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1. Supposed appearance of an ancient pile village. 2. Present

lo Drilled implements. 34, 66-68, 70, Stone wedges inserted in 56 Hazelnuts. 57 Bread. 58. Two- and six-rowed barley. 59. Cherry-stones. 60, 61, 84, 87. Clay beads. 02. Club, from Wangen (Lake 74, 75. Saw-like implements. 76, 82. Needles. 77, 78. Shuttles. 79. Bone hook. 80. Flint knife with wooden handle. 81. Arrow-point. I of Lake Fimona, near Vicenza (Italy).

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candition of a pile structure. 3. Ground-plan of a pile structure. 4. Plle structure at Hauteville (France). 5-32. Stono implements. 33, 30. in der's horn. 35, 37-49, 64. Awls and gouges. 50-53. Earthen vessels, from Lake Constance. 54. Plaited stuff made from flax. 55. Flax, oke Constance). 63. Stone sinker for the nets. 65. Bow. Ircm p le dwelling of Wangen. 69, 71-73. Stone wedges inserted into wooden shanks.






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laid, pret. & pa. par. of v. & a. [lav. t\]

A. As pret. <r pa. par.: (See the verb.)

B. -4s adjective:

1. Ord. Lang.: Placed, set, put down.

2. Paper-making: Applied to paper having the marks made by the wires of the deckle. The choice of coloring matter gives rise to the names creamlaid, blue-laid, &c. [wove.]

lald-on, a.

Joinery: A term applied to moldings which are got out in strips and nailed on to the surface of the object.

laid-paper, s. Paper made with a ribbed surface like that formerly made in tho hand-frame.

laid-up. a. Unwell; incapacitated from exertion or laoor by illness. m laid If, adj. [A variant of loatl

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•lale, a. [lay, a.]

lalgh (gh guttural), a. [Low.] Low; low-lying,
lain, pa. par. of v. [ Lie (2), v. ]
•laine.v.i. [lie (2),*.]

•lain'-Sr, *. [lanier.] A strap, a thong, n lace, lair, r. i. [lair (3), «.] To wade; to sink in snow, mud, Ac. (Scotch.) lair (l), *lelr, *la*ere, *laire, *leyre, «. [A. S.

leger=a lair, a couch; from licgan = to lie; cogn. with Dut. leger=& couch, a lair, from ,'i£/j/e»=tolie; M. H. Ger. If ger; O. H. Gor. legar; Ger. lager, from 0. H. Ger. liggan=to lie; Goth, ligrt—a couch, from ligan = to lie. J *1. A place to lie or rest on; a bed.

2. The bed or resting placo of a wild beast.

3. A stall or small in closure for cattle to lie in. *4. A camp.

*5. Any couch or resting-place.

*6. Pasture or grass land; a plain; grass.

*7. A tomb; a burying-place.

*8. A portion of a burying-ground sufficient for a single grave.

lair (2), lear, s. [lore, «.] Learning.

lair (3), s. [Icel. leir; Dan. leer; Sw. ter-mud, slime.] A bog, a mire, a swamp. (Scotch.)

laird, s. [ Lord.] A lord of the manor; a squire. (Scotch.)

laird'-Bhlp, 8. [Eng. laird; -ship.] An estate; landed property. (Scotch.) la Ism, s. [lamaibm.]

lais -sez faire (z silent), phr. [Fr. (lit.) =lot alone.] A term applied to that manner of conducting a government in which tho people are allowed to regulate themselves with as little interference from tho supreme authority as possible.

lait -ance, s. [Fr. /at'f-milk.] The milky hue given to water when concrete is deposited in it. It is generally advantageous to remove this, as the precipitate is light, spongy, and sots imperfectly.

laith, a.&s. [Irish.]

A. As adj.: Loath ; unwilling. [loath.]

B. As subst.: A name given in Ireland to the Pollack, Merlangus pollachius.

laith -ful, a. [Scotch Za£fA=loath, and Eng. -/u/(().] Bashful, sheepish.

la -l-tf, s. [Formed from lay, a., with suff. -tyt on analogy with gaiety, «fcc] [lay, a.]

