo to the root of the upper teeth, and emitting a voiced sound through the nose. Its ordinary sound is that heard in not, ton, done. Sec, but before gutturals, as </or A:, it has a guttural nasal sound, almost equivalent to tiy, as in sink, link.fin* ger, sing, 8ong.&c. When, however, the gutturals belong to a different syllable the n generally retains its ordinary sound, ns in congratulate, engage^ engine, &c. .V final after m is silent, as in autumn.

[graphic]
[ocr errors]

i

[merged small][ocr errors]

hymn, condemn, Ac. When preceded byp-, k, m, and p at the begin ing of a word, the n alone is sounded, as in gnaw, know, mnemonics, pneumatic, Ac. 8 is always sounded before initial n, as in snow. At the end of a word or syllable n may be followed by d, t, k (with g it forms a single sound, as stated above), s, sh, z. or their equivalents, all of which are sounded distinctly. In the oldest English n was lost before/, th, and s, the vowel being lengthened in consequence, as goose (—gons), Ger.gans [ganDer], tooth (=tonih), Goth, tunthus. From many adverbs and prepositions n has disappeared, as beside=X.S. bisidan; before = A, S. befwanj within =A.S.withinnan. It has also been lost in other words, as e/Z=A.S. eln; eve = A.S. off en; eleven= A.S.endleof; mill—A. 8. mylen{miln). AT is found intrusive in several wordst as in nightingale A. S. nichtegale; messenger— Mid. Eng. messager (O. Fr. messagier); pa&senger=M.\d. Eng. passager (O. Fr. passagier); acatwnjjer, originally *cai'a,ger. A final n has been added in a few cases, as 6tffern = Mid. Eng. butore, Fr. butor; marfen= Mid. Eng. mearth. As a final, n has in many cases been strengthened by dorr, as in tyrant, sound, thunder, &c. N has been replaced by m in jtmacfc=A.S. suace (boat^; hemp=A.S. hanep'tempt = Fr. tenter; vellum=rr. veltn; comfort=*0. Kr. confort, Lat. conforto, &c.t It has become / injla ani l, formerly flannen. An initial n is in several cases found prefixed to a word which properly begins with a vowel; this is probably due to the final n of mine (win) oran: thus an ewt, an ekename, mine uncle, became respectively, a newt, a nickname, my nuncle. On the other hand an initial n has in many cases been dropped from the word, and become attached to the article a preceding: as, an adder, an apron, an auger, an umpire, an orange, for a nadder, a naproh, a nauger, a numpire, a norange, <fcc. N. As a symbol is used:

1. As a numeral for 900, and with a dash over it .(N) for 9,000.

2. In chemistry for the element nitrogen. N. As an initial is used for North as in charts N.

by E. = North by East; N. B.-New Brunswick; for Latin not a, as N. B. = nota bene mark or note carefully; for notary, as N. P.=Notary Public.

IT N. or M.: The most probable explanation of these is that S = Nomen, and that Nomen for one person, or Nomina for several persons, was expressed by XT, vel XlXX'y the double Zt being afterward corrupted into ITT. (Blunt: Annotated Com' mon Prayer.)

na, nae, adverb. [Scotch St Prov. Eng. for no (q. v.).] No, not.

nab, s. [Icel. na66t=a knot; cf. knap, knob, knop, noo.]

I. Ordinary Language:

I. The top or summit of a rock or mountain; a rising ground.

"Just tarn thia nab of heath."—B. Bronte. Wuthering Heights, ch. xxi. •2. A hat.

"I'll keep on my nob."Fctrquhar: Recruiting Offi* ctr, ii.

II. Technically:

1. Fire-arms: The cock of a gun-lock.

2. Locksmith.: The keeper of a door-lock. *nab-cheat, $. A cap, a hat.

"Thus we throw up our nab-cheats, first for joy."

Beaum. <fr Flet.; Beggar'a Bush, U. 1.

n£b, v.t. [Sw. nappa; Dut. na»pe=to catch.] To catch suddenly or unexpectedly; to seize with a sudden grasp.

nab'-a-lus, a. [Etym. unknown.]

Bot.: A genus of composites, sometimes made a synonym of Pronanthes. The roots of Nabalus at bus. N. altissimus, N. virgatus, Ac., are popularly called rattlesnake roots. The leaves are applied externally to the wound made by a rattlesnake's fangs, while the juice, boiled in milk, is administered by the mouth. The remedy is by no means infallible.

