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mSd'-er-ate-ly*, adv. [Eng. moderate; -ly."] In a moderate manner, degroo, extent, or amount; not excessively.

"Therefore, love moderately i long love doth Bo."

Shakesp.; Romeo and Juliet, ii. 1.

XttSd -Sr-ate-uSss, *. [English moderate; -nets.] The quality or state of beiug moderate; moderation, tempera ten ess; a middle state between ex* trenies.

m5d-Sr-ft'-tion, s. [French, from Lat. modera* tionem, accus. of moderation from moderatus, j>a. par. of moderor—to moderate (q. v.) ; Ital. modera* zione; Hp. moderation.]

1. The act of moderating, tempering, restraining, or renrossing.

2. The quality or state of being moderate; a medium stato between extromes; freedom from oxcess; tempera tenese, temperance, self-restraint.

"Let your moderation be known unto all men."—Philip* pians iv. 6. *3. Equanimity, calmness of mind.

"Equally inured
By moderation either state to bear.
Prosperous or adverse."—Mi lion: P. x*. 463.

4. Frugality, economy.

5. The act of presiding over, as a moderator.

6. (PL) At Oxford University; Tho first public examination for degrees. (Generally contracted to Mods.)

H Moderation in a call: The act of moderating ia a call. [moderate, v. *2] mdd'-eT at-Ism, «. [Eng. moderat(e) ; -ism.]

1. Ord, Lang.: Moderation in opinions or doctrines.

2. Eccles.: The principles of tbo party in the Church of Scotland known as Moderates.

m5-dS-ra -ta, adv. [Ital.]

Music: In moderate time; neither too quickly nor too slowly.

m5d'-e*r-&-t5r, a. [Lat., from moderatust pa. par. of moderor=to moderate (q. v.).J

I. Ordinary Language:

I. One who or that which moderates, calms, restrains, or represses.

*2. A judge.

"Let Mooes be the moderator and judge of this dispute."— Raleigh: Wat. World, ok. i., ch. x., g &

3. One who presides at n meeting or disputation; specif., the presiding officer at meetings or courts of tho Presbyterian <-hurch.

"The President, whom nil addressed by Ms venerable title of moderator,"—Brit. Quar. Review, 1867, p. 443.

1f This sense was borrowed from the French Huguenots.

4. A moderator-lamp (q. v.).

II. Technically:

1. Optics: A device, known as Rainey's, consisting of an opal glass or ground glass to moderate and diffuse tho light passing from a lamp to an object on the stand of tho microscope.

2. Univeraities:

(I) At Oxford: An examiner for moderations (a. v.).

{'£) At Cambridge: A public officer appointed to superintend tho examinations for degrees and honors; so called becauso formerly they presided in the exercises publicly prescribed in tho schools between undergraduate candidates for tho degree of Bachelor of Arts.

(3) At Dublin: Tho candidates for tho degree of Bachelor of Arts who pass out first nnd second in honors, the first being culled the Senior und tho second tho Junior moderator.

3. Presbyterianism; One who moderates in a call. [moderate, V. Ii j

moderator-lamp, s. A lamp for burning oil, parattine, Ac., in which the oil is forced through a tube up to the wick by a piston pressing on its surface, to which a downward impulse is communicated by a spiral spring situated between it and the top of the barrel or body of tho lamp. Tho flow of the oil is moderated, or made uniform, by an arrange* ment inside tho tube.

m5d'-€T-a-t5r-Blllp, «. [Eng. moderator; -ship."] The office, position, or rank of a moderator.

mdd--Sr-a-tr688, -mfid'-Sr-a-trlx,s. [English moderator; -ess; Lat. moderatrix.] A woman who moderates or governs.

"The debate was closed, and referred to Mrs. Shirley as moderatria."Richardson: SirC. Orandison, vi.

m8d'-Srn, a. &s. [Fr. moderne, from Lat. modemus—ot tho present modo or fashion, modern; from viodus~n measure; cf. modo=just now; Ital. & Sp. moderno. ]

A. As adjective:

1. Belonging or pertaining to the present timo or time not lonj- passed; late, recent, not ancient; not remote in point of timo.

"For faults which modrm times not strange have thought." Stirling: Domesday; Sixth Hour.

