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leveler B. As substantive (pron. lě-vănt): lěv'-eē, v. t. (LEVEE, 8.]

*C. As adv.: Direct, straight. 1. A name given to those countries, and more 1. Ord. Lang.: To attend the levees of; to court

“It shall as level to your judgment pierce especially to the coasts of those countries lying on at levees.

As day does to your eye." the eastern part of the Mediterranean and the2. Hydraul. Engin.: To embank; as, to levee a

Shakesp.: Hamlet, iv. neighboring seas, as Turkey, Greece, Egypt, Asia river.

|| (1) To do one's level best : To put forth all one's Minor, Syria, &c.

lěv'-el, *lev-ell. *liv-el. 8. & a. ro. Fr. livel, exertions. "My voiage to the Ilands of Candia and Chio in the liveau (Fr. niveau), from 'Latin libella = a level,

(2) To have a level head: To possess a well-balLeuant."-Hackluyt: Voyages, ii. 92. dimin. of libra=a level, a balance; Ital. livello,

anced mind. 2. An easterly wind blowing up the Mediterra. livella; Port. livel, nivel; Sp. nivel.]

*level-coil, 8. An old Christmas game, in which nean.

A. As substantive:

each player hunted the other from his seat, the * They are called Levants both from their course, as

loser giving up his seat to the winner; henco, riot

I. Ordinary Language: blowing from the East where the sun rises, and also from

ous sport of any kind. (Ben Jonson.) their freshening and rising higher as the sun rises."

1. Literally:

level-lines, 8. pl. Sir Henry Sheere: Lord Halifax's Miscell., p. 84.

(1) That which is level; a surface without ine. Shipbuild.: Lines representing the boundaries of Lerant and couchant:

qualities; a plane. Law: [COUCHANT, 1.)

Aline or surface, every point in which is equally sections drawn at different heights and parallel

with the keel. Water-lines are drawn parallel with distant from the center of the earth, is a true level; Levant-sponge, s. [TURKEY-SPONGE.]

the line of flotation or the true horizontal. When a line or surface which is parallel to or coincident 1ě-vănt', 8. [Probably the same as LEVANT, a.) with the plano of the horizon is an apparent level.

the ship floats on an even keel, the level-lines and A land-spring.

(2) Tbo line of direction in which a missile is

to water-lines coincide. lě-vănt' (1), v. i. [Sp. levantar=to raise; levanaimed or sent.

lěv'-el, *1ěv'-ell, v. t. & i. (LEVEL, 8.] tar el campo=to break up camp; levantar la casa

(3) In the same senso as II. 2.

A. Transitive:

2. Figuratively: =to break up house.] To decamp, to run away.

I. Literally: (1) A state of equality or equal elevation with lē-vănt (2), v. t. (Etym. doubtful.] To tan, to somothing else.

1. To make horizontal; to reduce to a horizontal

plane. curry.

"The time is not far off when we shall be upon the 2. To bring to the same level or height with **There was also much valuable machinery used for level." --Atterbury: To Pope,

another. rolling, scouring, and levanting."-London Standard. (2) The natural position or state which belongs

"Less bright the moon, 1ě-vănt'-er (1), 8. (English levant, a.; -er.) A to anything; as, He has found his level.

But opposite in level'd west was set." levant; an easterly wind blowing up the Mediterra- 3. The usual or ordinary height, elevation, rate,

Milton: P. L., vii. 376. Dead. or standard.

3. To make smooth or even; to remove the intlē- vănt-ēr (2), 8. [Eng. levant, v.; -er.]

"His later productions fall below the level of his early equalities of surface in; to reduce to an even or 1. One who levants; one who decamps without

essays."-Stewart: Of the Human Mind, ch. v., pt. ii., § 2. flat surface.
4. A state of feeling or thought.

“With unresisted might the monarch reigns; paying his debts. 2. One who bets and decamps without paying.

“Our hearts, in glad surprise,

Ho levels mountains, and he raises plains."

Dryden: Sigismonda and Guiscardo, 283.
To higher levels rise."
Longfellow: Santa Filomena.

4. To lay flat; to make level with the ground. 1ě-vănti-ine, lěv-ant-ine, a.& 8. [Eng. levant, *5. A rule, plan, scheme, or motive.

“Oaths divino the willing nations bound, a.; -ine.]

Ne'er to return, till our victorious pow'rs A. As adjective:

"Be the fair level of thy actions laid,

Hal level'd with the dust the Theban tow'rs." As temp'rance wills."

Wilkie: Epigoniad, bk. i. 1. Ord. Lang.: Of or pertaining to the Levant.

Prior: Solomon, iii. 43.
"Those Ausonia claims,
II. Technically:

5. To point in taking aim; to raise or depress, so Lerantine regions these." Couper: Task, iii. 583.

as to point direct to an object; to direct straight at 1 Mining:

an object. 2. Fabric: Distinguishing the particular kind of (1) A horizontal gallery or passage in a mine.

“Another sign, and to the aim cloth known as levantine. The workings at different depths are said to be at

Leveled at once their muskets came." B. As substantire: the different levels--the 55 or 60 fathom level, and

Soott: Rokeby, v. 28. so on. I. Ordinary Language:

II. Figuratively: (2) An adit or drift forming a drain for water. A

1. To reduce or bring to an equality of state, rank,

1 1. A native of the Levant.

level which opens to the surface at the side of a 2. A vessel belonging to tho Levant. valley is called a day-level, and forms a means of

condition, or degree. II. Fabric: A particular kind of silk cloth.

natural drainago without pumping. A drowned or Reason can never assent to the admission of those

blind level is a drainage-gallery which has the form brutish appetites which would over-run the soul, and lě-vär-i fã-cl-as (cas sh), 8. (Lat.=that you of an inverted siphon. A dip-head level is the one

level its superior with its inferior faculties."-Decay of cause to be levied.) which proceeds from the foot of the engine-shaft

Piety. Larc: A writ of execution at common law, exe. right and left, and from which the rooms diverge. 2. To aim; to direct. cuted by the sheriff upon the goods and lands of a 3) A gutter for water to run in.

"Revenge, from some banefal corner, shall level a tale debtor.

