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IIB'-ēr-āte, v. t. (Lat.liberatus, pa. par. of libero 2. Script.: The word occurs but once in the New (5) Liberty-pole: A flag-staff surrounded with the =to set free; liber=free; Fr. libérer; Ital. liberare., Testament --" The synagogue of the Libertines" symbols of liberty. . To set free; to release from restraint or confine (Acts vi. 9). Its meaning has given rise to much (6) Moral liberty: That liberty of choice which ment; to set at liberty; to free, to deliver.
discussion; but the most probable explanation is is essential to moral responsibility. [FREE-WILL.) lib-ér-a-tion, 8. (Lat. liberatio, from liberatus, that the Libertines were Jews who, having been (7) Natural liberty: A state of exemption from pa. par. of libero; Fr. libération; Ital. liberazione;
taken prisoners by Pompey and other Roman the restraint or control of others, and the institu. Sp. liberacion.).
generals in the Syrian wars, had been reduced to tions of civil life. The power to act or do as one 1. The act of liberating or setting free from re- slavery, but, having been emancipated, returned to pleases, subject only to the laws of nature.
(8) Political liberty: The liberty or freedom of a straint, confinement, &c.; a setting at liberty: Palestine. freeing.
B. As adjective:
nation; exemption of a nation from any unjust 2. The state of being liberated or set free.
abridgment of its rights and independence by *1. Freethinking, latitudinarian.
another nation. lib'-or-ā-tõr, s. (Lat., from liberatus, pa. par. 2. Loose. licentious, profligate, lewd, debauched, (9) Religious liberty: The free right to hold what of libero.] One who liberates or frees; a deliverer. dissolute; as, a libertine life.
opinions one pleases in religious matters, and to tlb:-Ẽr-a-tbn-ỹ, a. [Eng. liberator; -.] Tend- b^-Ẽr-tin-sm, 8. [Eng. libertin(e); ism.
worship the Deity according to the dictates of con. ing to liberate or set free.
science, free from external control. *1. The quality or state of being a freedman. Lib-ēr-ā-trix, s. [The fem. form of Lat. libera. *2. Irreligiousness, freethought; looseness of mo- Harbor): On October 28, 1886, after more than
(10) Statue of Liberty (Bedloe's Island, N. Y.
after more than twelve tor.)
rality. Astron.: [ASTEROID, 125.]
years of preparation, the colossal statue of Liberty
“Even modest heathens would hiss this libertinism off given by the people of France to the United States Ll-ber'-l-an, a. (For etym, see definition.] Be the stage."-Bp. Hall: Cases of Conscience, Dec. 4, ch. ii. . was dedicated and unveiled in New York harbor. longi found in, or in any way connected with QT Liberia, an independent republic of Western Africa, gacy, licentiousness, lewdness, grossness, debauch.
in 3. Loose, licentious, or dissolute conduct; profli. The statue was the conception of M. Bartholdi,
acy, licentiousness, lewdness. grossness, debauchwho designed it for the Franco-American Union in settled by free negroes from the United States in ery.
1874. It was built by popular subscriptions of the 1822.
people of France, and required over five years for Liberian-hippopotamus, s.
lib:-ēr-tý, *lib-er-te, *11b-er-tee, 8. [French its completion. It was mounted in Paris in OctoZool.: Hippopotamus minor. a small species de liberté, from Lat. libertatem, accus. of libertas= ber, 1881. The American pedestal for the statue scribed by Dr. S. G. Morton (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.,
e liberty: liber=free; Ital. liberta; Port. liberdade; was not commenced until April, 1883, and was finally Philadel., Feb., 1844), from the notes of Dr. Goheen, :: Sp. libertad.]
finished in 1886. It was built by a popular subcolonial physician at Monrovia, and from two I. Ordinary Language:
scription under the auspices of the New York crania which that gentleman sent to America. In
World. The statue was immediately erected upon
1. The quality or state of being free; exemption 1850 (ib., 1850, pp. 231-39) Dr. Morton proposed to from restraint; freedom; power of acting according estal. The statue itself is of bronze. Some of its
an iron framework bolted firmly to the stone pedcall it H. liberiensis, the name by which it is now to one's will.
dimensions are given as follows: generally known, though "it was proposed to make
"And methought while she liberty sung, a new genus of it under the name of Chcropsis.”
Ft. In. 'Twas liberty only to hear." (Van Hoeven.) It has but two incisors in the lower
Water-level to top of pedestal............149 10
Cowper: Morning Dream. jaw; the posterior molars are only partially pro
Statue proper to top of torch.... truded, and rise obliovely like those of the ele. 2. The power of an agent to do or to leave undone phant and mastodon. It varies in weight from four any particular action, according to the determina. Total height from water-level........301 3 hundred to seven hundred pounds. tion of his mind or judgment; freedom of will;
Heel to top of head........................111 lib-ēr--, pref. [Lat. libero = to set free.] (For Essay, bk. ii., ch. xxi., 88.) freedom from constraint in will or volition. (Locke:
Length of hand........... def. see etym.)
Index-finger........... 3. Permission granted, as by a superior to an
Circumference at sec tlibero-motor, adj. Letting out or liberating inferior, to do any act, which the latter might not
Size of finger-nail............ nerve force. (H. Spencer.) do without such permission; leave, license. .
Head from chin to cranium..... lib-ēr-tär-i-an, a.& 8. [Eng. libert(y); -arian. 1 4. Privileges or immunities enjoyed by prescrip
Head-thickness from ear to ear. A. As adj.: Pertaining to liberty or freewill, in- tio tion or by grant; franchise.
Distance between the eyes..... culcating the doctrine that the human will is free :1 5. A place or district within which certain priv.
Length of nose.... as opposed to the teaching that it is impelled by lleges, immunities, or franchises are enjoyed.
Right arm, length.. necessity to a certain course of action.
“The bells of all the parishes of the city and liberties Right arm, greatest thickness. B. As subst.: One who accepts the doctrine that were ringing."-Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch. viii.
Thickness of waist.. human will is free. [FREE-WILL, NECESSITY.] 6. Permission to go or move about within certain
Width of mouth.....
Tablet, length..... lib- r-tär-I-an-ism, s. (English libertarian: limits, as in a place of confinement; a certain
Tablet, width...... ism.) The doctrines or principles of libertarians. degree of freedom of movement. .