1. Tho people, as distinguished from the clergy; laymen collectively.

2. Tho state orcondition of a layman.

3. Persons who do nut belong to a particular profession, as distinguished from those regularly engaged in it.

If Tho term was first used in the second "gntury* At a council held at Rome in 502, laymen were prohibited from interfering with the affairs of the Church.

laive, lave, «. [leave, v. J The rest; the remainder; the residue, whether of persons, things, or number.

la,-ka'-6, «. [Chinese.] A green dye prepared from Khamnus catharticus.

lake (1), *lelke, v. i. [A. S. Idcan; O. Icel. leika; O. H. Ger. leiclten.] To play, to sport.

•lake (2), *lakke, v. f. [O. Fris. lakia; O. Dan. lackenA [lack, V.)

1. To blame; to find fault with.

2. To lack; to bo wanting, to fail, lake (1), s. [Lat. lacus; Fr. lac]

1. Geog.: A large sheet or expanse of water entirely surrounded by land, and having no direct or immediate communication with any sea, ocean, or river, or having communication only by means of rivers. Tho largest fresh water lake on the globe is Lake Superior, in North America. It is 4<X> miles long, l&J miles wide at its greatest breadth, and has an area of 32,000 square miles.

2. Oeol.: As Professor (now Sir Andrew) Ramsay first pointed out in 1862, many lakes are of glacial origin, an hypothesis illustrated by the fact that on a map of the world it is chiefly northern lands like Scotland, Scandinavia, or the more Arctic parts of Russia, North America, and mountain-lands like Switzerland and the north of Italy that are characterized by the presence of lakes. Others are of volcanic or oarthquake origin.

lake-basin, a.

Geonraphy and Geology:

1. Tfie bed of a lake.

2. The whole area drained by the streams which fall into a lake.

lake-crater, s.

Geog. dt Geol.: The crater of a dormant or extinct volcano now converted into a lake. The lake of Laach in the Eifel, and perhaps tho Lonar lake in the Deccan, &tc, had such an origin.

lake-dwellers, 8. pi.

Anthrop.: A generic term applied to the prehistoric inhabitants of the lake-dwellings of Switzerland, whether of tho Stone or Bronze period,

"The workB of the ancient lake^iotllers of Switzerland."—^ Wilson: Prehistoric Man, i. 119.

lake-dwelling, 0. &. a.

A. As substantive:

Anthrop. (pi.): The Pfahlbauten of German, the habitations lacustrines of French writers. The earliest account of similar dwellings is to be found in Herodotus (Terps. v. 14), who describes a Thracian tribe liVing, in 520 B. C., in a small mountainlake of what is now Roumelin. The custom of constructing these habitations has come down to the present day. The fishermen of Lako Prasias, near Salonica, still inhabit wooden cottages built over the water, as the Thracian tribes (lid, and in the East Indies the practice of building lake-settlements is very common.

1. The lake-dwellings proper of Switzerland came to light during the winter months of 1853-4, when the wator of tho lakes fell much below its ordinary level. Dr. Keller, who first described theso lakedwellings, says that tho main platform was made of round timbers, rarely of split boards, covered with a bed of mud; the walls and sides were in great measure of interlaced branches, the intersticos filled with moss, and daubed with clay. In his opinion, all the evidence goes to show they were rectangular in shape. It is probable that tho huts wero thatched, and the parts used as dormitories strewn with straw or hay. M. Troyon (Sur les Habitations Lacustrines) thinks they were round, as were the huts of many nations on the shore. It has not been ascertained whether the huts were divided into rooms, or whother they contained a single chamber. Keller {Lake-dwellings 0/ Switzerland (ed. Lee), p. 3) distinguishes throe modes of construction:

(1) Pile: The platform laid on piles driven into the mud at regular intervals, the spaces between the piles being filled up with stones, to give solidity to the structure. Keller's translator notes that a somewhat similar process was adopted at Portland Breakwater.

(2) Frame-pile: A comparatively rare form, known to have existed in the Lake of Zurich, and possibly in other places. The piles to support the platform were fixed by a • mortise and tenon arrangement into split trunks, lying horizontally on tho bottom of tho lake. This plan was chiefly followed where the bottom of the lake was of soft sand, giving no hold for the piles. Timbers, similar to the one here reproduced, are known to be at tho bottom of several of the Swiss lakes, so that this mode of construction may' have been widely spread.

(3) Fascine: Here the necessary foundation for tho platform was obtained by layers of sticks, or the stems of small trees. (The chief authorities are Keller,

op.cit. ;dt. Hoot (Die Pjtan- (Dredged from the Lake zen der Pfahlbauten); Rot- of Zurich.)

imeyer (Die Fauna der Pfahlbauten).)