2. Surv. & Engin.: An instrument for indicating of dishonor at them."-Sterne: Tristram Shandy, ch. xii. le-vå-tion, 8. (Lat. levatio, from levatus, pa. a horizontal line or determining the position as to 3. To lay or point out exactly. par. ot lero=to raise. The act of raising or elevat. horizontality of an object or surface to which it is "to limit and lene on the direct way from vicem ing; elevation.

applied, and then determining the true level, or virtue."--Milton: Doct, of Divorce, bk, ii., ch. xiv. lě-va-tõr (pl. lěv-a-tör -ēş), s. (Lat.=a lifter,

the difference of rise or fall between two or more from levo=to lighten, to lift up.).

places, for various purposes of architecture, engi- 4. To adopt; to accommodate; to proportion. 1. Surg.: A lever for raising a depressed portion

neering, drainage, &c. There are numerous descrip- *B. Intransitive: of the skull. It belongs to the trephine case,

tions of levels, varying in form, size, arrangement, or I. Literally:

to the purpose for which 2. Anat.: That which raises. Used specially of

1. To aim or point a gun, &c., in a direct line with each is intended; as, for instance, the carpenter's, muscles. There are a levator anguli oris, a levator

a mark; as, He leveled at the mark. anguli scapulæ, a levator palati, and ten others, be. mason's, gunner's, or surveyor's levels, the mer

curial, water, and spirit levels, &c. All may be

. ides leratores costarum

2. To be in a direct line or in the same direction and levalores longiores divided into three classes:

with something.

i costarum.

(1) The simplest, such as the mason's or car. II. Figuratively: *lēve (1), t.t. A shortened form of BELIEVE (q.v.).

penter's level, in which the vertical line is deter. 1. To aim; to direct the aim or purpose. lēve (2), v. [LIVE, v.] mine by a plumb line, and the horizontal by a line

"Ambitious York did level at my crown." *léve (3), 6. (LEAVE, v.] perpendicular to it.

Shakesp.; Henry VI., Pt. III., il. 2 (2) Those in which the horizontal line is deter*lēve, s. (LEAVE, S.] mined by the surface of a fluid at rest; as in the

2. To conjecture; to guess at. *léve, a. (LIEF.] water and mercurial levels.

“She leveled at our purposes." (3) Those in which the horizontal line is deter.

Shakesp.: Antony and Cleopatra, v. 2 leve-cel, s. (LEVESELL.]

mined by a bubble of air floating in a fluid con- 3. To accord; to agree; to suit. 1ěveě, 8. [Fr. levée=a levy, &c., prop. the fem. tained in a glass tube; as a spirit level.

"Such accommodation and resort of the pa. par. of lever=to raise.] [LEVY.] B. As adjective:

As levels with her breeding." I. Ordinary Language:

Shakesp.: Othello, i. 3. 1. Horizontal; parallel to or coincident with the 1. The act or time of rising. plane of the horizon.

T 1. To level up: To raise that which is lower to "I got to the seacoast time enongh to be at the sun's

“Her level rays, like golden bars,

a level or equality with that which is higher:

specif., to raise persons of a lower class to an leree."--Gray: Letter to Mr. Nicholls.

Lio on the landscape green." 2. In the United States this term is applied to any

Longfellow: Endymion. equality with those of a higher. assemblago of guests, whether held in the morning 2. Even or on a level with anything else; in the level or status.

2. To level down: To lower or reduce to the same or in the evening

same lipe or of the same height as something else; 3. In England the term is confined to a morning not higher or lower.

*lēve'-less, a. (LEAVELESS.]

*lavalcea Lear reception held by a sovereign, prince, or personage “The setting enn now beams more mildly bright, lěv-el-ēr, lèv'-el-lēr, 8. [Eng. level, v.; -er.] of high rank; especially the state receptions held

The shadows lengthening with the level light."

I. Ordinary Language: by tho sovereign, to which are admitted all whose

Beattie: Past. 2 rank, position, or office entitles them to such dis

1. One who or that which levels.

3. Having no inequalities; not having any part 2. One who wishes to destroy all social distinctinction. It differs from a drawing-room reception higher than another; not rising or falling; flat. in the fact that to the latter ladies, as well as gen

“See the revolution of the times

3. A billiard-table foot having a screw adjustment tlemen, are admitted, while to the former gentle

Make mountains level."

for height, in order to level the table. men only are admitted.

Shakesp.: Henry IV., Pt. II., iii. 1. 4. An earth-scraper for leveling a site. II. Hydraul. Engin.: An embankment to restrain 4. Having no gradations or difference of superi- II. English Hist.: One of a party in the army of water, and of a magnitude such as those of the ority or degree; equal in rank or degree; on an the Long Parliament about 1647 who wished to Mississippi, the Ganges, Holland, and the Po. equality.

destroy all distinctions of rank and title and estab"All the large towns on the river have a levee."-H. A. *5. Exactly fitted ; agreeing; accordant.

lish social equality throughout the kingdom. Crom. Xurray: Land of the Slave and the Free, viii.

"And every thing lies level to our wish."

well put them down in 1649, imprisoning their Lerée en masse : (LEVY, 8.)

Shakesp.: Henry IV., Pt. II., iv. 4. leader, Lilburn. bou, boy; pout, Jówl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.

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ter crunxample of a fease. The Caramples of a Lonate

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levirate lěy-el-Ing. lěv-el-ling, pr. par., adj. & 8. weight act on opposite sides of the fulcrum. In the lev-er-ock, *lev-er-ook, lav-er-ock, 8. (Lav(LEVEL, v.)

second class the power and the weight act on the EROCK.) A lark (q. v.). A. & B. As p 1.

same side of the fulcrum, the weight being the
j. (See

lē-vēr-wood, s. (Eng. lever, and wood.] verb.)

nearer to the fulcrum. In the third class the power

and the weight acton the same side of the fulcrum, Bot.: Ostrya virginica. C. As substantive:

the power being the pearer to the fulcrum. Thus *leve-sell, *leve-cel, *lef-sal, *lefe-sale, s. 1. The act of making level or reducing to a level; we may say briefly that the three classes have re- [A. S. leáf=leaf, and sal, sel=a room, a hall; Sw. the act of pulling down to the ground.

spectively the fulcrum, the weight, and the power löfsal; Da. lövsal=a hut of branches with foliage 2. The act or process of ascertaining the level or

in the middle position. The following are examples on. height of any place, point, or spot.

of levers of the first class: A crowbar used to raise 1. A lattice; a lattice-window.