7. The limits within which freedom of movement Tablet, thickness.... 11-bēr'-ti-çide, 8. [Latin libert(as) = liberty; is allowed; as, the liberties of a prison.
The statue weighs 450,000 pounds, or 225 tons. The i connective; cædo (in comp.cido)=to kill.]
8. Conduct, behavior, or speech on the part of one bronze alone weighs 200,000 pounds. Forty persons 1. The act of destroying liberty...
person toward another, such as is not warranted by can stand comfortably in tbe head, and the torch 2. One who destroys liberty. (Shelley: Adonais, their relative positions in society, rank, age, &c.; will hold twelve people. The total number of steps vi.) a slight breach of decorum or courtesy.
in the temporary staircase which leads from the *lib'-ēr-tin-age (age as ig), 8. (Eng, libertin(e); “The nonjurors ... ventured to take unusual libe base of the foundation to the top of the torch is 403; -age.] Excessive freedom of opinions or conduct; erties.”—Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch. xxi.
from the ground to the top of the pedestal 195 steps. license.
9. Freedom or exemption from occupation or
The number of steps in the statue from the pedestal “A growing libertinage, which disposed them to think engagements: leisure: the state of being disen
to the head is 154, and the ladder leading up lightly of the Christian faith."-Warburton: Sermons, gaged: as, Are you at liberty?
through the extended right arm to the torch has 54 vol. ix., ser. 13.
rounds. The cost of the statue is estimated at *10. Licentiousness, libertinism.
$250,000; the cost of the pedestal and the erection lib' -ēr-tine, s. & a. (Lat. libertinus=(a.) per
"Lust and liberty taining to a freedman, (s.) a freedman; from libertus
of the statue, $350,000; total cost of the work, comCreep in the minds and marrows of our youth."
pleted and in place, $600,000. =a freedman; liber, free; Fr. libertin; Sp., Port.,
Shakesp.: Timon of Athens, iv. 1. & Ital. libertino.)
It is believed to be surpassed in size by but two II. Manège: A curve or arch in that part of the existing statues in the world-those at Bamian, in A. As substantive:
bit placed in the mouth of a horse, to afford room Central Asia, which are both rude stone images 1. Ordinary Language: for the tongue of the animal.
carved from the rocks and standing where they *1. A freedman; one manumitted or set free from T(1) At liberty: Disengaged; not occupied. were carved. Their origin is unknown, but they slavery.
(2) Cap of liberty: A cap or hat worn as a symbol are believed to be works of great antiquity. There “Some persons are forbidden to be accusers; others on of liberty, as in ancient times manumitted slaves are five colossal statues at Bamian. The largest is the score of their condition, as libertines against their wore the Phrygian cap as a token of their having said to be 173 feet high from the beel to the top of patrons."-Aylife: Parergon.
been set free. In modern days a red cap worn by the head, and the second 120 feet high, The Colossus *2. A freethinker. French revolutionists.
of Rhodes was said to have been about 105 feet high. "It is too probable that our modern libertines, deists, (3), Civil hoerty: A sta
(3) Civil liberty: A state of freedom or liberty, That of Nero is said by Suetonius to have been 120 and theists took occasion from the scandalous contentions abridged only by the restrictions and regulations feet high. The statue of St. Charles Borromeo, of Christians among many changes, to disbelieve all." - established under the form of laws for the protec
ed under the form of laws for the protec- which is still standing on the Lake of Geneva, is A Discourse of Logomachus. (1711.)
tion and interests of the nation, society, or state. 66 feet high, and is mounted on a pedestal measur3. One free in his moral practice, especially with It is a state of exemption from the arbitrary will of ing 46 feet. The celebrated statue of Jupiter carved women; a debauchee, a profligate, a licentious
others, secured by established laws, by which each by Phidias is said to have been 60 feet in height.
member is protected against injury on the part of The words liberty and freedom are often used person. ** Though a libertine, he won the hearts of the Puritans." others.
interchangeably. Properly speaking, however, lib. -Macaulay: Hist. Eng., vol. i., ch. ii.
(4) Liberty of the press :
erty hints at previous restraint: freedom does not; 4. One free from restraint; one who is unconfined.
(a) Ord. Lang.: The free right and power to pub- hence, a slave is set at liberty, not at freedom, "When he speaks,
lish whatever one pleases, subject only to punish- while a rude man expresses his sentiments, not The air, a charter'd libertine, is still."
ment for abuse of that freedom by publishing with too much liberty, but with too much freedom.
anything mischievous, hurtful, or libelous, to the Shakesp.: Henry V., i. 1.
_běth'-en-ite. 8. Named after the locality public or to individuals. 5. A freeman of a corporate town or city.
(6) Hist.: After the Reformation, the crown as- where first observed, Libethen; suff. -ite (Min.): II. Technically:
sumed the right, which the church had previously Ger. Libethenit.) 1. Church Hist.: A Flemish sect of Antinomians, exercised, of prohibiting the printing of all work's Min.: An orthorhombic (Schrauf says monoclinic who called themselves "Spirituals." They passed but such asshould be first seen and allowed. Tne or "pseudo-orthorhombic") mineral, occurring into France, where they were patronized by Mar- newspaper press, originating in the reign of James mostly in crystals, rarely globular or compact. garet of Navarre, sister of Francis I. They held I., was subjected to the royal licenser, and, though Hardness, 4; specific gravity, 3-6-88; luster, resinthat, as God was the author of all human actions, the fall of the Star Chamber, in 1641, augured well ous; color and streak, olive-green, the former usuno human action could be evil; that religion con- for the liberty of the press, parliament did not ally dark. Fracture, subconchoidal. Composition: sisted in union with God by contemplation, and affect a spirit of toleration, and Milton, in his Phosphoric acid, 29'7; oxide of copper, 66.5 ; water, that any one who had attained to this could act as Areopagitica, branded the suppression of truth by 3:8; which corresponds to the formula (4Cu0) PO:+ he pleased. Calvin wrote strongly against them. the licenser as the slaying of an immortality rather HO. Principal localities are Libethen, Hungary, (Blunt.) than a life.
and Cornwall. fāte, făt, färe, amidst, whãt, fail, father; wē, wět, hëre, camel, hēr, thêre; pine, pit, sïre, sir, marine; go, pot,
omotion of a sell intoxicament containin License for a docuie free
11-bid -In-Ist, s. (Lat. libido (genit. libidinis): Cambridge, Mass.......... Harvard Library....... .1638 libriform-fibers, s. pl. Eng. sutf. -ist.] One given to lust or lewdness. Springfield, Mass.