*2. Common, commonplace, trite.

"The j ustloe.
With eyes severe and beard of formal cut.
Full of wise saws and modern instances."

Shakeap.: As You Like It, tl 7.

•3. Trivial,slight.

"Alas I that were no modern consequence."

Ben Junson: Poetaster, v. 8.

B. As substantive: A person of modern times, as opposed to ancient.

"Shall he among the ancients rise to fame, Or sink with moderns to contempt and shame ?** Francis: Horace, bk. ii., ep. 1. m8d Sm-lgm, s. [Eng. modern; -ism.] 1. Deviation from tho ancient and classical manner or practice; anything recently made or introduced ; ospec., a modern phrase, idiom, or mode of expression.

"Scribblers send us over their trash in prose and verse, With abominable curtailings and quaint modernisms."— Swift: The Battle of the Books.

*2. Modern character; modern method or way of thinking or regarding matters.

mfid'-Sra-Ist, s. [Eng. modern-ist.J A supporter or admirer of modern ways or fashions.

"Which even his brother modernists themselves, like ungrates, do whisper so loud."—Swift: Tale of a Tub, § 9.

tmo-dSrn -I-ty\ sufcsf. [Eng. modem; -ity.) The quality or state of being modern; modern character. (Watpole: Letters, iv.297.)

mod eru-l-sa'-tlon, s. [English modemiz(e) J -afton.J( The net of modernizing; that which is modernized; a modernism.

m5d -ern-Ize, v.t. [English modern ;-ize.] To raako modern; to givo a modern cast, character, or appearance to; to conform to modern style, ideas, fashions, or ways; to adapt to modern persons or times.

"A jumble . . . with Latin words modernized."— Cambridge: The Scribleriad, bk. 1L

m5d'-Srn-Ix-e"T, subst. [Eng. modernise); -cr.] One who modernizes.

"No unsuccessful modernizer of the Latin satirists.**— Wakefield: Memoirs, p. 75.

•mSd'-Srn-iy, adv. [English modem,* -fy.] In modern times.

m5d-Sra-uSss, s. [Eng. modem; -nou.J Tho quality or state of being modern; rocontnoss, novelty.

mod est, a. [Fr. modeste, from Lat. modestus= keeping within bounds, modest, from modus=a. measure; Ital. & Sp. modesto. J

1. Notpresumptuous.bold.orntTogant; restrained by a sense of propriety; not forward or boastful; unobtrusive, diffluent, bashful, retiring.

"Is she not a modest young lady?"

Shakesp.: Much Ado cibout Nothing, 1.1.

2. Indicative of or characterized by modesty in tho author or actor; not marked by presumption or boldness; not extreme; moderate.

"Further to boast were neither true nor modest."

Shakeap.: Cymbeline, v. S.

3. Free from indecency or lewdness; marked by chastity; chaste, decent.

"Mrs. Ford, the honest woman, the modest wife, the virtuous creature."—Shakeap,: Merry Wives of Windsor, iv. 2.

4. Moderate in amount; not excessive; modium. Diffidence is much tho same as shyness, and

both ariso from timidity. Modesty, apart from its special application to women, may arise from a proper respect for tho rights of others or from a proud reserve.

•mSd'-Sflt-lSss, o. [Eng. modest; -lets.] Wanting in modesty.

"How faithless and how modeatless.1'*

Sylvester: Firat Day, First Week, 410.

mSd'-SBt-rjf, adv. [Eng. modest; -/y.]

1. In a modest, manner; not boldly, arrogantly, or obtrusively ; with due respect.

"Know then, and modestly let fall your eyes."

Cawper; Conversation, i. 485.

2. Quietly; without show or ostentation.

"These like a deluge with impetuous force,
Those winding modestly a silent course."

Cowper: Retirement, 78.

3. Not excessively or extravagantly: moderately.

4. Not loosely or wantonly; chastely, decently; with modest, becoming words.

"She modestly prepares to let them know."

Shakesp.: Rape of Lucrece, 1,607. m3d'-es-tf, *mod-es-tie, s. [Fr. modestie, from Lat. modest ia, from modestus=modest; Ital. & Sp. modest ia.]

1. Tho quality or stato of being modest; a sense of propriety ; freedom from arrogance, boldness, or presumption; unobtrusiveness, bashfulness, diffidence; bashful reserve.