2. Crannoges: Artificial islands found principally in Ireland, where they served the purpose of strongholds. In this case "tho support cousisted not of piles only, but of a solid mass of mud stones.


Pile Construction.


Frame-pile Construction.

Split Trunk.

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Ac., with layers of horizontal and perpendicular stakes, the latter .serving loss as a support than to bind the mass firmly together" (Lubbock: Prehistoric Times (1869), p. 174J. They are of much later date than the lake-dwelling proper, some being depicted in Johnson's'* Piatt of the County Monughan/* a map of the escheated territories made for the English Government in 1591.

"In 1868 Lord Lovaine described a lake-dwelling observed by him in the t»ou(h of Scotland."— Lubbock: Prehistoric Times (1878), p. 1HL

B. Asadj.: Found in, belonging to, or in anyway connected with the dwellings referred to under A.

"Tills mRy be a suitable place for mentioning the mode In which iakr-dircltiny antiquities are collected."—Kettert Lake-dwellings of Switzerland (ed. Lee J, 1. 9.


Anthrop.: Thosamo as Lake-dwellino (q. v.).

"Among the works of great merit devoted specially to a description of the Swiss lake-habitations is that of M. Troyon."—Lyell s Antiq. Man (1873), p. 2L

lake-like, a. Resembling a lake.

lake-poet, s.

1. A poet who describes the scenery around lakes.

2. One of the Lake-School of poets.

Lake-School, *. A name applied in derision by the Edinburgh Review to a class of poets who, following the example of Wordsworth, Southey, and Coleridge, the founders of the school (who resided for n considerable part of their lives near the lakes of Cumberland and Westmoreland), substituted a simple and natural taste for the stiff classicism of the eighteenth century. [lakers, j

lake-settlement, *.

Anthrop.: A collection of lake-dwellings. Lyell (Antiq. Man (1873), p. 21), says: "It is believed that as many as 300 wooden huts were comprised in one settlement, and that they may have contained about 1,000 inhabitants."

lake-village, t.

Anthrop.: ThesameasLArb-settlement (q.v.). lake-weed, s.

Bot.: Polygonum hydropiper. lake-worship, s.

Comp. Religions: A particular kind of waterworship noticed by Sir John Lubbock (Prehistoric Times ^1869), p. 269) to refute a theory that the gold ornaments dredged up from the sites of lake-dwell* ings were offerings to the gods. That certain lakes wore held sacred by ancient nations is indisputable. Tacitus, describing the worship of Hcrtnus (or Hertha), gives cogent reasons (Ger xi.) why more particulars wore not obtainable in his day:

''Send mioistrant, quo* statim idem Incus hnnrit, Arc anus hino terror, sane toque ignorantia, quid sit id, quod tuntum perituri vident.'

The following authorities may also be consulted: Cic, in Verr., v. 72, de Nat. Deor.t iii. 20,30; Mart., i. 50, ix.59; Ovid., Met. v. 405,406.

♦lake (2),*lac,«. [A,S.Idc; IceL leikr.] Game, sport, play.

"Bi that altar was the lac."—Ormulum, 1,062.

•like (3), s. [O. H. Ger. lachan; O. L. Ger. lacan.] An unidentified kind of cloth.

"He didde next his white lere
Of cloth of lake fin uud clere."

Chaucer.- C. T., 13,787.

like (4), *. [Fr. (ague, from Pers. Idk = lake, produced from lac.'}

Paint.: The generic namo of a variety of transparent red and other pigments of great beauty, prepared for the most part by precipitatiug colored tinctures of dyoing drugs upon alumina and other earths, *fcc. The lakes aro hence a numerous class of pigments, both with respect to the variety of their appellations and the substances from which they are prepared. The coloring matter of common lake is Brazil wood, which affords a very fugitive color. Superior red lakes aro prepared from cochineal, lac, and kormes; but tho best of all are thoso prepared from the root of tho liubia tinctoria or Madder-plant.

lake -let, s. [Eng. lake (I), s.; dimin. suff. -let.] A little lake.

"The snored flowers
That crown the lakelet."

Southey: Thalaba, xiii. G.

lake men, s. pi. [Eng. lake, and men.] Anthrop.: Sir John Lubbock's namo for tho inhabitants of the ancient lake-dwellings of Switzerland; lake-dwellers (q. v.).

"There can be no doubt thnt tho skins of animals supplied the ancient lakemen with their principal article* of Clothing."—Lubbock: Prehistoric Times (1869,), p. 186.