....1861 II-bid-in-os-It-, 8.
Bot.: Fibers like those of liber; simple, bast-like
Natural History..... [Eng. libidinous; -ity.]
...... 1860 The quality or state of being libidinous; lewdness. Worcester, Mass.........
wood-fibers. (Thome.) Public.....
| LÍb--ạn, a. [Lat. Libus.] 11-bid-in-oŭs, a. (Fr. libidineur; from Lat. New Haven..
. 1700 libidinosus; from libido (genit. libidinis); Sp. &
1. Of or pertaining to Libya, the ancient name of Ital. libidinoso.] Characterized by lewdness or New York............
Columbia College, 1754 a large district in the north of Africa; hence somewantonness; lewd, lustful, wanton; lascivious,
1700 times used for Africa itself. unchaste, lecherous.
“We drank the Libyan sun to sleep."
.....1748 ill-bidi-in-ous-1ỹ, adv. [Eng. libidimous; -ly.]
Tennyson: Dream of Fair Women, 145.
Theological.. In a libidinous, lewd, or lustful manner; lewdly,
2. Applied to a group of languages, spoken by lasciviously, lustfully, wantonly.
Philadelphia, Pa....... Library Company...
tribes inhabiting the mountainous parts of Bar. t11-bid -In-oðs-nēss, s. [Eng. libidinous; -ness.]
Annapolis, Ma.... The quality or state of being libidinous; lewdness, Georgetown, D.O.....
.... 1827 11-by-thē-a, s. [Gr. Libys=Libyan, and thea= College..
1789 lustfulness, lasciviousness.
1802 aspect. (Agassiz.)] lib-ken, *lib-kin, s. [Probably from A. S. lib. Washington
The typical genus of the sub-family oan=to live, and ken (2) s. (q. v.)] A low house or
æ (q. v.). The males only have the two lodging.
1835 fore claws very short and broad. The upper wings Public
are very angular. 11-bo-çē-drūs, s. (Gr. libas, libosra tear, and
Chicago... kedros=a cedar.)
11b-ỹ-thể-1-ne, S. p. [Mod. Lat libute(a); University..
. 1892 Lat. pl. fem. adj. suff. -inæ.] Bot.: A genus of Conifere. Libocedrus doniana is
Entom.: A sub-family of Butterflies, family Ery. the Kawa of New Zealand. Its beautifully-grained
Public School and heavy wood would be well adapted for picture
cinidæ. They have very long palpi. There is only
1865 frames. (Loudon.)
1816 one genus. Species are found in the south of
.....1846 900 (Mercantile.....
.1853 Europe, in Asia, Africa, and America. li -bra, 8. (Lat.=a balance. So named because San Francisco .........
* Odd Fellows..... .1854 *11-cär-1-, s. (Native name.) when the sun enters Libra the days and nights are *library-keeper, 8. A librarian.
Bot.: An old doubtful genus of Lauraceæ, now equal like the scales of a balance.] Astron.: The Balance.
"A library-keeper, who is likewise to be an apothecary. made a synonym of Dicypellium. Licaria guian(1) One of the twelve ancient zodiacal constella
druggist, and keeper of instruments, engines, &c."--Cow- ensis is the Bois de Rose (Rosewood of Guiana).
ley: Advancement of Experimental Philosophy. ions. It is surrounded by the constellations Scor
līçe, 8. pl. [LOUSE.] pio, Ophiuchus, Virgo, Centaurus, and Lupus. It 11'-brate, v. t. & i. (Lat. libratus, pa. par, of *lice-bane. subst. “A plant." (Johnson.) Not contains no stars of the first magnitude. libro=to balance; libra=a balance.]
identified. (2) The seventh sign of the Zodiac. Owing to the A. Trans.: To balance, to poise, to hold in equi. | Beggars' lice: precession of the equinoxes it now contains the con- poise.
Bot.: A popular name for Cynoglossum morisoni. stellation Virgo. The sun enters it about Sept. 23.
; B. Intrans.: To be in equipoise; to move as a li-sen-sa-ble, a. (Eng. licens(e); -able.) That 11*-bral, a, (Lat. libralis, from libra=a pound balance.
may or can be licensed or legally permitted. weight.] Of a pound weight; weighing a pound. 11-brā'-tion, 8. (Lat. libratio, from libratus, pa. lI'-cense, li-cence, *11-cens, *ly-cence, subst.
II-brär-1-an, 8. (Lat. librarius = (s.) a tran- par. of librorto balance; libra=a balance; French (Fr. licence, from Lat. licentia=power or freedom seriber of books; (a.) of or pertaining to books: libration; Sp. libracion; Ital. librazione.] liber=a book; Fr.libraire; Sp. librero, Ital. librajo
to act; licens, pr. par. of licet=it is allowed or I. Ordinary Language:
allowable; Sp. licensia; Ital. licenzia.] =a bookseller.) $1. One who transcribes or copies books.
1. Authority, leave, or permission to do or forbear 1. The act of balancing, or placing or holding in
any act; liberty, freedom. 2. One who has charge of a library; the keeper of equipoise. (H. More: Immortality of the Soul, a library or collection of books. | bk. ii., ch, x.) .
“When he had geuen hym lycence, Paule stode on the * It probably contained some illuminated MSS., as the
steppes, and beckened with his hande to the people."2. The state of being balanced or in equipoise.
Acts xxi. (1551.) librarian had the keeping of the colors too."-Walpole:
“Their pinions still Anecdotes of Painting, vol. i., ch. i.
In loose librations stretched, to trust the void
2. Leave or permission granted by the proper 11-brär-1-an-ship, s. (Eng. librarian; -ship.]
Thomson: Spring, 743. authority to do any act, or to carry on any business The office, post, or position of a librarian.