"True modesty proceeds from a just discernment of propriety, and Is frequently connected with exalted ideas of genuine merit."— Cogan: Ethical Treatise, die. i., oh. iv.

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m5d-I-fI-a-Ml-I-tf, s. [Eng. modifiable; -Of.) The quality or state of being modifiable; susceptibility or capability of modification.

"Plasticity of thought, and mjdifiability of opinion."— Grunt Allen: Fortnightly Review, Jan., is--, p. bo.

mod'-I-fl-a-Dle, a. [Eng. modify ; -able.] Cspablo of being modified or diversified by various forms and differences; susceptible of or liable to modification.

It appears to me more difficult to conoeir* a distinct, visible image in the uniform, invariable essence ot God, than in variously modifiable matter."—Locket Exam, qf Malebranche.

mSd-I-flC-l-blT-I-tyCEnsrlish modificabk; -ita-] Modifiability ; capability of being modified.

m5d'-l-flc-a-ble, a. [modtficate.] Capable of being modified; modifiable.

*m5d*-lf-I-cate, v. t. [Lat. modiflcatus, pa. par. of modifico— to modify, to qualify, from modiw= moasure, and/acio=to make.J To qualify.

"The modtflcated eternity of his mediators hi p."—Pearson: On the Creed, art. 6.

mod-I-fl-c&'-tlon, s. [Fr.. from Lat. modiieationem, acc. of modification from modifieaius, pa. par. of moo*i7ico = to modify, to qualify: modus— measure, ana facio=to make; Sp. modification,; Ital. modificazione.]

I. Ordinary Language;

1. The act of modifying or of giving a new form, appearance, or character to; the state of being modified; change, alteration.

2. A change ; an alteration made; as, to introduce modifications into anything.

3. A particular form or manner of being; a mode. "Neither matter, nor any modification of matter."—

Clarke^ Lett, to Mr. Dodswell.

II. Scots Law: A decree of the teind court awarding a suitable stipend to tho minister of a parish.

m6d'-I-fI-C&t-Ive, s. [Eng. modificat{e); -«*.] That which modifies, or tends to modify or qualify.

"The aforesaid modiflcatives [almost and very nigh].** •—Fuller: Worthies: England, vol. i., ch. xxi.

mod'-I-n-c6>t-or-y\a. [Eng. modificat(e); -ory.) Modifying or tending to modify or qualify.

*' We are bound to account for the modificatory letters." —Max Mailer: Selected Essays, L 9L

mtfd'-I-fl-Sr, s. [Eng. modify; *er.] One who or that which modifies. "Sovereign maker and modifier of the universe.*—

Hume: Nat. Hist, of Religion, g 7.

m5d -I-fy\ *mod-l-fie, V. f. & i. [Fr. modifier, frmn Lat. modifico, from modu*=measure, and/octo — to make; Sp. modificar; Ital. modificartu\

A. Transitive:

1. To change or alter the external qualities or accidents of any thing; to vary, to alter; to five a new form, character, force, or appearance to,

2. To qualify, to moderate; to reduce in c' quality.

"The modified submission which they had i make."— Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch, viii.

B. Tnirans.: To extenuate, to qualify*

"After all this discanting and modifying upon the matter."— L* Estrange.

mo-dir-llfa (11 as y), •mS-dlglion (dlgUon as dil yun , :mo dil Ion. s. [Fr. motftMon, from Lat. modulus, dimin. of modus—a measure; ItaL

modiijlione.'] Architecture:

1. An ornamental consolo beneath the corona in

some orders.

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2. One of the large flowers in a soffit or coved ceilin*?.

"Architrave, frieze, cornice, triglypha, metopes, modtiglions, and the rest, have each a use, or appearance of ose, i n giving firmness and union to the building."—O. Berkeley; Alciphron, Dial, iiL, §9.

m6 dl -6 la., «. [Mod. Lat., from Lat. modiolus^ dimin. of modius—the Roman corn measure, a pock.]

1. Bot.: A genus of Malvaceae, tribe Malvese.

2. Zo&L; Horse-mussel; a genus of Mytilidrerit is distinguished from the edible mussel by its habit of burrowing. It is found from low water toa depth of 100 fathoms. The shell is oblong and inflated, but the umbones are not situated at the extremities, as they are in My til us (q. v.). Seventy species aro known, from tropical seas.