•nabbe, s. [See def.] A contraction for ne abbe =have not.

nib'-by1, s. [Etym. doubtful.] A fisherman's boat, a yawl. (Ogilvie.)

na beS', s. [Native name.] The same as Bik (q.v.).

n&'-blt, s. [Etym. doubtful.] Pulverized sugarcandy.

nab'-l$ck, s. [niblick.]

n& -b&b, *no~bobb, s. [Hind, nawwdb, pi. of ndth=& vicegerent, a deputy, a nabob.] A popular name formerly much usod, with a touch of contempt, for an Englishman, especially an English merchant, who had made a fortune in India, and returned to spend it in his own country, but now indiscriminately applied to any rich man.

•ni -bdb-b5r-yf «. [English naooo; -ery.] The class of nabobs.

"He reminds me of a nabob. Xuttobbery itself.'*—Savage: it. Medlicvtt, bk. it, oh. x.

*na bob ess, s. [Eng. nabob; -ess.] A female nabob; the wife of a nabob.

"There are few nabobs and nabobe**es in thia country." — Walpolei letters, ill. 875.

nSc'-a-rat, s. [Fr., from 8p. nacarada, from nocar=mother-of-pearl.] [nacre. J

1. A pale red color with an orange tint.

2. Fine linen or crape dyed of a pale red color.

nach-laut (Ch guttural, aunsdlr), s. [Ger.= after-sound: nacA=after, and /auf=sound.]

Philol. i The second element in a diphthong, or in a diphthongal sound, as in that which a often has.

nacht-horn (ch guttural), s. [German=nighthorn. |

Music: An organ stop consisting of Btopped wood pipes of a moderately large scale, the tone of which is somewhat like that of a horn.

n&c k5r (1), a. [nacke.]

*nac -ker (2), s. [knacker.]

na co dar ', *. [Arab.] The captain of an Arab vessel.

na ere fere as k5r), s. [Fr., from Pers. nakar; Sp. nacar.] Mother-of-pearl (q. v.).

"The valuable pearls of commerce are a more compact and finer kind of naort."—Owen: Anat. Invertebrate*. p. 287.

nl -crS-otis, a. [Eng. nacre; -ous.]

1. Ord. iMng.: Consisting of mother-of-pearl; rosem bl ing mother-of-pearl.

2. /.■">!. { A term applied to one of the three principal varieties of sheila. Nacreous shells have a peculiar luster, which is duo to the minute undulations of the edges of alternate layers of carbonate of limo and membrane. (Nicholson.)

na crite. s. [Fr. nacre=mother-of-poarl; suffix •its {Min.).] Mineralogy:

1. A talc-Rice mineral, found in small mammillary groups of folia, at Brand, near Freiberg, Saxony. Crystallization orthorhombic; soft; color, creamwhite; luster, pearly; composition, a hydra ted silicate of alumina ; closely related to, if not identical with. Kaslinite (q.v.).

2. A green muscovite (q.v.), found at Unity, Maine.

*X A name formerly usod by mineralogists to designate the minute mica-like scales (of which the true naturo was then uncertain) found distributed through many rocks. These are now shown to be* long mostly to the mica group.

nft -dab, s. [Pers.] The high-priest of the Persians.

*nadde, s. [See def.] A contraction for ne hadde — had not.

n& -dlr,*na-dire, s. [Arab, nazirus lsamt (or simjply nazlr) = the point of the sky opposite the zomth: nazir—alike, corresponding to; as' samt = the azimuth.] I., Literally:

I. Tho point of the heavens or lower hemisphere directly opposite to the zenith; the point directly under where we stand.

*2. The point of the zodiac opposite to that in which the sun is situate.

II. Fig.: The lowest point or stage; tho point or time of greatest depression.

n& -dor-He, subst. [From Djebel-Nador, where found; sufif. -ite (Min.).]

Min.: A rare mineral, found in flattened tabular, or Bomewhat lenticular, crystals. Crystallization, orthorhombic; hardness, 3; specific gravity 7*02; luster, resinous to adamantine; color, smokybrown to brownish-yellow; streak, yellow; translucent. Composition : A n oxychloride of lead and antimony, the analyses of which appear to correspond to the formula Sb03PbO-(-PbCl. From Constantino, Algiers.

iiiss urn ite, s. [From Nnsum, Sweden, where found; suff. -ite (Min.).]

Min.: A chalk-white amorphous substance, consisting essentially of a silicate of alumina and lime, with 4'39 per cent, of water. Near Fahlunite (q. v.) in composition.

nae -thing, s. [nothing.]

*n»ve, *ne>e, *. [Lat. ncevu8=a. spot.; Fr. neve.] An»vus; a spot or blemish on the skin. [N .fives.]