a heavy weight, a poker used to raise coals in a leveling-block, 8. A leveling platform, con

2. A pent-house; a projecting roof over a door, grate, the handle of a pump. In scissors, shears, sisting of large iron plates laid together and secured.

nippers, and pincers we have examples of a double The respective plates may be 8 or 10 feet long, 5 or lever of the first class. The oar of a boat furnishes 6 wide, and 6 inches thick. They are completely

*lěv -ět, 8. [Fr. lever=to raise, to arouse.] an example of a lever of the second class. The fulcovered with holes, about 14 inches in diameter crum is at the blade of the car in the water: the

in the water: the Mil.: The morning call on the trumpet, by which and 4 or 5 inches apart from center to center. The

power is applied by the hand; the weight is applied soldiers are aroused; a reveille. mold of a given frame having been laid on the at the row-lock. A pair of nutcrackers is a double lěv-l-a-ble, *lēv-ě-a-ble, a. [Eng. levy, v.: leveling-block, the figure of the molding edge is marked on it with chalk, and iron pins are stuck in hold a coal is a double lever of the third class. The may be assessed and levied.

dclass. A pair of tongs used to -able.) Capable of being levied or collected; that the holes, so that when the iron rib is made to touch

fulcrum is the pivot on which the two parts of the those pins it will have the proper form. In order instrument turn; the power is the pressure applied

1ě-vi-a-than, 8. [Low Lat., from Heb. livyathan the more easily to produce any required figure, by the hand; the weight is the resistance of the

=leviathan (see def.), livyah=a garland, a wreath; the heads of the pins are furnished with eccentric coal at the end of the tongs. An example of the

leviathan then=the wreathed animal, from twisting discs or cams, by the moving and turning of which third class of lever is seen in the human forgarm

itself into wreaths or folds.) the figure of the frame can be adjusted with great employed to raise an obiect taken in the hand. The 1. Ordinary Language: precision. Each disc has several center-holes, any fulcrum is at the elbow; the power is exerted by a 1. Any huge animated being, whether man or one of which can be fitted on the pin. The iron bar muscle which comes from the upper part of the beast. of t'o frame, having been raised to a bright orange

arm, and is inserted in the forearm near the elbow; 2. One who is much greater than or far exceeds heat in a reverberatory furnace, called a reheating the weight is the object raised in the hand. furnace, is taken out by the smiths, laid on the

others in any profession, art, business occupation,

2. Horology: leveling-block, and rapidly bent by means of tongs,


(1) A form of escapement. ILEVER. ESCAPEMENT.) hammers, mallets, and lovers, so as to lio touching (2) A watch having a lever-escapement: a lever

II. Technically: the heads of the pins. watch.

1. Scripture : leveling-rod, 8. The same as LEVELING-STAFF 3. Dentistry:

(1) The crocodile of the Nile (Job xli., and the (q. v.).

(1) A tool for extracting stumps.

margin of iii. 8, or fig. " Pharaoh," King of Egypt, 2) A turnkey (q. v.).

Psalm lxxiv. 14). [PHARAOH.) leveling-staff, s. An instrument, one form of Surg.: An obstetric instrument, curved at its (2) Some cetacean, inhabiting the Mediterranean which consists of two strips 6% feet long, united by extremity. and having a fenestra. It is used in (Psalm civ. 26). a longitudinal tenon and mortiso so as to slide on extracting the head of a child, a vectis.

(3) A real or imaginary sea-serpent (?) (Isaiah each other and extend to a length of twelve feet.

xxvii. 1). The divisions are in feet, inches, and fractions, and lever-brace, s. A carpenter's hand-brace.

2. Mythol.: Any great sea monster. count from the bottom. A cross-piece or yane slides lever-engine, s. The same as GRASSHOPPER on the staff, and has an aperture to enable the starI ENGINE (0.v.).

lěv'-led, pa. par. or a. (LEVY, v.] graduations to be read.

1ěv-Ig-a-ble, a. (Lat. levig(0)=to make smooth, lever-escapement, s. leveling-stand, 8.

to polish; Eng. -able.) That may or can be rubbed Horol.: A form of escapement in which the lever or ground down to a fine powder. Photog.: An instrument used to support a glass vibrates on a center and carries the pallets (or plate in a horizontal position, so that it shall retain anchor), and its forked end alternately engages Tev -1-8ate, v. t. (LEVIGATE (1), a.] developing or other fluids upon its upper surface. with and is engaged by a ruby pin attached to a disc 1. Ord. Lang.: To make smooth; to plane, to Its usual form is a tripod. of suitable height to on the balance-arbor. The lever or fork, having the polish, to ease. stand in the developing-trough, with three adjust- impulse given to it from the wheel, and then strik 2. Chem. & Pharm.: To grind or rub down to an ing-screws by which the operation of leveling is ing against the ruby pin, gives the motion to the impalpable powder. accomplished.

balance from which it was disengaged, till brought lěv'-1-gate, (1), læ-VI-gate, læ-vi-gát-ěd a. lěy'-el-Ism. 8. [English level: -ism.] The act back by the hair-spring; the ruby pin then strikes (Lat. lēvigatus, pa. par. of levigo=to make smooth. principle or theory of reducing distinctions in the fork and disengages the wheel, thus allowing it from lēvis=smooth.) society to an equality. to go on. This causes two distinct beats.

1. Ord. Lang.: Made smooth or polished. lěv-el-1ğ, adv. [Eng. level; -ly.] In a level lever-hoist, s.

2. Bot.: Having the appearance of being polished,

as many seeds. manner; evenly.

Mech.: A contrivance for converting a reciprocat.

*1ěv-1-gate (2), a. (Lat. levigatus, pa. par. of "Neither would praises and actions appear so levelly ing circular into a continuous rectilinear motion. concurrent in many other of the Grecians, as they do in

. lèvigo=to make light; lèvis=light.) Made light or

lever-jack, 8. A form of hoist having a lever, lighter. lightened, softened. these."-Hobbes: Thucydides, bk. ii.

post, and pawl, in which the lover engages with a lēv'-el-nēss, 8. [Eng. level; -ness.] The quality rack. [LIFTING-JACK.]

lēv-1-gā -tion, 8. (Lat. levigatio, from lēvigatus,

pa. par. of lēvigo=to make smooth.) (LEVIGATE, or state of being level; evenness; equality of sur lever-obstetric, s.

v.) The process of rubbing a moist material beface or height.