3. Palceont.: One hundred and fifty fossil species have been described from the Lias onward.

m$-dl -6-lar, a. [Lat. modiolus; Eng. adj. suff. -ar. j Shaped like a bushel measure.

mS-dl ol -l-form, a. [Lat. modiolus (q. v.), and forma ~ form. ]

Bol.: Shaped like the nave of a wheel; hollow, round, depressed, with a very narrow orifice, as the fruit of Gualtheria. Called also nave-shaped.

m5-dl-8l-5p-sls, «. [Mod. Lat. modiol(a), and Gr. or>flts-outward appearance, look.]

Pala?ont.: A Silurian genus of MytilidaB (q. v.). Shell inequivalve, very inequilateral, the beaks anterior, the surface smooth, or marked by fine concentric lines of growth. The shell is thin; the posterior end considerably broader than the anterior. Hinge edentuUnm; a ligamental groove, beginning in front of tho oeak, extends to the posterior extremity.

m6-di -6-lus, s. [Latin, dimin. of modius=& measure.}

Anat.: The central column or axis around which tho cochlea of the ear winds.

mod Ifih, a. [Eng. mode fl); -ish.] In accordance with the m<wlo or fashion; fashionable.

mod -Xsh-ltf, adv. [English modish; -ly.] In a modish or fashionable manner.

"Young children should not be much perplexed about putting off their hate, and making legs modishly."Locke: On Education.

mdd'-Ish-ness, s. [Eng. modish; -ness.~\ Tho quality or state of being modish; affectation of the mode or fashion.

mod -1st, subst, [Eng. mod(e) (1); -iff.] A follower of the mode or fashion.

md-diste', s. [Fr.l A woman who makes and deals in articlesof ladies' dress; a milliner, a dressmaker.

mo -dl-us,«. [Lat.]

Rom. Antiq.; A dry measure, containing onethird of the amphora, or nearly two English gallons.

m8d'-U~lar, a. [Eng. modul(e); -ar.] Pertaining to modulation, or to a module or modulus.

modular-proportion, s.

Arch.: That which is regulated by a module.

modular-ratio, s.

Math.: A term applied to that ratio or number whose logarithm is called the modulus (q. v.J. This ratio is that of 1 to 0 367879441171, Ac.

m5d -U-late, v. t. [Lat. modulatus, pa. par. of modiWor=to measure according to a standard; modulu8=n standard, dimin. of modus=a measure; Fr. moduler; Sp. modular; Ital. modulare.]

A. Transitive:

I. Ordinary Language:

1. To proportion, to adjust, to adapt, as to a standard.

2. To regulate.

"May the nightly power
Which whispers on my Blumbers, cense to breathe
Her modulating impulse through my soul."

Thompson: Sickness, v. 8. To vary or inflect the sound of, so as to give expression to that which is uttered; to vary in tone.

"In all vocal muBlo [the tongue] helpeth the windpipe to modulate the Bounds."—Grew: Cosmo. Sacra, bk. I., en. v., § 16.

II. Music: To change the key of; to transpose from one key to another.

B. Intransitive:

Music: To pass from on© key to another, or from the major into the minor mode.

mod U-la'-tlOn, *. [Fr., from Lat. modulationem. acens. of modulatio, from modulatus, pa. par. of modulor=U> measure, to modulate (q. v.); Sp. modulation; Ital. modulazione.']

I. Ordinary Language:

1. The act or process of modulating, adjusting, or adapting.

"The poets of Elizabeth had attained an art of modulation which was afterward neglected and forgotten."— Johnson- Lives of the Potts; Waller.

2. The act of varying or inflecting the sound of, so as to give expression to what is uttered.

"For the varioua modulations of the voice, the upper end of the wind-pipe ia endued with several cartilages and muscles."—Kay On the Creation, pt. ii.

*3. Modulated sound; melody,

"Innamerous songsters, in the freshening shade . . . Of new-sprung leaves, their modulations mix, Mellifluous." Thomson: Spring, 609.

II. Technically:

1. Arch.: The proportion of the different parts of an order according to modules.

2. Music:

fl) Movement or graduation of sound. (2) A change of key.