*lak en, *lake-na, s. [lakin.]

•lak 5r, nUc'-llt, *. [Eng. lak(e); -er,-wf.]

1. A poet who describes lake scenery.

2. A member of the Lake-School of poetry.

•lake-wake, «. (lichwake.] lakh, s. [lao (2).]

la kin, *. [See def.l A contraction or diminutive of ladykin (q. v.J; tho Virgin Mary.

♦lak'-Ish, a. [Eng. lak(e),' -ish.] Wot, moist *lakke, v. t. [lack, V.] ♦lakke, s. [lack, «.] Laksh ml, Luksh'-mee, s. [Sansc.] Hind. Myth.: Tim "wife of Vishnu. She is the goddess of wealth, beauty, and pleasure.

lak'-y5 (l),a. [Eng. lak(e) (1), s.:-y.) Oforpertainiug to a lako or lakes; liko a lake.

"And flunking towers and laky flood."

Scott: Marmiun, v. (Introd )

lak-f CI), a. [Eng. lak(e) (4). s.; -I/.] Of a reddish transparent nature; as, laky blood.

lal la tlon, s. [Fr.] A term used to denote a pronunciation of the letter r which is sounded like I; lambdacism.

lal-15-man -tl-a (t as sh), s. [Named after J. L. E. Ave-Lallemant, M. D. (lSUMStiT), a writer on German and Italiun plants.]

Bot.: A genus of plants, order Labiata?, tribe Nepotere. Tho seeds of Lallemantia royleana, which grows in tho countries adjacent to the Indus and the Salt range of bills in India, are cooling and sedative.

la'-16, s. [African.] The leaves of Adansonia digit at a, the Baobab-tree, dried, and reduced to a powder. It is a favorite food of some African tribes.

lam, v. r, [Etym. unknown.] To whip or beat. (Vulgar.)

la -ma (1), a. [Thibetian=a lord, a teacher of souls.] A priest belonging to the variety of Buddhism known as Lama ism (q. v.).

la -ma (2),«. [llama.]

La'-ma-lfm, s. [Eng. lama; -ism.]

Compar. Religions: A system partly religious, partly political—the Church and State Establishment of Thibet—standing iu the same relation to Buddhism proper as Roman Catholicism stands to primitive Christianity. It has also been defined as a "form of Buddhism, modified by Saivism and Shamanism.'* Buddhism was introduced into Thibet in A. D. C22 by Srong Tsan Kampo, who founded the present capital, now known as Lhasa. Hi? zeal was now shared by his two queens one named Bribsoon, a princess from Nepftul, the other Wen China, a princess from China, who are said to have founded La Brunq and Ra Mochay, the most famous religious houses in Thibet. From tho death of this king down to about 850 is called tho "First Intro duction of Religion." Moro than a century of civil war followed, and in 971 there took placo the " Second Introduction of Religion " into Thibet. For more than 3W) years Buddhism grew in power and wealth, and Kutilai Khan embraced the doctrino of the Lamas. Under his successors the dignity of abbot at Sakya became hereditary, the abbots breaking the rule of celibacy. In i:i90, Tsongkapa, the Thibetan monastic reformer, appeared in Lhasa, and at his death, in 1419, he left three immense monasteries with 30.000 monks. The two things on which ho insisted were, (1) tho observance of celibacy, and (2)simplicity in dress. About tho middle of the fifteenth century, the Emperor of China acknowledged tho leaders—tho Dalai Lama and tho Pantshen Lama — as titular overlords of the Church and tributary rulers of Thibet. They wore abbots of the monasteries at Gedun Dubpa near Lhasa, and Krashis Luupo in Further Thibet, and their successors still exercise the same rights. Both are looked upon as incarnations—living in heaven, and appearing on earth in nn apparitional body. When one dies he is supposed to become inenrnatein some male child horn about that time. There is a hierarchy corresponding in a marked degrne to that of the Roman Church, and Hue cz Gabet describe the principal act of religious worship as wonderfully like a high-mass. The political authority of tho Dalai Lama is confined to Thibet but, he is head of the Buddhist Church throughout Mongolia and China. (Rhys Davids, in Encyc. Brit.)

Ia'-ma-Ist,«. [Eng. lama; -ist.] One who professes lamaism (q.v.).

la man-tin, la-men'-tln, s. \ft.. probably dorived from the native name.] [manatee.]