II. Astron.: A real or apparent motion of a or profession; as, a license to preach, a license to
heavenly body like that of a balance when ap. sell intoxicating drinks. 11*-bra-ry, *11-brai-rie, *11-bra-rie, 8. (French proaching a state of rest. (Used especial of the 3. A document containing such permission or librairie, from Lat. librarium, neut. sing. of libra- moon.) (7) (Boyle: Works, iv. 98.)
authority; as, to take out a license for a dog. rius=pertaining to books: liber=a book; orig. the
4. Excess of liberty; exorbitant or undue free
T 1. Libration in latitude: bark of a tree, that being the earliest writing
dom; abuse of freedom or liberty; licentiousness.
Astron. (of the moon): A small variation in the (Milton : Sonnet xi.) material: Sp. & Ital libreria, Port. livraria.) 1. A collection of books, whether belonging to a precise part of the mon presented to us. The '5. In
5. In art, poetry, music, &c., applied to that devi. moon always presents the same hemisphere to us, ation from the ordinary rules or mode of treatment private person, an institution, or the nation. "Bale, the antiquary, makes mention of a merchant but as her axis varies from the plane of her orbit by
enforced by a particular school, or adopted as the an angle of 1° 30' 10'8', her two poles lean alternately result of peculiar education; the liberty taken by that bought two noble libraries about these times for torty shillings."-Strype: Mem. Henry VIII. (an. 1545). to and from the earth. When the north pole leans
an artist in deviating from the strict rules of his toward the earth we see a little more of the region
of the region art. (Ir 2. A room or set of rooms set apart for a collec
ving: Goldsmith, ch, xxviii.) surrounding it; when turned away we see less ; this tion of books, manuscripts, &c. (P. Holland: ouana : variation constitutes the libration in latitude.
11-çense, 17'-çence, v. t. (LICENSE, 8.) Pliny, bk. XXXV., ch. ii.)
2. Libration in longitude:
1. To give anthority, leave, or permission to do It is stated that there was a library in the
he Astron. (of the moon): A slight variation at dif- any act or carry on any business, profession, &c.; Memnonium at Thebes in the fourteenth century ferent times in the amount of the eastern or western to authorize by a legal grant of permission; to give B.C. Layard and his successors disentombed libra edge of the moon seen. This arises from the fact a license to. ries, or their equivalents, collections of inscribed eslinders, from the sites of old Assyrian palaces. not quite the same as that of her angular velocityli'-censed. pa. par. or a. (LICENSE, v.]
that the angular velocity of the moon on her axis is *2. To dismiss; to send or put away. Kiriatb-sepber, the old naine of Debir, means the
in her orbit. This was first discovered by Hevelius **City of Book(s)" (Judges i.11). Pisistratus founded in 1647.
1. Having a license; permitted by authority. a public library at Athens about 540 B. C. Strabo
3. Diurnal libration, Parallactic vibration :
“The reasons of your licencet pamphlet are good."says that the first private library was that of Aris.
Astron. (of the moon): A slight variation in the Milton: Colasterion, p. 349. totle. B. C. 334. Ptolemy I. (Soter) founded the
aspect of the moon, arising from the fact that, 2. Tolerated, allowed. celebrated Alexandrian Library in the Serapeum
owing to the diurnal motion of the earth, we view about 298 B. C.; it was partially destroyed by fire th
“What from our master's interests thus we draw, the moon at its rising or setting, in different circumin the Egyptian contest carried on by Julius Cæsar,
Is but a licensed theft that 'scapes the law." stances, according to the latitude of the earth at R. C. 47. It is said to have been burned by the the spot where the observer stands.
Pope: Homer's Niad, xxiv, 634.
It brings into Caliph Omar, A. D. 640. A fine library of 200,000
licensed-house, 8. A public-house; a house volumes, collected by Attalus I., King of Pergamos, limb, or whenever the moon has parallax, a little
view at the moon's rising and setting, on the upper
Phile having a spirit license, as distinguished from a about 197 B. C., came into the possession of the more than a hemisphere.
beerhouse. (Eng.) Romans on the death of Attalus III., B.C. 133, he
licensed-victualer, 8. The keeper of a publichaving nominated them heirs to his kingdom. 'Oflī-bra-tõr-, a. (Eng. librat(e); -ory.] Bal. modern libraries that of the British Museum, with ancing; balanced; moving like a balance; oscillat- wines, beer, &c.' (Eng.)
house, inn, &c., holding a license to sell spirits, about 1.300.000 volumes, accessible on easy condi- ing. tions to every student above twenty-one years old,
11-cens-eē', s. (Eng. licens(e); -ee.] One to whom “Maraldi discovers the libratory motion of the nodes ominent. Other fine British libraries are of Jupiter's second satellite."-Chambers: Astronomy,
a license is granted; the holder of a license. the Bodleian Library at Oxford, the libraries of the p. 772.
li-çens-ēr, *l1'-çenç-ěr, s. (Eng. licens(e); other universities, the London Library, the Advocates' Library in Edinburgh, &c. The most noted 11-brēt-tist, 8. (Eng. librett(o); -ist.] One who -er.). One who grants license, leave, or authority: continental library is that of the Vatican in Rome. writes a libretto; one who composes words for an one legally authorized to grant licenses. The largest French library is the Bibliotheque opera, oratorio, &c.
li-çens-ing, pr. par. or particip. adj. (LI. National in Paris, founded by Louis XIV. It con- 11-brět'-tő, s. [Ital.=a little book : dimin. of libro CENSE, v.] Giving license; allowing or indorsing. tains 1,400,000 volumes, 300,000 pamphlets, 175,000 =a book.)
tlī-cen-sure (s as sh), 8. [Eng. licens(e); -ure.) manascripts, 300,000 maps and charts, and 150,000 Music:
The act of licensing. coins and medals. The collection of engravings 1. A book containing the words of an opera, ora exceeds 1,300,000, contained in some 10,000 volumes. torio, or similar musical work.
11-çěn'-ti-ate (ti as shl), li-cen-ti-at, s. & a. 2. The words of an opera, oratorio, &c.
(Low Latin licentiatus, pa. par. of licentio=to LARGE LIBRARIES IN THE UNITED STATES.
license, from Latin licentia=license (q. v.); Ital. Place.
Founded li-bri-form, a. [Latin liber (genit. libri), and licenziato: Sp. licenciadol Angasta, Me... ............. Stato Library............ 1827 forma=shape.) (See the compounds.)