Surg.: (LEVER, II. 4.)

tween two hard surfaces, as in grinding pigments *lěv'-en (1), s. (LEAVEN, 8.)

lever-press, s. One of the simplest and most and printer's ink. lěv'-en (2), 8. (LEVIN.]

evident forms of pressing apparatus. It assumes

sumes lě-vig-11-a'-nite, 8.

[Named after the place lěv'-en (3), s. (Lawn.] A lawn; an open space

many forms: cider-presses, lard or tallow squeezers, where found, Levigliani; suff. -ite (Min.).] between woods.

and cheese-presses, are constructed to obtain pres- Min.: D'Achiardi gave this name provisionally to

sure by a lever, which is depressed by a suspended a mineral which he regarded as a ferriferous variety lē'-vēr (1), *lē'-voũr, 8. [Fr. leveur=a raiser or weight, by tackle, or by a screw.

of Guadalcazarite (q. v.). Subsequent examina. lifter: also levier=a lever, from Lat. levatorem,

lever-punch, s. A punch operated by the roll. tion showed that it contained no selenium, and accus. of levator=a lifter, from levatus, pa. par. of

ing motion of two cam-faced levers which are drawn more zinc and iron. From the mercury mine of lero-to lift, to make light; levis=light.] together by a screw.

Levigliani, near Serravezza, Italy. 1. Mech.: A bar of wood, metal, or other rigid substance, having a fixed point (or fulcrum), and lever-valve, 8. A safety-valve kept in its seat *lěv'-In, *lěav'-en, *lev-en, *ley-ene, s. [Etym. used to overcome a certain resistance (or weight) by the pressure of a lever with an adjustable doubtful.] Lightning. at some part of the bar by means of a force (or weight, the invention of Dr. Papin, of Blois. In #levin-brand. s. A thunder-bolt. power) applied at another part. Tho parts of the locomotives a spring is used at the end of the lever lever into which the fulcrum divides it are called instead of a weight, the pressure being regulated lěv -In-ēr, 8. [Etym. doubtful.) A swift species

of hound the arms of the lever. When the arms are in the by a screw and indicated on a brass plate. same straight line the lever is called a straight lever-watch, s. A watch having a lever escape

lē'-vir, 8. [Lat., cogn. with Sansc. dêvar; Gr. lever: in other cases it is called a bent lever. The ment.

daēr=a husband's brother, a brother-in-law.] plane in which the lever can moye may be called lever (2), s. [A corruption of louvre (q. y.)]

Anthrop.: One upon whom devolves the obliga. the plane of the lever. The forces which act on the

tion of marrying the widow of, and thus begetting dever are supposed to act in the plane of the lever lěv-ēr-boardş, 8. pl. [LOUVRE-BOARDS.)

issue to, a deceased brother or near relation. *lë-vēr, a. & adv. (LIEF.]

lē'-vir-åte, s.&a. [Fr. lévirat.) [LEVIR.) A. As adjective: More agreeable, more pleasant; A. As substantive: dearer.

1. Jewish History: The Mosaic law binding the B. As adv.: More willingly, more gladly; rather. brother of a man dying without issue to marry the lē'-vēr, v. t. (LEVER (1), s.] To act upon or force w

a widow (Deut. xxv. 5). Where there were several with a lever.

brothers, the lot probably fell to the eldest; failing lē -ver-age (age as Ig), s. [English lever (1), the nearest kinsman (Ruth iii. iv.). The only ex

brothers, the marriage was in honor incumbent on -age.

ception was in the case of the high-priest, who was 1. The action of a lever; that arrangement of Lever.

bound to marry a virgin (Levit. xxi. 13, 14). The parts by which lever power is gained.

first-born son of the second marriage was considW. Weight F. Fulcrum. P. Power.

2. Tho mechanical power gained by the use of a ered the son of the deceased, " that his name be not lever.

put out of Israel” (Deut. xxv. 6). This law was Levers are sometimes divided into three classes, lěv'-ēr-ět, *lyv-er-et, 8. (O. Fr. levrault, from not strictly obligatory; but the man who refused to according to the positions of the points of applica Lat. leporem, accus. of lepus=a hare; Fr. levrette, obey it was publicly dishonored (Deut. xxv. 7-10). tion of the power and the weight with respect to dimin. of lièvre (О. Fr. levre)=a hare.] A hare in How ancient the custom was among the Jows may the fulcrum. In the first class the power and the its first year; a young hare.

be seen from the case of Tamar (Gen. xxviii. 6-30). fāte, făt, färe, amidst, whãt, fail, father; wē, wět, nëre, camel, hēr, thêre; pīne, pit, sïre, sir, marine; gó, pot,

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bodienotnou hoovitan

and written in become wala hanh

Min. A mineral belonging to the Zeolite group.

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the rost, but all must batan Pentateuch B. C. about referable to a complicatedralinic system. Hard

It still exists among Jews in the East; in the allusion to Judgos xviii. Dryden, in his Absalom 3. To collect by assessment; to raise, as a toll, a West they are, of course, bound by the marriage and Achitophel, applies the name Levites to the tax, a contribution, &c. laws of the country in which they reside. The levi. Puritan clergy who lost their benefices in 1662 "Taxes used to be levied upon the persons and goods of rate is mentioned by the Synoptists as giving rise through the provisions of the Act of Uniformity. travelers, when they passed through certain manors."to a question proposed to Jesus by the Sadducees concerning the resurrection (Matt. xxii. 23-33;

Lě-vit'-Ic-al. *Lě-vit-ic. a. (Lat. Leviticus. Smith: Wealth of Nations, bk. iii., ch. iii. Mark xii, 18-27: Luke xx. 27-38).

from Gr. Levitikos, from Levitës=a Levite (q. y.).; 4. To raise; to cause in any way. 2. Anthrop.: (See extract.) Fr. lévitique.]

"A grace

That, quite eclipsing pleasure's painted face, * The system

1. Of or pertaining to the Levites; connected with
of Levirate, under which, at a man's
the Levites.

Levied a tax of wonder and applause." death, his wife or wives pass to his brother, is, I think,

“According to the Leritical institution."-Spelman: more intimately connected with the rights of property

Cowper: Table Talk, 650. than with polyandry. This custom is widely distributed. Rights of the Church, ch. xxvi.