1[ Modulation is of three kinds: fl) Diatonic, (2) Chromatic, and (3) Enharmonic. The iir.-it of those is sometimes called natural; the last two, artificial.

m5d'-u-la-t5r, 8. [Latin, from modulatus, pa. par. of modulor=ta modulate (q. v.); Fr. modular teur; Ital. modulatore. X

1. Ord. Lang.: One whoorthatwbich modulates.

2. Music: In tho tonic sol-fa system, a sort of map of musical sounds representing the relative intervals of the notes of a scale, its chromatics, and its more closely related scales.

m8d -ule, s. [Fr., from Latin modulu# = & standard; dimin. of modus—a measure.] *I. Ordinary Language:

1. A little measure; a small quantity.

2. A model, a pattern, a mold, a counterfeit.

"Shall we hare this dialogue between the fool and the soldier? Come, bring forth thin counterfeit module."Shakesp.: Alt's Welt that Ends Welt, iv. 8.

II. Arch.: A measure of proportion by which the parts of an order or of a building are regulated in classical architecture; considered generally as the diameter or semi-diameter of the lower end of tho shaft of tho column; in other words, semi-diameter of the column, or thirty minutes.

*m5d -ule, v. f. [Fr. moduler.'] [module, a.]

1. To model, to shape.

"O would I could my father's canning use!
And souls into well moduled clay infuse."

Sandys: Ovid; Metamorphoses, i.

2. To modulate, to regulate, to adapt, to adjust.

"That charmer of the night That moduleth her tunes Bo admirably rare."

Drayton: Polyolbion, s. 13.

*m6d -U-let, s. [A dimin. from module (q. v.).] A little model or pattern.

"The little world's admired mndnlet.''

Sylvester: Seventh Day, First Week, 747.

*m5d -u lize, v. t. [Eng. model; ■ize.'] To model. "To his inward sight did mo'lulize His Tabernucle's admirable form."

Sylvester: The Law, 1,116.

mod -U-lUB, s. [Lat., dimin. of modus—a measure.]

Math. <t Physics: A term denoting somo constant multiplier, coefficient, or parameter involved in a given function of a variable quantity, by means of which the function is accommodated to a particular system or base.

IF (I) Modulus of a system of logarithms; A number by which all tho logarithms in one system of notation must bo multiplied to adapt them to tho same number in another syttem.

(2) Modulus of elasticity: The measure of tho elastic form of any substance, expressed by the ratio of a pressure on a given unit of the substance to tho accompanying compression. Or an expression of the forco which would bo necessary to elongate a prismatic body of a transverse section equal to a given unit, or to compress it within the limits of its elasticity.

(3) Modulus of a machine: A formula expressing tho work which a given machinocanperform under tho conditions involved in its construction.

(4) Modulus of rupture: Tho measure of the force necessary to break a given substance. (Rankinc.)

m6-dum -Ite, s. [Named after Modum, Norway; suff. -ite iMui.).] Min.: Tho same as Skutteruditb (q. v.). mod U8, s. [ Lat.=a measure.] 1. Law:

(1) Tho arrangement or expression of the terms of a covenant or contract.

(2) A modification; a variation or departure from a general form or rule in the way of either restriction or enlargement, as in an agreement between parties, the will of a donor, &c.

(3) An abbreviation of modus decimandi, a peculiar custom by which lands became exempted from payment of tithes on paying some composition or equivalent.

"One terrible circumstance of this bill is turning the tithe of flax And hemp into what the lawyers call a modus, or a certain sum in lieu of a tenth part of the product."— Swift.

2. Music:

(1) A scale, as Dorian mode, Ac.

(2) One of the throe divisions of mensurable music. Modus major was the division of a maxim (notula maxima) into longs; modus minor the division of a long into breves. The modus major wa* perfect when tho maxim contained three longs, imporfoct when it contained t wo. The modus minor was perfect when the long contained throe breves* imporfect when it contained two.

modus operandi, par. The plan or method of working or operating.

modus Vivendi, phr. A moans or manner of living on terms of an agreement with others.

mod wall, mud -wall, subst. [Eng. mud, and wall (?).]

Omith.: The bee-eater.