A. As substantive:
libriform-cells, 8. pl.
1. One who has license or authority to follow any (State..................... 1826 Bot.: Cells like those existing in liber (q. v.), particular art, business, or profession. po boy: pout, Jówl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.
4. To consume, to devour.
liegen (pa. t. lag, pa. par. gelegen); Goth. ligan *Then the fire of the Lord fell, and consumed the Comm.: The root of Glycyrrhiza glabra.
(pa. t. lag, pa. par. ligans); Russ. lejate. The same burnt sacrifice, . and licked up the water that was
root appears in Lat. lectus, and Gr. lechos=a bed.]
lic-tor, 8. [Lat., prob. connected with ligo=to in the trench."-i Kings xviii. 38.
1. To rest horizontally or in a nearly horizontal bind, from the fasces or bundles of bound rods position: to occupy a position lengthwise or flat 3. To flog, to chastise, to beat.
which he bore.) A civil officer among the Romans, upon the surface of anything.
who attended upon the consuls or other chief mag-
"Get thee up; wherefore liest thou thus upon thy Wolcot: Peter Pindar, p. 305.
face?"-Joshua vii. 10. cuted the orders of the magistrate, especially where 6. To conqner, to beat, to master.
force was required, cleared the way before him, and 2. To lay or place one's self in a horizontal or in1. To lick into shape: To give form, system, or dispersed a crowd when it impeded public business. clining position. (Frequently with down.. method to; from the once popular notion that the It was the duty of the lictors t
n that the It was the duty of the lictors to inflict corporal and 3. To rest in an inclining position; as, young of the bear are born shapeless, and are licked capital punishment. FASCES.]
against a wall. into shape by their dam. “The liotors, at that word, tall yeomen all and strong,
“Lie heavy on him, earth, for he 2. To lick the dus': Each with his axe and sheaf of twigs, went down into
Laid many a heavy load on thee." (1) To be killed; to perish in battle.
Epitaph on Vanbrugh. "His enemies shall lick the dust."-Psalm lxxii. 9.
lic-u-ā-la, 8. [The name of one species in the 5. To be deposited in the grave; to be interred. '2) To act in a servile or abject manner. Macassar language.]
"I will lie with my fathers, and thou shalt carry me *3. To lick the spittle of: To fawn upon servilely; Bot.: A genus of Palmacex, tribe Corypheæ, family out of Egypt, and bury me in your buryingplace."--Gene. to court meanly. (LICKSPITTLE.)
Sabalidæ. Licuala acutifida furnishes the walk. 8is xlvii. 30. "His heart too great, though fortune little,
ing-sticks called Penang lawyers. The leaves of L. 6. To be confined to ono's bod, and unable to rise To lick a rascal statesman's spittle."
peltata are used in Assam for umbrellas, and in the through illness. Swift: Libel on Delany. Andamans for thatching
“Lies he not bedrid?"-Shakesp.: Winter's Tale, iv. 4. lick-box, s. A glutton; an epicure.
lid, *led, s. [A. S. hlid; cogn. with Dut. lid=a 7. To be at rest; to be calmed or still; not to *Agamemnon a lick-box.”-Urquhart: Rabelais, bk. ii., 1
is bk. ii. lid; Icel. hlidh=a gate, a gateway, a gap: M. H. move. ch. WIL
Ger. lit, lid=a cover; A.S. hlidan; 0. S. niidan=to
"The wind is loud and will not lie.". 1CK-penny, 8. A greedy, miseriy, covetous a bill; Lat. clivus.]
Shakesp.: Pericles, iii. 1. feilvw; a miser. *lick-platter, subst. A parasite, a lick-spittle. ittle
8. To pass the time of night; to sleep.
"A stranger on that pillow lay."
Shakesp.: Rape of Lucrece, 1,620. shutter, as of a box, or of the objective or eye-glass lick-spigot, *licke-spiggot, 8. A tapster, a sf drawer.
9. To be laid up or deposited; to remain. of an optical instrument, or of the charging-end of a retort, or of the works or face of a watch, of a
10. To be situated or placed; to have place, posi. ** Let the cunningest licke-spiggot swelt his heart out." hatchway, &c.
tion, or direction. -Nashe: Lenten Stuffe.
2. The membrane which is drawn over and covers "Michmethah that lieth before Shechem."---Joshua *lick-trencher, 8. The same as LICK-PLATTER the ball of the eye; an eyelid (q. v.).
xvii. 7. II. Botany:
11. To be posted or encamped; to take up a posi"Art magnanimous, lick-trencher !". Dekker: Satiromastix.
1. The calyx when it falls in a single piece from a lick, s. (Lick, v.) flower.
“My lord high constable, the English lie within fifteen 1. The act of rubbing or drawing the tongue over
2. The cover of the spore-cases of mosses.
hundred paces of your tents."-Shakesp.: Henry V., iii. 7. anything; the act of licking.
lid-closer, subst. A clamp for the covers of gas- *12. To reside, to dwell. "T3 eame galloping home at midnight to have a lick
uick retorts, which, after charging, are closed with a “Does he lie at the Garter p'--Shakesp.: Merry Wives of et lae hones-pot."-Dryden: Amphitryon, ii. 1. * luted joint to prevent escape of gas.
Windsor, ii. 1. 2. A slight smear or coat, as of paint. lid-flower, s.
13. To be confined, as in prison. 3. A place where salt is deposited at salt-springs, Bot.: Calyptranthes, a genus of Myrtaceæ, tribe
"I had rather lie in prison." ani where animals come to lick it. (KNOB-LICK, Myrtea.
Shakesp.: Henry VI., Pt. III., iii. 2. SALT-LICK. 4. A small quantity, such as can be taken up with lid uch as can be taken on with lid-děd, a. [Eng. lid; ed.] Covered with a 14. To be or remain in any particular state or
condition; to continue. (Followed by an adjective, pwita lid; hence, downcast. tbtoogue.
participle, or clause denoting the condition; as, to 3. A blow; a beating. (Slang.)
“The eye still fast lidded to the ground.”