II. Law: It is found, for instance, among the Mongols (Wuttke's *2. Priestly.

1. To raise, to erect; as, to levy a ditch, to levy a Gers, der Mensch., i. 223) and Kafire ( Arbousset: Tour, pp.

house. ** 138), and in Yucatan (Bancroft: Native Races, ii. 671). Levitical-degrees, 8. pl. Those degrees of kin 2. To seize in execution or by way of distress; as, * When an elder brother dies,' says Livingstone (Travels, dred within which persons are forbidden to marry to leru a distress. p. 185), 'the same thing occurs in respect of his wives; the (Lev. xviii. 6-18). brother next in age takes them, as among the Jews, and

| 1. To levy war: To raise or begin a war; to take the children that may be born of these women ho calls his Lě-vit:-1c-al-1ỹ, adv. [English Levitical; -ly.) up arms; to make an attack. brother also.' In India among the Nairs, 'a man always After the manner of the Levites; according to the “Yet the thought of war, which wise men saw actually takes to wife, by the custom called Sagai, his elder Mosaic law.

levied upon the king already, was much abhorred." brother's widow (Dalton: Des. Ethn, Bengal, p. 138). Lě-vit-1-cūs, s. (Lat. Leviticus (Vulgate); Gr.

Clarendon: Civil War, i. 693. Among the Pacific Islanders, Mr. Brenchley mentions (Levitikon).

2. To levy a fine: To commence and carry on a that in Erromango the wives of deceased brothers fall to tb eldest surviving brother' (Cruise of the Curacoa, p.

Old Test. Canon: Tho third book of the Penta- suit for assuring the title to lands or tenements. 319). Similar statements have been made also as regards

teuch and of the Old Testament, in the Hebrew (Eng.) some of the Negro tribes, the Mexicans, Samoans. New Bible named (Vaiyiqra)=" And called," from its lěv'-Y. 8. Fr. levée. from lever: Lat, levo = to Zralanders, and Khyens." -Lubbock: Orig. of Civilization first two words. It prescribes laws regarding sac

raise.] (1882), pp. 141, 142

rifices (ch. i.-vii.), narrates the consecration of

Aaron and his sons as priests (viii. ix.), with the B. As adj.; Pertaining to, observing, or in any

I. Ordinary Language: vay connected with the system of marriage de

deaths of Nadab and Abihu (x. 20), draws distinc- 1. The act of levying, raising, or collecting for scribed under A.

tions between clean and unclean animals (xi.), public service, or for privato associations, such as

makes regulations as to purification after child trades-unions. ** Provision is made for the rights of succession of the birth (xiij. from leprosy, &c. (xiii., xiv., xv.), the Lerirate union." J. F. McLennan: Studies in Ancient His.

“Delegates promised that a levy of half-a-crown per zory, p. 161.

great day of atonement, &c. (xvi., xvii.), marriages, man should be made."- London Daily News, July 19, 1883.

&c. (xviii.-XX.), and priestly duties (xxi.-xxii.), the lěv-1-răt-Ic-al, a. (Eng. levirat(e); -ical.) The

2. That which is levied, raised, or collected. great festivals (xxiii.), tabernacle worship, &c. same as LEVIRATE, a. (q. v.) (xxiv.), social arrangements (xxv.), and vows and

"Ere the moon had sunk to rest .:... lēv-l-tāte, v. t. & i. (LEVITATION.] tithes (xxvii.). Intercalated into these is a chapter,

Of that rash lery nought remained."

Wordsworth: White Doe of Rylstone, iv. A. Trans.: To make buoyant, so as to float in the

which makes Divino promises to the people if they air; a term used by spiritualists.

observe the several laws, and denouncing vengeance 3. A small coin, or its value, being twelve and a

on them if they disobey (xxvi.; cf. with Deut. half cents. B. Intrans.: To become light or buoyant, so as to xxviii.).

II. Law: The act of collecting or seizing on exefloat in the air.

The integrity of the work is admitted by most cution." "A provision, distinguishingly calculated for the same critics, though rationalists contend that the Levit. | Levy in mass (Fr. levée en masse]: The act of purpose of levitation." - Paley: Natural Theology, ch. xii., ical logislation did not originate till 1,000 years after levying or raising all the able-bodied men of a Moses, and was not carried out till after the build

country for military service. lěv-I-tã -tion, s. (Lat. levitas (genit. levitatis), ing of the second temple. One of them contends from levis=light.

that Ezekiel was the author of Leviticus xxvi., and lèv'-ýne, lèv'-ýn-ite, 8. [Named by Brewster, *1. The act of making light; lightness, buoyancy. probably of xviii.-xx., and that xviii.-xxvii. form after the mineralogist and crystallographer, A.

2. Among spiritualists a name given to the alleged a section by themselves distinct from the remainder Lévy ; suff. -ine, -ite (Min.). phenomenon of bodies naturally heavier than air of the book, and written in the same circle, though becoming buoyant, and floating in the atmosphere not by the same hand. The rest of Leviticus is at Crystallization regarded as rhombohedral, and

Le-vite, s. (Lat. pl. Levitæ: Gr. pl. Leuitgii tributed to priests during or after the captivity. A twinned as in chabasite, but Becker, who has Heb. pl. lerim=Levites, from Levi=(1) a joining,

few passages may, it is stated. have been later than made a minute study of this mineral, as well as of 4 Lai; Eng., &c., suff. -ite.)

• the rost, but all must have been in their place before chabasite, has come to the conclusion that the 1. Script. Hist., &c. (pl.). The descendants of

the issue of the Samaritan Pentateuch B. C. about well-known optical anomalies of these minerals are 338, for it has them iust as we find them now.

referable to a complicated twinning of individual Lesi, one of the twelve song of Jacob (Gen. xxix. 34). Moses and Aaron were of Levite extraction (Exod.