*m6d-f, a. [Eng. mod(e) (l),s.; -y.] Fashionable, modish.

"You make me too rich and too mody."Riahardsont Pamela, i. 128.

*m6e, a. [Mo, More.] ♦m&e, s. [Mow,*.] A grimace. *mde, v. i. [Mow (2), c] To mako faces or grimaces.

moeh-rln-£I-a. moh-rln'-fcl-a (o as e), subst.

[Named by Linuams after Paul Henry Gerard Moehring, a physician, author of Hortus Proprius, A. D. 1736.]

Hot.: Formerly regarded as a genus of Caryophyllacea?, tribe Alsineee. Now tho species Moehringia trinervia is called Arenaria trinervis.

mO-81-16x1, *. [Fr.J

Build.: Rubble stone tilled in between the facing walls of a structure, or between the spandrels of a bridge. It consists of clean, broken stone, and whero it holds an important position, as in the latter-mentioned case, it is laid in mortar, and by hardening becomes oqual to a solid mass of stone.

moeii chl a, *. [Numed after Conrad M conch, professor of botany at Marburg.]


*1. A genus of Caryophyllaceee, sub-order Alsinacea?. It has four sepals and petals, and four or eight stamens, whileCorastiumhasflvesepals,five petals, and ten stamens. (Hooker c& Arnott.)

2. A sub-genus or section of Cerastium. The sepals are acuminate, longer than the entiro petals. (Sir Joseph Hooker.)

Moe-s6-, pref. [Lat. Mossietu—ot or belonging to Maisia or Mysia, a region of ancient Europe, bounded on tho north by tho Danube, on tho east by tho Euxine, and on the west by Pannonia.] (See otym.)

Hceso-goth, a. [goth.] Moeso-gothic.a. <fe s. [gothic] mdiV, s. [Native namo.] A Bilk .stuff manufactured in Caucasia.

mS fus -sll, m6f-fUS'-8I1, s. [Hind, mufassal^ the country, as distinguished from the town.] An Anglo-Indian term for any part of India, except the three capitals, Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras.

mo-gar, «. [Nativo Wost Indian.] Tho dried stick of tho sugar-cane.

"The Htick or body of the MUM 'after preeaare was dried, nnd, under the name of mogars, waa lined to feed the flres." — London Morning Chronicle.

mfig -3r a, 8. [Etym. doubtful; perhaps from Or. mogeros—wretched, distressed; or a corruption of the native name.J

Zo6L: A genus of Talpida?, established by Pom el for the Woognra Mole, Talpa woogura, from Japan. It resembles tho European molo in form and habits, but tho fur is of a dingy tawuv hue, the nose prolonged, and it has two incisors less in tho lowor jaw than T. europcea.

mSg'-gan, s. [Gael. A Ir. mogan.~\ A stocking without the foot, worn over a boot. (Scotch.)

M5-gra'-bl &n a, As. [Arab. & Turk, moghreb =tho west, Nort.iwest Africa.]

A. .fls adj,: Of or pertaining to North or Northwest Africa.

B. Assubet.: A native or inhabitant of North or Northwest Africa.

Md-gul, s. [Pers. Mogh6l a Mongolian.] A Mongolian.

*[ The Great Mogul: Tho popular name for the sovereign of the empire which was founded in Hindustan by tho Mongols under Babir in 1525, and lasted till 1&R5.

Mo pun -tine, a. [Lat. Moguntia. Moguntiacum, tho ancient name of the town.] Of or pertaining to Montz, in Germany.

md -ha. *• [Fr. moha; remoter otym. doubtful.]

Bot.: Setaria italica.

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mft -hair, •mo-haire, a. [O, Fr. moHaire (Fr. moire), mohereymouhaire, from Arab, mukhayyar.]

1. The hair of the Angora goat.

2. A fabric made from the tine, white, silky hair of the Angora goat and allied Bpecies. Sometimes called camlet. The hair is said to be produced in perfect quality in no place excepting Angora in Asia Minor, and has long been a valuable article of export from that place.

3. A wooland cotton fabric made in imitation of the above, in mixed colors or plain.

mohair-shell, s.

ZoOL: A species of Voluta, with a finely reticulated surface like mohair.

