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(2) A promotion, a rise. Jumping-deer, 8.

1. The act of joining, uniting, or combining; the "He would usually say, that he did much admire, men Zool. : Cervus lewisii, a kind of deer fonnd west state of being joined, united, or combined; a union; should quarrel and kill themselves for the honor of a of the Mississippi. Called also the Black-tailed ac fump or precedency, or some such like toy; but never so Deer.

"He [Addison in Cato] hath both broken the unity of much as mind the striving for to attain unto the highest

the subject, and formed a very unseasonable junction of patch of vertue." -North: Plutarch, p. 8.

jumping-hare, so

gallantry." -Blair: Lectures, vol. iii., lect. 45. (3) (Pl.): The same as FIDGETS (q. v.). (Eng.)

Zool.: Pedetes or Helamys capensis, a South Afri.

Afri. 2. The point or place of union: a joint: specif..

can animal belonging to the Jerboas (Dipodidæ). II. Technically: It is a native of the Cape, and inhabits deep bur

: the point where two or more lines of railway meet. 1. Building: An abrupt rise in a level course of rows.

Junction-plate, s. brickwork or masonry to accommodate the work jumping-mouse, s.

Boiler-making: A welt or break-joint plate riveted to the inequality of the ground. 2. Mining: A fault.

In this over the edges of boiler-plates, which make a butt

2001.: Meriones hudsonicus, a mammal of this di * From the jump: From the start or beginning. country, belonging to the Dipodidæ.

junction-rails, s. pl. Jump-coupling, 8. jumping-rat, s.

Rail. Eng.: Switch rails which connect one line Mech.: (THIMBLE-COUPLING.)

Zool.: A name for the Jerboa (q. v.).

of rails with another. Jump-joint, s. jumping-shrews, 8. pl.

jă c'-ture, 8. (Lat. junctura, prop. fem. sing. 1. A butt-joint.

Zool.: The English name of the family Macros- of juncturus, fut. par.of jungo=to join.) 2. A flush-joint, in which the plates or planking celidæ (q.v.).

*I. Literally: make a smooth face. In shipbuilding it is equiva- jumping-spider, 8.

1. The act of joining or uniting; a junction; lent to carvel-build.

union. jump-ring, s. Zool.: The genus Attus.

"Signes workings, planets junctures, and the eleuated Jewel.: A ring made by bringing the square-cut. *Jump'-ing-1ğ, adv. [Eng. jumping; -19.] Ex:


Warner: Albion's England, v. ends of a length of wire close together without acty, precisely, pat.. , Felding.

2. The line at which two things are joined. "If thou wouldest turne things faythfullyo And do not imitate

“There may be ingredients of a more subtile nature, jump-seat, s.

So jumpingly, so precyselie

which, being extremely little, may escape unheeded at Vehicle: A kind of open baggy which has a shift

And step for step so strayte."

the junctures of the distillatory vessels." --Boyle. ing seat or seats. For instance, it may be arranged

Drant: Horace; Art of Poetrye. 3. A joint: an articulation. as a double or single seat vehicle. In the former jump'-wěld, v. t. [Eng. jump, and weld.) (See “Neither are the figures or junctures, or order of their case, the main seat is moved over backwardly, and J

1.1 (1).

bones, fitted to such a posture." Hale, the extra seat brought up in front. As a single-seat vehicle, the main seat is thrown into a central posi. Jūn-cā'-çě-2, jun'-çěæ, 8. pl. (Lat. junc(us)= II. Fig.: A critical moment or point of time; a

crisis. tion, the extra seat being placed below the other.

a rush; fem. pl. adj. suff. -aceæ.] jump-weld, s. A butt-weld.

Bot.: An order of Endogens, the typical one of “It happened that just at that juncture was published a

onsists of herbaceous ridiculous book against him."-Pope: Dunciad. (Advert.) Jūmp (2), 8. (Fr.jupe.] (JUPON.]

plants, with fibrous or fascicled roots, leaves fistu- Jūn-cūs, 8. (Lat. a rush, from jungo=to yoke. 1. A kind of jacket or loose coat reaching to the lar or flat, and channeled with parallel veins, inflor. Named from its use as cordage. thighs, buttoned down in front or slit up half way esconce more or less capitate, calyx and corolla Bot.: The typical genus of the order Juncacex behind, with sleeves to the wrist.