The best commentary on the book of Leviticus is crystals belonging to the triclinic systein. Hardii. 1-10. iv. 14), and when the descendants of Aaron

the Epistle to the Hebrews, and the other New ness, 4-4.5; specific gravity, 2-09-2:16. Luster, vittere formally set apart to perpetuate the priest

Testament books. Carrying out the teaching of reous; colorless, white to grayish ; transparent to bood, the other Levites were designated as a sacred

Heb. ix., X., &c., the Christian Church believes that translucent. Composition: a hydrated silicate of caste to assist in the work of the sanctuary (Num.

nearly every sacrifice or other ceremony typified alumina, lime, soda, and potash, represented by the the sacrifice of Christ and at his death "waxed formula 3SiO2A123(Ca'na)03!

formula 3Si0,AL.03(Ca Na K)034HO. Lines cavi. ini. 5-13. xvii. 2-8). The chief branches of the Levites were the Kohathites, the Gershomites, and old," and was "ready to vanish away" (Heb. ties in amygdaloidal dolerites in Iceland, Faroe.

viii. 13).

Co. Antrim (Ireland), and Groenland. the Merarites (Num. iii., iv.). To these separate functions were assigned, the more important being lev'-I-ty, *lev-i-tie, 8. [Lat. levitatem, acc. of _ *lew, *lewe (ew as û or û), adj. (LUKEWARM.) intrusted to the Kohathites, among whom were

levitas = lightness; levis = light; Ital. levità ; Sp. Tepid, lukewarm. Moses and Aaron (1 Chron. vi. 1-3). The Levites levedad.] –

“For thou art lewe, and neither coold neither hoot."-took office at 25 years old (Num. viii. 24, 25), or at 30,

1. Lit.: The quality or state of being light; want Wyclife: Apocalips iii.

1. Lit.: The quality or state of being light; w and bad to resign at 50 (Num. iv. 3, 23, 30-39, 43-47). or absence of weight, as compared with something


iawd (awa

lewd (ew as ū or Q), *lewed, *lewid, a. (A. S. They were consecrated to their office (Num. viii. else. _

lowed=lay, belonging to the laity, properly pa. par. $31. They were to have no tribal territory; 2. Fig.: Lightness of disposition, conduct, or of leeran=to weaken. Jeborah was to be their inheritance (Num. xviii. manner; want of consideration or seriousness; a

*1. Lay ; belonging to the laity; laic; not clerical. 21. Tevi. 62: Deut. x. 9. xviii. 2: Josh. xviii. 7). But disposition to trifling; thoughtlessness, unsteadi

*2. Unlearned, as if connected with the English special cities were to be assigned to them, so ness, fickleness, changeableness, volatility.

lay or the Gr. idiotēs. scattered over the country, as to enable them to lē-vo-, pref. (For this prefix and compounds, "As necessary for the lewd as the learned."-A Short render ecclesiastical and spiritual service to all the see LEVO.)

Catechism. (1533.) tribes (Josh. xxi.).

lēv'-u-lin, s. [Lat. lævu(s); 1 connect., and The six cities of refuge were all Levitical cities

*3. Foolish, simple, silly. Eng. suff. -in.] (Xom, Xxxv. 1-8). Chem.: An uncrystallizable sugar discovered by

“Love, my lewd pilott, hath a restlesse mind." They were to be supported by tithes, but them. I

Spenser: F. Q., III. iv. 9. Dragendorff in the Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion Salve were to pay tithes to the priesthood (Num. root). It has the same composition as inulin, but

*4. Simple, common, ordinary; not requiring skill Ivii. 21-24, 26-32: Neh. x.37). The Levites obtained

is soluble in cold water. Its solution tastes sweet, or learning. much respect under Moses and Joshua. At the

"The rest he rewarded, ech according to the lewde sertime of the judges their social position greatly and is optically inactive.

vice they did."-Savile: Tacitus; Hist., p. 169. decliner (Judges xviii.). They revived under lěv--lin-ic, a. [Eng. levulin; -ic.] (See the Sonnel, but declined under Saul: David reorgan- compound.)

*5. Vicious without particularizing the nature of ized them, assigning 24,000 to assist the priests, levulinic-acid, 8. .

the vice; profligate. 4JX) to be musicians, 4,000 to be gatekeepers, and

“* But the Jews which believed not, moved with envy,

Chem.: C3H203. An acid obtained by heating a to Su for other duties (1 Chron. xxiii.-xxvi.). The mixture of equal parts of cane-sugar, water, and fellows of the baser sort."- Acts xvii. 5.

took unto them certain lewd (Gr. ponērous, Vulg, malos) religious schism which followed on the revolt of the

sulphuric acid, on a salt bath for four days, and ten tribes superseded che Levites over the whole extracting by means of ether. It is soluble in water,

S. Wanton, lascivious; given to indulgence in kingdom of Israel, on which multitudes of them

alcohol, and ether, and its solutions are optically

Optically lust; dissolute, lustful. removed to Judah (2 Chron. xi. 13, 14, xiii.9), exertinactive,

7. Characterized by lewdness or profligacy; unins a great influence, spiritual, social, and political.

chaste, dissolute. through every subsequent change, till the destruc- lev'-y, v. t. (LEVY, 8. ]

“Perverting often, by the stress of lerd tion of Jerusalem under Titus. The office of the I. Ordinary Language:

And loose example, whom he should instruct." Levites made them the intellectual as well as the *1. To desist from, to give up, to abandon.

Cowper: Task, ii. 551. spiritual caste.

The only mention of Levites in the New Testament “Euphranor, having levied the siege from this one only, 8. Proceeding from lewdness or unlawful lust. is in the Parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 1

forth with led his army to Demetrias."--P. Holland: Livy, lewd -1ỹ (ew as ū or û), *lewed-ly, udv. [Eng. p. 1,178.

lewd; -ly.) 2. Fig.: In the latter part of the seventeenth 2. To raise, to collect, to gather together, as a *1. Ignorantly; without learning: simply. century in England, a wandering curate or a noble- force of war.

*2. Wickedly, naughtily. man's or gentleman's chaplain, looked on as one

“Let's levy men, and beat him back again."

"A sort of naughty person, lerdly bent." eftbe servants, was often called a Levite, in

Shakesp.: Henry VI., Pt. III., iv. 8.

Shakesp.: Henry VI., Pt. II., ii. 1. bol, boy: pout, Jowl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.