Keats: Birthplace of Burns. 6. An exertion.
lie fallow, to lie weeping, to lie at one's mercy, to
1.lie still, &c.) UICK -ēr, s. [Eng. lick, v.; -er.) One who licks. lid-lěss, a. [Eng. lid; -less.) Having no lid;
« Their business still lies out o' door." uncovered, bare, as the eyes without eyelids; licker-in, s. hence, sleepless, vigilant.
Shakesp.: Comedy of Errors, ii. 1. Carding-machine: A drum, with cards on its peri
"To an eye like mine,
15. To be contained ; to be deposited. phery, presented at the throat of a carding-machine,
A lidless watcher of the public weal."
“There lies such secrets in this fardel." say to catch or lick in the cotton filaments as they
Tennyson: Princess, iv, 306.
Shakesp.: Winter's Tale, iv. 4. are presented by the passage of the lay between the
lie (1), *lye, &. (A. S. lyge, lige, from leogan=to fes-rullers.
16. To depend; to be dependent; as, All our hope lie; Icel. lygi, Dut. logen, leugen; Ger. lüge.] (LIE lies in watchfulness. lick -ēr-ish, *lick -ēr-oŭs, *lich-er-ous, *lic- (1), v.]
17. To be in the power; to belong to; to depend. or ous, slik-er-ous, *li-quor-ish, a. (A variant 1. An intentional violation of the truth; a false of lecherous (q.v.).) statement made knowingly and deliberately for serve the lives of all men
“Dost thou endeavor, as much as in thee lies, to pre
- Dreppa: Rules for Devotion. 1. Nice in the choice of food; dainty.
the purpose of deception. *For al so siker as cold engendreth hayl,
“To lure me to the baseness of a lie."
18. To consist. A likerous mouth most han a likerous tayle."
Cowper: Table Talk, 86. +19, To weigh; to press afflictively.
“Thy wrath lieth hard upon me, and thou hast amicted 2. Pleasing to the taste; tempting to the appetite; “The cock and fox, the fool and knave imply;
me with all thy waves."-Psalm lxxxviii. 7. dainty. (Milton.).
The truth is moral, though the tale a lie."
20. To be troublesome or tedious; to hang heavily. 3. Eager to swallow; greedy; having a keen rel
Dryden: Cock and Fox; The Moral. isb.
ro; The Moral.
“I would recommend the studies of knowledge to the
“I would recom 4. Lecherous, lascivious, wanton.
3. Anything which mie
3. Anything which misleads, deceives, or disap. female world, that they may not be at a loss how to empoints; anything false, hollow, and deceptive.
ploy those hours that lie upon their hands." Addison: * Licherous lif thei led, and thouht it in thar bresto,
[ To give the lin to: (Give, | 17.]
21. To imputed, reckoned, or charged.
*22. To cost; as, It lies me in more money, lick -ēr-Ish-lì, *11ck' - ēr-oŭs - 1ğ, *lik-er- I. Ordinary Language:
23. To be valid in a court of judicature; to be ous-ly, adv. (Eng. lickerish, lickerous, -ly.] In a 1. The relative positions of two or more objects sustainable in law. liekerish, dainty, or lascivious manner.
with regard to each other, or to any point of the "If a man builds a house so close to mine that his roof lick -ēr-Ish-nēss, *lick-ēr-oŭs-nēss. *lik-er- compass; as, To know the lie of the land.
overhangs my roof, and throws the water off his roof ons-ness, 8. [Eng. lickerish, lickerous, -ness.] The 2. The situation, position, or state of affairs, &c. upon mine, this is a nuisance, for which an action will quality or state of being lickerish; daintiness; II. Geol.: The arrangement of strata with spe- lie."— Blackstone: Comment., bk. iii., ch. 8. Deness of palate. cial reference to their dip and strike.
11. To lie along : “A theef of venison that hath forlaft, His likerousness and all his olde craft."
lie (1), *lye, *ligh-en, *1i-en, v. i. (A. S. leogan N aut.: To lean over with a sido wind, as a ship.
Chaucer: C. T., 1,217. Spa. t. leág, pa. par. lugen); cogn. with Dut. liegen 2. To lie along the land: lick-in, s. [Scotch lick=to beat; -in=-ing.] A
(pa. t. loog, pa. par. gelogen), Icel, ljúga (pa. t. Naut.: To keep a course parallel cr nearly so to 1 laug, pa. par. loginn); Dan. lyve (pa. t. 10%, pa. par. the land.
laug, ba par "loginn):Daniluve pas toidi
löjet), Swjuga (pa.t. lög, pa. par. ljugen): Goth. *3. To lie at: To importune, to tease. lick -spit-tle, 8. [Eng. lick, and spittle (q. v.).) liugan (pa. t. lauh, pa. par. lugans) ; Ger. lügen “His mother and brother had lain at him."-Harl. À parasite or toady of the meanest and most abject (pa. t. log, pa. par. gelogen); Russ. Igate, luigate= Miscell., iii. 549. character.
to lie; lojesa lie.). To tell a lie: to speak falsely 4. To lie at one's door: To be attributable or IIc -or-Ice, 11-quor-Ice, *lic-or-is, 8. [Fr. licor. with intent to deceive; to say or do anything know
ingly and deliberately, with intent to deceive an. ice; Ital. liquirizia, Lat. liquiritia, corrupted
chargeable to one.
ive an. 15. To lie at one's heart: To be a source or object from glycyrrhiza (q. v.). other.
of anxiety, care, or desire. 1. Botany:
“Lord Angus, thou hast lied."
6. To lie at the root of anything: To be the real or (1) The genus Glycyrrhiza(g. v.); and specif. Gly
Scott: Marmion, vi. 14. true cause, foundation, or source. qyrrhiza glabra and G. echinata. (GLYCYRRHIZA.) lie (2), *11-en, *lig-gen, *lye (pa. t. *lai, *lei, 7. To lie' between: To be limited to; as, one's 13) The root of Abrus precatorius.
lay, pa. par. *leien, *lein, lain), v. i. (A. S. licgan choice lies between two courses. 2. Pharm.: (GLYCYRRHIZA.1
(pa. t. læg, pa. par. legen); cogn. with Dut, liggen 8. To lie by: SWild licorice :
(pa. t. lag, pa. par. gelegen); Icel, liggja (pa. t. lá, (1) Ordinary Language: Bot.: A name for Ononis arvensis. [ONONIS, REST- pa. par. leginn); Dan. ligge (pa. t. laae, pa. par. (a) To remain, to continue; as, he has the papers EARROW.]
ligget); Sw. ligga (pa. t. lag, pa. par. legad); Ger. lying still by him. doll, boy; pout, Jowl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, ezisty ph = f.