M5 ham me dan,tMa-h5m -8-tan, *Mu hamma-dan, a. & a. [Arab. Muhammad.]

A. -4* adj.: Of or belonging to Mohammed or hia ■yBtem of belief or polity.

B. Ataubat.: A follower of Mohammed.

Mohammedan-architecture, s. The style of architecture adopted by Mohammedan nations, aa the Moors of Spain, the Arabs, &c. it was gradually developed out of the forms which were found ready to hand in the various countries over which they spread, nnd which belonged for the most part to early Christian art of the later Roman period, together with an admixture of Asiatic elements. In the earliest times Christian churches were utilized for the practice of the now religion; afterward mosques were erected. [mosqce. j In accordance with the Oriental manner of life, this style is internal rather than external, especially in palaces and dwolling-housos. While the tasteless exterior of the buildings only displays to the eye high walls which are irregularly pierced by small windows, and thoso few in number, everything in the interior is richly decorated. The richest ornamentation is lavished on the most essential part of these buildings, namely, on the porticoos which surround the open court. There are no fixed orders or proportions for the pillars—sometimes they are squat and heavy; at others slender and graceful, especially in the later period. Three different forms of arches are found, besides the circular arch, which is of rare occurrence. In Egypt and Sicily the pointed arch, resembling that afterward adopted in the Gothic style, was used; in Persia and India the keel-arch (the ends of tho curves are bent slightly upward like the keel of a vessel); and in Spain the horseshoe arch, which consists of a larger segment of a circle than a semicircle. The walls over these arches, as all fiat surfaces, were covered with embellishments in the shape of arabesques consisting of flat relief in stucco, or painted in brilliant colors. They are formed of tho most multifarious entwinings of straight or curved linos or belts. Domes are introduced freely, and arc, for the most part, flat or plain externally, or ornamented with stripes like a gourd. Dwelling-houses are tasteless externally, but the interiors display wealth and luxury. Overhanging balconies are used in the upper stories, and the windows are small and elevated. The Arabian system of ornamentation is not so pure as the Moorish, and the Turkish style kept more closely to the Byzantine. The finest specimen of Mohammedan architecture and ornamontation is the Alhambra, at Granada.

M5 ham -me dan Isni, Ma-hSm'-eVan-Ism, Mu ham-ma-dan-Ism, a. [Arab. Muhammad; Eng. suff. -an: -ism. Mohammed is from tho Arabic root hamd=the Praised.]

Compar. Religiona; The religion founded by Mohammed, tho so-called Prophet of Arabia. He was born at Mecca, of good family, Aug. 20, 570, but, while an infant, lost his father, Abdallah, and, fit the ago of six, his mother, Amina. When a child he had a fit, probably epileptic. At the age of twentyfive he married Khadijnh, a widow of forty, the first of his many wives, and was faithful to her while she lived. At tho age of forty he often retired to a cave at the foot of Mount Hira for religious meditation. Three years later ho began to proclaim his views, and, after a time, claimed to be a prophet. Among his early couverts were his wife, Khadijah, Mi, his cousin, then a boy of fourteen, afterward his adopted son and his son-in-law, and Abu Hakr, or Abubeker, his friend. On June 20,622, he had to floo from Mecca to Medina. This date is the Moslem era of the Hejira (q. v.). At Mecca he had been an enthusiast, at Medina he became a fanatic. On Jan. 13, 624, at tho head of ;«J0 followers he defeated 950 of the Meccans. Tho victory was considered miraculous, and encouraged him in future to propagate his faith by the sword, and ho was so successful that at his death (June 8. 632) he was virtual sovereign of Arabia. During the Caliphates of his immediate successors Abubeker (632-634) and Omar (634-646), the Arabs, or Saracens, conquered Syria, Persia, and Egypt, and established the new faith. Othman reigned next (644-655). Then the Arabs elected Ali, Mohammed's son-in-law, strangely passed over till now; the Syrians chose Moaviah,