forming an inferior six-parted glumaceous or car- ca. y.). Perianth of six leaves, glumaceous: staThe weeping cassock scared into a jump, tilaginous perianth. Stamens six, rarely three;

mens six, rarely three ovary three, rarely oneA sign the presbyter's worn to the stump." fruit capsular, three-valved, many-seeded. Found

celled ; ovules many, placentas generally in the axis. Cleveland in the temperate and arctic regions. Genera four

About a hundred species are known, Juncus com2. (Pl.): A bodice used instead of stays. or five, known species about 130.

munis, with its two varieties, effusus and conglom"Don't mind my shape this bout, for I'm only in jŭó-cā'-ceoŭs (ce as shy), a. [Mod. Lat. jun- eratus, is common; as also J. articulatus fumps." ---Foote: Taste, i. caceus. (JUNCACEÆ.

acutiflorus. J. lamprocarpus is a sub-species of J. Jump, *jumpe, adv. [JUMP, v.] Exactly, just, Bot.: Of, belonging to, or resembling the plants articulatus, &c. In Japan, J. effusus is made into pat, nicely.

he order Juncaces (a.v.): resembling rushes. mats; in Europe, J. glaucus was formerly used as "Myself the while to draw the Moor apart, jūn-ca-gin-ā-çě-æ, 8. [Mod. Latin juncago,

a rush-wick for candles and small oil-lamps. And bring him jump, when he may Cassio find

' genit. juncagin(is); Lat. fem. pl. adj. suff. -aceæ.) Soliciting his wife."

jūn'-diě, v. t. (Etym. doubtful.] To jøstle; to Shakesp.: Othello, ii. 3.

Bot.: Arrow-grasses: an order of Endogens, alli. Jog with the elbow. *Jūmper, v. i. (JUMP, v.] To agree, to accord,

ance Alismales. It consists of herbaceous aquaticJûne, *juyn, s. (Lat. Junius; Fr. juin.] The to coincide.

or marsh plants, having leaves with parallel veins; sixth month of the year, when the sun enters the Jump -êr (1), 8. (Eng. jump, v.; -er.]

flowers white or green, inconspicuous, in spikes or sign of Cancer. I. Ordinary Language:

racemes; sepals and petals small; stamens six;
carpels three, four, or six; fruit dry, one or two-

June-berry, s. The service-berry (q. v.). , 1. One who or that which jumps or leaps; a seeded. Found in most continents. Genera seven, Jûne-bug, 8. A beetle of any of the species of leaper, 2. One who illegally appropriates a claim. (JUMP, species forty-four.

Lachnosterna; so called because it begins to fly in. jón-ca-gin -ě-æ, 8. pl. [Modern Latin juncago,

the month of June. II. Technically: genit.juncagin(is); Lat. fem. pl. adj. sufl.-.1

INNETI Bot.: A tribe of Alismaceæ. Leaves linear or fili1. Eccles. (pl.): A name applied about 1760 by form : petals small, green; stamens six; ovules one botanist. Louis Jungermann, who died in 1653.]

-gēr-măn-n1-a, 8. Named after a German adversaries to certain Calvinistic Methodists in to three, anatropous; embryo straight. Wales, who under the influence of religious excite

Bot.: The typical genus of the order Jungermanment made convulsive movements while Divine jūn-cā'-go, s. (Mod. Lat., from juncus=a rush. niaceæ (q. v.). As now restricted, it is confined to worship was in progress. The name was first given by Tournefort.]

those succubous species which have a free terminal 2. Horology:

Bot.: A synonym of Triglochin, but it gave the perianth, plicato-angular above, and cleft. (1) A spring used in repeating-clocks to assist name to the order Juncaginaceæ (q. v.).

jún-gēr-măn-ni-a-c-, jūn-gēr-măn-ni-ä'the motion of the star-wheel.

jún-cal, a. & 8. (JUNCALES.] 2) A species of click in the repoating-watch, pre

çě-a, s. pl. (Mod. Lat. jungermanni(a); Lat. masc. Teating the motion of a wheel in either direction.

A. As adj.: Of or belonging to the alliance Jun. pl. adj, suff. -acei, or fem. -aceæ.] 3. Husb.: A plow having an upturned cutter in cales.