.(6) To leave off ; to intermit labor; to rest for a lieberkühnian-glands, s. pl. [LIEBERKUEHN'S Law: A legal claim on or upon property; a legal timé. GLANDS.]
right in one person to detain the goods of another “Even the billows of the sea, liēr-big-ite, 8. (Named by L. Smith after the
until some claim of the former against the latter Hvng their heads, and then lay by."
has been satisfied.
"Alien may be either particular or general; the former (2) Naut : To remain near, as one ship to another. mammillary concretions on uraninite (q. v.). One
is where the claim of retainer is made upon the goods 9. To lie down: apparent cleavage. Hardness, 2 to 25. Luster,
themselves, in respect of which the debt arises, a claim (1) To go to rest; to lay one's self down.
which the law favors. The other, or general lien, is where vitreous. Composition: Carbonic acid, 10-2; ses
goods are retained in respect of a general balance of “The leopard shall lie down with the kid."--Isa. xi. 6. quioxide of uranium, 380: lime, 8:9; water, 45 2.
account, which is less favored. Thus & trainer who has *(2) To sink into the grave. Dissolves in dilute acids with effervescence, atford
a horse given him to train, has a lien for his charges of ing a yellow solution, which yields the reactions of keep and training; and in general, when the goods are “His bones are full of the sin of his youth, which shall uranium and lime. Found at Joachimsthal, Bo- delivered to a person to be improved or altered in charle down with him in the dust."- Job xx. 11.
hemia, and Adrianople, Turkey. A similar mineral acter, this right arises; as when cloth is delivered to a 10. To lie hard or heavy: To press; to be a bur. from the Elias mine, Joachimsthal, gave as a mean tailor to convert into clothes; or corn to a miller to be den.
of three analyses : Carbonic acid, 23.86: protoxide returned in the shape of flour. The right may, however, " This fever that has troubled me so long
be regulated by special agreement, and then its operam of uranium, 37:11; lime, 15-56; water, 23:34.
tion will depend upon the particular terms of the conLies heavy on me. O! my heart is sick." lled, 8. [Ger.)
tract; but in the absence of express contract, the law Shakesp.: King John, v. 3.
Mus.: The name for a composition of a simple implies a lien wherever the usage of trade or the previous *11. To lie in: To be in childbed. character, which is complete in itself; a song:
dealings of the parties give ground for such an implicar “She had lain in, and her right breast had been aposte. There are several kinds, but the chief are classed favored by law, yet in some cases they have become
tion. Although, as has been said, general liens are not mated."-Wiseman: Surgery. under the following heads: Sacred songs or cho
allowed and established by usage, as in the case of attor. 12. To lie in a nutshell: To be capable of brief rales; secular songs, comprising national songs,
neys upon the title-deeds and documents of their clients: statement or explanation; to be simple or of easy people's songs (volkslieder), drinking songs, and and factors, warehousemen, and others, upon goods con. determination. humorous songs.
fided to them in the ordinary course of business; all of 13. To lie in one: To be in the power of; to de- liēf, *lef, *leef, *liefe, *leif, *leave, leefe,
whom have a lien for the amount of the general balance pend on.
due to them in their several capacities."-Blackstone: 14. To lie in the way: To be an obstacle or impedi- leste
*leve, adv. & 8. [A. S. leof, lióf; voc. leofa, pl. Comment., bk. ii., ch. 17.
leofe, comp. leofra, super. leofestå; cogn. with Dut. ment. or lief : Icel. ljúfr; Sw. ljuf: Goth. liubs; Ger. lieb;
en: 15. To lie in wait: To watch or wait in ambush or
lien of a covenant, 8. concealment; to watch for an opportunity to attack.
Law: The commencement of a covenant, conM. H. Ger. liep; 0. 8. Ger. liup; Russ. lioboi= to attack. agreeable.)
taining the names of the covenanters and covenant$16. To lie on or upon:
ees, and the character of the covenant, whether (1) To be matter of obligation or duty; to be *A. A8 adjective: incumbent upon. '1. Dear, beloved.
joint or several. (Wharton.) "It should lie upon him to make out how matter, by 2. Willing, ready, pleased.
11-ěn-těr'-Ic, a. (English lienter(y); -ic.) Of or undirected motion, could at first necessarily fall, without
“He up arose,
pertaining to a lientery. (Grew: Muscum.) ever erring or miscarrying, into such a curious formation
However lief or loth.” Spenser. 11 -ěn-tēr-y, s. (Gr. leion=smooth, and enteron of human bodies." -- Bentley: Sermons.
B. As adv.: Willingly, gladly, freely; only used =an intestine; Fr. lienterie.] (2) To depend upon.
now in the phrase, I had as lief=I would as will. Pathol.: A species of diarrhea or looseness, in “Our fortune lies upon this jump." ingly.
which the food passes rapidly througb the bowels Shakesp.: Antony and Cleopatra, iii. 8.
"I had as lief not be, as live to be
undigested, and nearly in the same condition as it *(3) To importune.
In awe of such a thing as I myself."
was when taken into the stomach; lubricity of the "Dame Julia lay even upon him.”—P. Holland: Livy,
Shakesp.: Julius Caesar, i, 2. intestines. (Mayne.) p. 27.
*C. As subst.: One beloved, a sweetheart, a friend. lI'-ēr, 8. (English lie (2), v.; -er.] One who lies 17. To lie on hand: To remain unsold or undis.
“Her liefe lay naked in his harme."
down; one who hides or conceals himself. (low
only used as in the exposed of.
Gower: C. A., bk. ii.
tract.) 18. To lie on one's hands:
llegance, 8. (LIGEANCE.] (1) To lie on hand.