"So many spots, like wri*e«. our Venus soil?"

Dryden: Upon the Death of Lord Hastings.

nse vose, a. [Eng. ncev(e); -ose.~\ Spotted, freckled.

nae vus (pi. nse -vl), s. [Lat.=a spot.] Physiol.: A vascular tumor of connective tissue, containing blood in its sponge-like meshes. Nam are occasionally malignant—c. 0.. as in the orbital region; but are found: mostly in the adipose tissue, nse vus - maternus,«.

Physiol.: A mother's mark; a mark on the skin from birth, the effect, as is said, of the mother's longing for or aversion to particular objects, or of some accidental occurrence affecting her own person during pregnancy.

nafe, naff, naft, s. [Etym. doubtful.] A ki&dof tufted seabird.

nag, *nagge, s. [O. Dut. negghe, negge, from O. Dan. neyen, negen = to neigh.]

1. A small horse ; a horse of any kind.

""lis like the forced gait of a shuffling nag'*

Shakesp.: Henry J F\, Pt I., ui 1

*2. A term of contempt for a woman of loose character.

nag, r./.At. [Sw. nagpa=to nibble, to peek; Duu. nage; Icel. nag a=to gnaw (q.v.).]

A. Trans.: To find fault with constantly: to scold continually; to bo continually pestering with complaints or fault-finding.

"Which describes Agnes as having 1 nagged' tbs painter to death."—Athenaeum,

B. Tntrans.: To be continually finding fault or scolding.

"Forgive me for nagging: I am but a CloUter and Hearth, ch. xcviL

na ga, nag, a. A. s. [Mahratta, Ac.

nag.]

A. As adjective:

1. A term applied to an ancient race ■ India about the sixth century B. C.

2. A term applied to a number of tribes living on the borders of Assam, Munnipoor, and Bnrmah.

B. As substantive;

1. A member of one of the Naga tribes.

2. A class of mendicants in Hindustan, going naked and carrying arms.

3. In Hindu mythology, a deified serpent, spec, the cobra (q. v.).

na gel flue, na gel flub, s. [G-er. nagel=& nail and O. Ger. fluh=a. rock.]

drill.: The conglomerate of the raolasse in Switzerland. It has pebbles derived from the granite, studding it like nail-heads. It is sometimes six thousand, if not even eight thousand, feet thick. It is very conspicuous on the Righi. and t he neighborhood of Lucerne, as well as in the Speer. near Weson. The lower part of it, containing terrestrial plants, fluviatile shells, and the bones of extinct land quadrupeds is considered by Kscher as a fresh water formation: the upper part contains marint shells. Sir Charles Lyell considered the lower part at least Miocene, and the upper part perhaps Plii> ceno.

*n&g/-ff6n, a. [nag, S.] A familiar term for*

horse.

nag -gf, a. [Eng. nag, v.; -j/.] Inclined to aag or scold, na -gor.s. [Native name.]

Zodl.: Antilope redunca. (Buffon (ed. Wood!, viii. 186.)

nag-vig'-Ite, s. [From Nagya?, Transylvania, where first found; suff. -t"fe (Jitn.).]

Min.: A rare mineral, occurring as crystals,granular, or foliated. Crystallization, probably orthorhombic; hardness, 1-1*5; specific gravity. B'SS-T'S; luster, metallic, splendent, but becoming dull on exposure; streak and color blackish lead-gray; opaque, sectile, flexible. Composition: Somewhat variable, but it appears to be essentially a sulpbotelluride of lead and gold, with occasionally small amounts of antimony and copper. Found, associated with gold, in Transylvania, and subsequent!; in the United States.

nah -lSh, s. [Arab.]

Bot.: The date-palm, Pficenix dactylifera.

Na hum, s. [Hob. Nachhxlm comforU consolation; from nichham=to be comforted; Greek Naoum.J

1. Script. Biog.: A prophet called the Elkoshiw. from Elkoeh where be was born or where be labored; but whether it was in Galilee or in Assyria has not been determined: the time when he nourished is also uncertain. The most probableopinioo is that his prophecies were spoken in the reign of Hozekiah a short time after Senuacherib'sinvasioaIn ii. 2 there seems to be an illusion to the captinty of the Ten Tribes which took place in that reign.

2. Old Test. Canon: The seventh of the Minor Prophets: i. e., of the minor books of prophecy. The theme is "The burden of Nineveh," the utter destruction of which is predicted, the

[ocr errors]
« ZurückWeiter »