Bon of Abn Sofian, an old enemy of the prophet. Civil war resulted, and the sects of the Sunn is and Shiahs arose. Ali was assassinated in 661, Hassan and Hosoin, his sous, soon after perishing. In 710 Tarik landed in Spain, the straits where he had passed and the adjacout rock being ever afterward called Gibraltar uj. v.). In 732 Charles Martel ( = tho Hammer) defeated the Arab Abderrahman at Poictiers, saving Western Europe. The Saracen capitals had been successively at Medina, at Cafa, at Damascus, and at Bagdad; their dynasties were the Ommeyades, Abbasidos, &c. About tho middle of the eighth century, the Saracen empire in the East began to bo broken down by the Turks, then a savage Tartar tribe, who afterward embraced Mohammedanism, and in 14.53 took Constantinople, terminating tho Greek or Eastern empire. Since tho sixteenth century their power has been less dreaded. The Mohammedans of the world have boon estimated at 250 millions, of whom 50 millions are in India, 40 millions directly under British rule, and 10 millions in allied or tributary states, Tho Koran ( = that which is read or recited) is their sacred book and their code of law. Their faith is called Islam (^surrender of the will to God). Five duties are incumbent on the faithful Mohammedan: A confession of faith that there is but one God. nnd that Mohammed is his prophet, prayer, fasting, almsgiving, nnd a pilgrimage to Mecca. Friday is their Sabbath and day of special worship. Raising the nations which have embraced it to a higher creed than their old idolatry, Islam has so stereotyped them as to render all further changes intensely difficult. No other faith offers so stubborn a resistance to the spread of Christianity.

MQ-ham m5d an Ize, Ma - h5m - 8 - tan - Ise, MQ ham ma dan Ize, v.t. [Eng. Muhammadan; •ize.]

1. Of thinga: To render conformable to Mohammedan law or usage.

2. Of peraona: To convert to or coerce into Mohammedanism.

Mo ham -mSd-lgm, Ma - h5m - St - lam, Maham -mad-Ism, a. [mohammedanism.]

M6 ham -mSd Ize, Ma-h5m -fit-lie, MA-ham mad ize, v. t. [mohammedanism.]

Md hawk, M6-hdck, *. [North American Indian. 1

1. Tiienameof a tribeof North-American Indians.

*2. A name given to certain ruffians who infested tho streets of London toward the end of the seventeenth century.

m6 -hfle, mS -haut, a. [The West Indian name.]

Hot.: Hibiacus arboreua, called also Pnrttium tiliaccum. Iu tho days of slavery tho negroes wore flogged with whips made of its fibers.

mbhr-I-ai *• [Named after Mohr, a botanical writer.]

Hot.: A genus of ferns, order Polypodiacee. Tho sori, which are few, are situated near tho re volute margins of tho pinnules. Only known species Mohria thurifera. It smells of benzoin. It is found in South Africa and the Mascaron Islands.

m5h§'-tne, a. [Named after the German mineralogist, F. Mohs; suff. -tree (A/in.).]

Min.: Tho same as LOLLlNoiTEand Leucopyrite Cq.v.).

mohs-He, t. [Named after the German mineralogist, F. Mohs; suff. -ite (Min.).]

Min.: A variety of menaccanite occurring in thin plates more or loss hexagonal, associated with albite and quartz, at St. Christopho, lsere, France.

m.6 -hur, a. [Pers. muhur, muhrJ] A gold coin of British India, value fifteen rupees, or $7.25.

md-hur -r&m,«. [Arab.]

1. The first month of the Mohammedan year.

2. One of the greatest of the Mohammedan festivals, it is held in commemoration of the so-called martyrdom of Hassun and Uosein, sons of Ali, and nephews of Mohammed, which occurred in the forty-sixth year of the Hejira. It commences the evening on which the now moon becomes visible in the mouth Mohurrum, and continues fully ten days. While the festival continues, the people light fires every evening in pits, fencing across them with sticks or swords nnd leaping across or even t hrough them, crying out Ya Ali, Va Ali (Oh Ali. Oh Ali), Shah Hassun, Shah Hoscin (Noble Hassun, Noble Hosein), Ac. They form ullums or facsimiles of Hosein s banner of coppor, brass, steel, or even silver or cold, and finally carry past in procession beautiful tahoots or tombs, which, in India, at least, are ultimately throwu iuto some river. There are many other ceremonies.

mohurrum-fakir, a. Fakirs or religions mendicants, dressed up in peculiar ways to take part in the Mohurrum. Jaffur Shurreof enumerates fortyseven kinds of them, all with distinctive names.

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