La marck I§m, *. [Named from Jean Baptiste Pierro Antoino do Mounet. Chevalier do Lamarck, born at liazmitin, in Picardy, August 1,1744, died in Paris, December, 1S29.]

Biol.: Tho system of Lamarck, who believed in spontaneous generation aud development, being

the ablest precursor of Darwin. Lamarck considered that all organized being3 were sprung from microscopic monads. If, when life was established in a mass of amorphous matter the ma^s was destitute of irritability, it became a vegetable ; if it possessed irritability, it developed into an animal.

la ma-B5r-y\ s. [lama (1).] In Thibet and Mongolia a religious society or congregation, presided over by a lama (q. v.).

•l&m'-a-BOol, s. [lamb's-wool.]

lamb, *lomb, s. [A. S. lamb; cogn. with Dutch Jam; icoi. lamb; Dan. lam; Sw. <fcGer. lamm; Goth. lamb. ]

I. Lit.: The young of the sheep.

"Von wanton lamb has cropt the woodbine's pride.** Mason.- English Harden, ii.

II. Figuratively:

1. Used typically of tho Savior of tho world. "Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the tin

of tho world."—John i. 29.

2. One who is as innocent and gentle as a lamb.

3. Used as a term of endearment.

4. Ironically used of a rough, cruel, merciless person.

"Aa they had been levied for the purpose of waging war on an infidel nation, they bore on their flag a Christian emblem, the Pattchal Lantb. In allusion to this device, and with a bitterly ironical meaning, theee men, the rudest and most ferocious in the English army, were called Kirke'a Lambs."— Macaulay: Hist. Eng., eh- v.

*5. A dupe; a silly fellow.

lamb-ale, s. A rural festivity at the time of sheep-shearing. [ale.] lamb'B-lettuce, s.

Bot.: Valerianella olitoria. (Hooker.) A glabrous flaccid plant, with minute pale lilac flowers, wild in cornfields and hedge banks. Found in Europe, West Africa, and the West of Asia. The young leaves make an excellent salad. V, carinata is probably a variety of it.

lamb's-quarters, s. pi.

Bot.: (1) Atriplex patula; (2) an American name for Chenopodium album. lamb's-Buccory, s.

Bot.: Tho composite genus Arnoseris, called also Swine's Succory, lamb s-toe, s. Bot.: A nthy Ms miner aria. lamb's-tongue, s.

1. Bot.: Plantago media.

2. Carp.: A plane with a deep, narrow bit for making quirks.

lamb's-wool, s. & a.

A. As substantive:

1. Lit.: Wool from a lamb.

2. Pig.: A be vera go consisting of alo mixed with sugar, nutmeg, and tho pulp of roasted apples.

B. As adj.: Made or consisting of the wool of a lamb.

l&mD.t'. t. [lamb, «.,!.] To bring forth young.

(Said of a sheep.)

lfim-baste , v. t. [Eng. lam, and haste.) To beat severely; to assault with ferocity. ( Vulgar.)

lam' ba tive, a.&.s. [Lat. lambo= to lick; Eng. suff. -ive.]

A. Asadj.: That may be licked up; to be taken

by licking.

B. As subst.: A modicino or preparation to bo taken up by lickiug.

lamb-da clijni, s. [Lat. lambdacimus; Qr. lambttakismos, from tho name (lambda) of the Greek letter L.]

1. A fault iu writing or speaking, which consists in the too frequent repetition of the letter I.

2. A fault in speaking, which consists in pronouncing 11 as lit in billion.

3. A faulty pronunciation of the letter r, which is made to sound as /; lallation.

Iamb'-d61d-al, lam'-dold-al, a. [Or. tamhdo* cidrs% from lambda, the name of the Greek letter L, and etr/0K=appearancc] Resembling tho Greek letter L (a) iu form ; as, the lambdoidal suture.

♦lamb-en, s. pi. [lamb.s.]

*lam'-ben-Cy\sui>iif. [Eng. lamben(t); -cy.] A gleam, a twinkle.

"Thifsewpre Kacred lambencies, tongues of authentic flume fruiii heaven."—Carlyle; Reminiscencest L S6.

flam -bent, a. [Lat. lambcns, pr. pur. of lambo

= tolick.]

1. Licking; playing or moving about, as though licking; touching slightly.

"Then ou Mb locks the lambent glory plaTg.**

Pitt; Virgil's JEneid, ii.

2. Flickering, twinkling; as, a lambent light.

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