"And Israel set liers in (2) To hang heavily; as, Time lies on one's hands. liễge, *lege, *leige, *lige, *lyge, a.& 8. (Etym. wait round about Gibeah." 19. To lie on one's oars: To be idle; to cease work. doubtful. Skeat derives it from Fr. lige = liege, Judges xx. 29. 20. To lie over:
loyal, from 0. H. Ger. ledic, lidic, lidig (Ger. ledig)= lI-ērne, subst. Etym. (1) To remain unpaid after the time when pay. free, unfettered by obligations; Low Lat. ligius.] donbtful
doubtful; perhaps from ment is due.
A. As adjective:
French lier=to bind.]. A (2) To be adjourned or postponed to a future
*1. Ruling or having authority over men free from
branch rib introduced beoccasion. obligations to any but himself.
tween the principal ribs 21. To lie to:
2. Bound by some feudal tenure, either as a vassal
of a groined arch, so as Plan of Groined Arch. Naut.: To be checked or stopped in her course; to tribute and due subjection, or as a lord to pro
to form an ornamental a. Principal ribs. b. Tieras, a ship by taking in sail. tection and just rule.
cerons. c. Liernes. “We now ran plump into a fog, and lay to."-Lord Duf
lieu, 8. [Fr., from Lat. locum, accus. of locus= ferin: Letters from High Latitudes, p. 81.
'Gainst their liege lord had weapon borne.".. a place.] Place, stead, room. Now only used in 22. To lie to one's work: To exert one's self to the
Scott: Lord of the Isles, ii. 20. the phrase in lieu of =instead of. utmost in the performance of one's work.
3. Pertaining or relating to the tenure or bond “Not being content to part with his large possessions, 23. To lie under: To be subject to; to suffer; to reciprocally connecting lord aud vassal. By liege in lieu of the treasure by Christ offered in heaven [be] bo oppressed by.
homage a vassal was bound to serve his lord against was reputed deficient."-Barrow: Sermons, vol. iii., ser. 15 “Let him ... lie under this report." - Shakesp.: all, not excepting his sovereign ; or against all ex lieu-těn-an-cř. 8. Eng. lieutenant: -cy.] Troilus and Cressida, ii. 3.
cepting a former lord to whom he owed like service. 24. To lie with:
1. The office, rank, or position of a lieutenant. *B. As substantive: (1) To lodge or sleep with.
2. The whole body of lieutenants collectively. (2) To have sexual intercourse with.
1. A vassal holding a fee, by which he was bound (Felton: On the Classics.) to do certain services and duties to his lord.
3. The district under the jurisdiction of a lord “If a man lie with his daughter-in-law."- Leviticus
2. A lord, a superior, a sovereign
lieutenant. (Eng.) XX. 12.
"Friedrich's no liege of his, while he delays
"Addresses to the King.... from Norwich, fron (3) To belong to; to depend on; as, It lies with
Getting the Pope's curse off him."
Hereford, from the Lieutenancy of London."- Baker? you to remedy the mistake.
R. Browning: Sordello, v. Charles II. (an. 1682). lie-a-bed, 8. One who lies in bed to a late hour 3. A law-abiding citizen.
| Commission of lieutenancy: in the morning. "You are a lazy lie-a-bed." – Foote: Mayor of Garrett, i.
Ëng. Law: The same as COMMISSION OF ARRAY. liege-lord, s. A sovereign, a superior lord. Habe'-nēr-ite. s.
lieu-těn'-ant, *lef-ten-aunt, *lief-ten-aunt, liege-poustie, 8. Named after L. Liebener; Santa Lan. That state of health which gives a
8. [Fr., from Lat. locumtenentem, accus, of locumsuff. -ite (Min.); Ger, liebnerit.)
tenens=one who holds the place of another; a
7 Min.: A mineral found in six-sided crystals in a person full power to dispose, mortis causa or other
deputy: locus=a place; tenens, pr. par. of teneo= porphyritic felsito at Mount Viesena. Fleimsthal. wise, of his heritable property. The term is supTyrol. Cleavage wanting. Hardness, 35; specific posed to be derived from the Lat. legitima potestas. to nold.] gravity, above 2:8; luster, greasy; color, greenish- signifying thelawful power of disposing of property I. Ord. Lang.: An officer, civil or military, who gray: no double refraction. Composition: a hy at pleasure. It is used in contradistinction to supplies the place of another temporarily during drated silicate of alumina with alkalies. Probably death-bed, a liege-poustie conveyance being one not absence, illness, &c. a pseudomorph_after Nepheline (q. v.). Dana in- challengeable on the head of death-bed.
"And this taxinge was ye first, and executed when cludes it in the Pinite group, the members of which *liēge-dom. 8. Eng. liege: suff. -dom.] Alle. Syrenius was leftenaunt in Siria."--Luke 2 (1551). are probably all pseudomorphs. giance.
II. Technically: liē -bēr-kuhn, 8. (After the inventor, Lieber "[They) proffered scepter, robe, and crown,
1. Mil.: A commissioned officer ranking next kübn.
Liegedom and seignorie."
below a captain Optics: An annular reflector attached to the nose
Scott: Bridal of Triermain, iii. 36. 2. Naval: A commissioned officer ranking next of the object-glass of a microscope, and serving liêğe'-măn, 8. [Eng. liege, and man.] A vassal, below a Commander in the British Navy, and, relato illuminate an object by reflecting the rays which a liege, a subject.
tively, with a captain in the army. pass around the object through the slip on the
"It had never been thought inconsistent with the duty | Deputy-lieutenant: An officer appointed by the stand.
of a Christian to be a true liegeman to such kings." - Lord-lieutenant of a county to act, in certain cases, Lieberkühn's glands, 8. pl. Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch, xiv.
as his deputy. (Eng.) Anat.: The name given to the minute tubular *liēģ-ēr, 8. (LEDGER, LEGER.]
lieutenant-colonel, 8. glands of the small intestine, because first ac. curately described by Lieberkühn. (Mayne.) *II-en, pa. par. of v. (LIE (2), v.]
Mil.: An officer next in rank below a colonel. 11ő-bër-kuhn-1-an, a. [For etym. see def.] of li-en, s. (Fr.=a band or tie, from Lat. ligamen, lieutenant-general, s. or belonging to Lieberkühn. from ligo=to tie, to bind.]
Mil.: An officer next in rank below a general. fate, făt, färe, amidst, whãt, fall, father; wē, wět, hëre, camel, bēr, thêre; pine, pit, sîre, sir, marine; gó, pot,