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come frorn Bas Breton liach=dolmen. The English 2. A defamatory writing, print, picture, or publi. 3. Free in disposition; generous, open-handed word lias was first a provincial one, adopted by cation of any kind, containing any statements er bountiful, munificent ; ready to give or bestow; not geologists, who gave it universal currency.)

representations maliciously made, and tending to mean, stingy, or niggardly. 1. Geol.: A formation situated at the base of the bring any person into ridicule or contempt, or ex

“Men of this way should be most liberal." Oolite, with which it is sometimes combined. It pose him to public hatred or obloquy; any obscene,

rakesp.: Henry VIII., i. 3. consists of thin beds of blue or gray limestone, blasphemous, or seditious publication whether in becoming light-brown when weathered. These are writing, print, signs, or pictures.

| It is frequently followed by of before that which separated by dark-colored, narrow, argillaceous 3. The act or crime of publishing a libel; as, to be

lihal. es to be is given or bestowed; sometimes by in. partings, so that quarries of the rock seen from a charged with libel.

"Pure is the nymph, though liberal of her siniles." distance look striped and ribbon-like. Most of its I Laan

Couper: Task, iii, 712. fossils are marine, though there is in it an insect

4. Given freely, bountifully, or without stint;

United States Civil and Admiralty Law: A docu: ample, generous. limestone. Huge Enaliosaurians, specially Ichthyosaurs and Plesiosaurs, reach their maximum ment of the plaintiff setting forth the charges and

"With too great a court and liberal largess." development in it: they are believed to have been allegations made against the defendant; and specif.

Shakesp.: Richard II., i. 4. marine. in case of a ship, a statement of the claims held

5. Abundant, profuse; as, a liberal flow of water. 2. Comm.. dc.: Liassic clays are used for brick against her by the plaintiff.

6. Free, open, candid; as, a liberal interchange of making. They are also burnt for lime and for Eng. Eccles. & Scots Law: The summons, or hydraulic cement: liassic limestones are called similar writ, commencing a suit, and containing thoughts.

7. Free from narrow, selfish, or contracted views cement stones, and are burnt for hydraulic lime, the plaintiff's allegations.

or ideas; favorable to liberty and progress, civil, (Rutley.)

li-bel, v. t. & i. (LIBEL, 8. ]

political, and religious; advocating reform and Li-ās -sic, a, [Eng. lias; -ic.] Of or pertaining A. Transitive:

progress; having broad views; favoring freedom to the lias formation; of the age of the lias forma. 1. Ord. Lang.: To publish a libel upon; to hold in the forms of administration of government; not tion.

up to public contempt, derision, or hatred by the conservative. 11.) 11-ā-tris, subst. [A word of unknown meaning publication of any libelous writing, print, picture, . 8. Not toostrict, harsh, or severe;free; as, a liberal (Loudon. ).) &c.; to lampoon.

interpretation of a law. Botany: A genus of Composites, sub-tribe Adeno- “The despot of Leadenhall Street was libelled in prose

*9. Licentious, loose, lax, dissolute; free to exstyleæ. Liatris squamosa has beautiful purple and verse." -Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch. xviii.

cess. flowers. It is known in this country asis L.scariosa, Lan. To exhibit a charge scainst en cainst II. Politics: A name given t as the Rattlesnake's Master, the bruised bulbs of the plant being applied to the wound, while a a clergyman for unbecoming conduct, or against a land which is in favor of reform and advancement.

(Opposed to the Conservative party.) [B.] decoction of the milk is taken inwardly. (Loudon.)

ship for debt, &c. IIb, t. t. (A.S. *lybban; cogn, with Dut. lubben licht

B. Intrans.: To spread libels or defamatory pub B. As subst.: One who advocates progress and en lications or statements.

reform, especially in the direction of conferring =to castrate.] [GLIB, v.] To castrate, to geld.

"What's this, but libelling against the senate,

greater power upon the people ; an advocate of *LIb-a-měnt, 8. [Lat. libamentum, from liborto

And blazoning our injustice everywhere."

Liberalism. Spec., a member of tho Liberal party pour out.) A libation.

Shakesp.: Titus Andronicus, iv. 4. of England. *11-bant, a. [Lat. libans, pa. par. of libo=to sip, 11'-běl-ant, s. [Eng. libel; -ant.]

| The designation “Liberal," applied to a political

party in England, is said to have been derived from to pour out.) Sipping, tasting ; touching lightly or 1. Ord. Lang.: One who libels; a libeler.

the Liberal, a periodical set on foot by Lord Byron gently.

2. Law: One who exhibits a charge in an ecclesi. and his friends. Both political parties are named Ub -&-năs, s. (Lat.=frankincense.] astical or admiralty court.

with tacit reference to an irresistible movement Bot.: An old genus of Amyridacex, now called *11-běl-cē', 8. (Eng. libel, and suff. -ee.]

toward democracy which has long been in progress Boswellia. Libanus thurifera (Colebrooke) is now Law: The suitor defendant against whom a libel

in Britain, as it was in the ancient Roman republic. called Boswellia serrata.

The Conservatives, dreading the effect of this demo

U DEL has been filed. (Wharton.) II-ba-tion, s. (Fr., from Lat. libationem, accus.

cratic current on the time-honored institutions of

l1-běl-ěr, 8. [Eng. libel; -er.] One who libels; the country, make it their main object to conservo of libatio=a libation, from libatus, pa. par. of libo one who publishes libels; a lampooner.

them. With this view they arrest forward move=to sip, to pour out; Gr. leibo; Sp. libacion ; Ital. libazione.) 1 li-běl-Ist, 8. [Eng. libel; -ist.] One who libels; ment when they can, and, when this is impracti.

cable, attempt to retard the rate of progress. The 1. Compar. Religions: A sacrifice, by an actual a libeler.

Liberal party, on the contrary, little or nothing drink offering, by pouring liquids-usually oil or 11'-běl-oŭs, a. (Eng. libel; -ous.] Of the nature

fearing the results of change, help the movement wine on the ground in honor of a divinity, or by of a libel; containing libels or anything tending to the combination of both methods. In classic times bring a person into public hatred, contempt, or

instead of attempting to stem or to lessen its prog

ress. The Liberal party in English politics conbloody sacrifices were usually accompanied by derision ; defamatory, scandalous. libations, which always formed part of the religious

sists of two great sections or wings, generally in coceremonies at the conclusion of a treaty of peace; 1; Blous lī-běl-oŭs-ly, adv. [Eng. libelous; .ly.) In a operation though sometimes in antagonism. Those

are the Whigs and the Radicals, the former seeking bence the Greek spondaira solemn treaty, from belous or defamatory manner; with a libel. spendo=to offer a libation. (Cf. Virg., Æn. v. 77; 11-běl -1a, 8. (Lat. dimin. of librara balance.] to remove the more obnoxious defects in tho insti.. Hii. 174). Sometimes libations were independent

tutions of tho country, with the view of insuring 1. A small balance.

their stability: the latter, on tho contrary, desiring acts of worship (N. xvi. 233); and they found a place 2. A level; an instrument for taking levels. in convivial gatherings and banquets (Virg., Æn.

to root some of them up instead of increasing their

efficiency. For example, the Whigs are in favor of i. 734-38; Georg. ii. 101: Hor., Carm. IV. V. 31-34; 11-běl'-14-la, 8. (A name given by Linnæus; Ovid, Fasti, ii. 637). Libations were usually of un probably from Lat. libellulussa very little book, the Established Churches, the House of Lords, and

the throne, while the more advanced of the Radimixed wine (enspondor=merum), but sometimes of the leaves of which the expanded wings of the

cals would abolish all the three. The strength of milk, honey, and other fiuids, either pure or diluted dragon-fly somewhat resemble (Littré, &c.).) with water (Plin., H. N. xiv. 19). The word "liba Entom.: The typical genus of the family Libel- the Whig party is in the middle classes, that of the

Radicals among the artisans. tion" does not occur in the A. V., but clear traces of lulidæ (q. v.). the practice may be found. “Jacob set up ::. 11-běl-10'-11-dæ, s. pl. [Modern Latin, &c., libel. minded, liberal-souled, liberal-education, &c.

Obvious compounds: Liberal-hearted, liberala pillar of stone, and he poured a drink offering lulla); Lat. fem. pl. adj. suff. -idæ.) thereon and he poured oil thereon” (Gen. xxxv. Entom.: Dragon-flies: a family of Neuropterous lib-ēr-al-işm, 8. [Eng. liberal; -ism.] The prin14). "Strong wine "was ordained "to be poured Insects, tribe Subulicornia. The larvae inhabit the ciples of a Liberal party; freedom from narrowness onto the Lord for a drink offering" (Numb. xxviii. water, and are of very predatory instincts. They or bigotry; advocacy of the conferring of greater 7: and Jeremiah (xix. 13) charges it against the somewhat resemble their parents, but are wingless. power in the state upon the people. neople of Jerusalem and the kings of Judah "that They breathe by branchiæ, either internal or exthey have poured out drink offerings unto other ternal, and situated at the extremity of the abdo

ex: IIB'-ēr-al-Ist, s. (Eng. liberal; -ist.] A Liberal gods," and to "the queen of heaven" (xliv. 17, 19, men. (DRAGON-FLY.]

(q.v.). 3).

11-bēr.s. (From Lat. liber=a book, because the

lib-ēr-al-Ist-ic, a. [Eng. liberalist; -ic.] Per. ** In this idea of a god eternally insatiable, joined to fibrous layers of which liber is composed can attaining to Liberalism; characterized by Liberal. the hunger such restless nomads must often have suffered, times bo separated into laminæ like the leaves of a ism; in accordance with Liberal principles, is to be found the first cause of libation, of offering, of

book or an ancient manuscript roll.] macrifice."-R. Heath: Edgar Quinet, p. 284.

lib-ēr-1-1-tý, *lib-er-al-1-tie, s. [Fr. libéral. Bot.: The innermost of the four layers constitut. ité, from Lat. liberalitatem, accus. of liberalitas, 2. The wine or other liquor so poured out.

ing the bark of a plant. According to Gray, it con- from liberalis-liberal (q. v.).) * And large líbations drenched the sands around." sists of three kinds of cells, bast cells or fibers, 1. The quality or state of being liberal; disposi.

Pope: Ilomer's Niad, ix. 230. large or more elongated cells, and cells of paren- tion or readiness to give freely and largely; bounty, 11-ba-tõr-, a. As it from a Lat. libatorius, chyma. Called also Bast-layer and Endophlæum. munificence, generosity, open-handedness. from libatus, pa. par. of libo.] Of or pertaining to liber-cells, liber-fibors, s. pl.

2. Largeness or breadth of views; freedom from libations.

Bot.: Very long prosenchymatous cells occurring

narrowness of mind or bigotry; catholicity, impar

tiality. *l1b-bard, 8. [Ger. liebard.] [LEOPARD.) A in liber. Liber fibers of various plants are of use

or use 3. That which is given; a donation, a gratuity; Leopard.

for textile purposes. The shorter liber-cells pass

into wood-cells, between which and liber-cells the ** The lion, and the libbard, and the bear.".

an act of liberality or generosity. Couper: Task, vi. 773. difference is but slight.

lib'-ēr-al-ize, v. t. [Eng. liberal; -ize.) To make libbard's-bane, s. (LEOPARD'S-BANE.)

llb-ēr-al, *lib'-ēr-all, a. & 8. [French libéral, or render liberal or catholic; to enlarge; to free

from Lat. liberalis, from liber=free: from the same from narrowness or bigotry. 11b -bět, s. [Etym. doubtful; perhaps a variant

root as libet or lubet=it pleases; Sp. & Port. liberal; of billet.] A billet of wood.

lib-er-al-i-zā'-tion, s. [English liberaliz(e): Ital. liberale.) *11-běc-chi-7, s. [Ital. libeccio.] The southwest

-ation.) The act or process of liberalizing, or makest A. A3 adjective:

ing liboral and free. wind.

I. Ordinary Language: 11-bel, *1y-bell, s. (Lat. libellus=a little book

lib -ēr-21-1ỹ, adv. (Eng. liberal; -ly.] or writing; dimin. of liber=a book; Fr. libelle;

1. Becoming or befitting one well-born ; refined, 1. In a liberal, bountiful, or generous manner; Ital. & Port. libello; Sp.libelo.]

munificently, generously, freely, open-handedly.

2. Such as a gentleman ouglat to be; accom- 2. With liberality of views or ideas; without L. Ordinary Language: plished, refined.

bigotry or narrowness; impartially; without selfish*1. Originally any little book or writing; a dec- "The people liberal, valiant, active, wealthy." ness or meanness. laration, a certificate.

Shakesp.: llenry VI., Pt. 11., iv. 7. 3. Freely; not strictly, harshly, or vigorously. boil, boy; póut, Jowl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.

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