Bot.: According to Lindley the Jungermanniaceæ front of its share, and which, going below the share, B. A8 substantive:

are an order of Muscales (Mosses); in the opinion prevents its being caught on roots, &c.

of Berkeley the Jungermanniacei are one of three Bot. (pl.): The order Juncales (q. v.). 4. Planing: A plow-bitor machine-jointer, having

orders of Hepaticæ (q. v.). It consists of creeping an intermediate bearing upon the board,

jūn-cā'-lēş, 8. pl. (Masc. & fem. pl. of Mod. Lat. moss-like plants, having a distinct stem, mostly 5. Quarrying: juncalis, from Lat. juncus =a rush.)

having leaves which are incubous (q. v.) and suc(1) A quarryman's boring-tool; a rod of steel, or Bot.: Juncals; an alliance of Endogens. Flowers

cubous (q. v.). The leaves are mostly two, ranked iron pointed with steel, which breaks the rock by herbaceous, dry, and permanent; if scarious then

often with stipules. The first consists of solitary being alternately jumped up and down to form a colored; albumen generally copious. It contains

capsules, generally splitting into a definite number bole for blasting or for an artesian well. two orders, Juncacea and Orontiaceæ (q. v.).

of valves, and fitted with elaters and spores. It is (2) A steel-faced chisel held by one man while

divided into two sub-orders, Jungermanner, in ! "jūn-cāte, s. (JUNKET.) another strikes it with a hammer, used in drilling

which the spore-cases are one or four-valved, withboles in rock for blasting or splitting,

jūn'-çite, 8. (Latin juncus = a rush; suff. ite out a columella, and Anthocerotex, in which the 6. Vehicles: A cheaply formed sled, in which (Palæont.).)

spore-cases are pod-shaped, split on one side, or fupple pieces of wood form the shafts and runners, 'Palæobot. A fossil loaf, somewbat resembling

two-leaved, with a columella. Found all over the and support a box or trestle in or on which ono may that of a juncus (q. v.), but the real affinity of which

world. nde. is doubtful.

jún-gēr-măn-ni-dæ, 8. pl. (Mod. Lat. junger* He was seen drawing one of those jumpers that they Júnc-kēr-ite, s. [Named after the finder, M.

mann(ia); Lat. fem. pl. adj. suff. -idæ.] carry their grain to mill in."-J. F. Cooper: Pioneers,

Bot.: A family of Jungermanniacei (q. v.), tribech. IL

Juncker; suff. -ite (Min.) (q. v.).1.
Min.: A mineral found at Poullaouen, Brittany,

7. Entom.: [HOPPER, II. 3.)
in small yellow crystals, and supposed to be a new

jún-gle, 8. [Sansc. jangala.) Properly waste, jump'-ēr (2), 8. (JUMP (2), 8.) A kind of fur species, but since found to be only siderite (q. v.).

"uncultivated land, whether covered with wood or

U under-jacket; a blouse or smock of coarse woolen

not; but now applied especially to land covered or canvas.

jūn-co, 8. The name given to the genus of birds with forest trees, thick dense brushwood, or other

containing the North American finches; sometimes rank vegetation.' Jump -Ing, pr. par., a. & 8. [JUMP, v.] called snowbirds.

“It was a vast pool, wherein were scattered many islete A. & B. As pr. par. & particip. adj.: (See the

jūn'-coŭs, a.

ñn-coïa a Terb.)


(Lat. juncosus, from juncus=a of shifting and treacherous soil, overhung with rank C. As subst. : The act of leaping; a leap, a jump. bling rushes; juncaceous. rush.) Full of or abounding with rushes; resem- jungle."-Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch. v.

jungle-bendy, 8. Jumping-bugs, 8. pl.

jūńc-tion, s. (Lat. junctio = a joining, from Bot.: The name given in Bombay to Tetrameles, Entom.: The family Halticoridæ.

junctus, pa. par. of jungo=to join; Fr. jonction.] an arborescent genus of Datiscads. boll, boy; poat, Jowl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.




Was sacand futhing

Jungle-cat, s.

jůÁk (1), 8. (Port. & Sp. junco, from Chineso jûn-tó, 8. [Sp. juntara meeting, from Latin Zool. Telis chaus. A wild cat. of a yellowish-gray. chw'an a ship, a boat, a junk; Malay ajong, Fr. junctus=joined, pa. par. of jungo F to join. A inclining to reddish above and white below tho Jonque.) A vessel employed by the Chinese, Jap- secret council or assembly to deliberate upon affairs muzzle and the limbs, with dark stripes, and the anese, and Ma.

of government: a combination of men for secret tail ringed with black. Found in India and Africa. !ays in navigat

deliberation and intrigue; a cabal, a faction. ing their seas. jungle-fever, 8.

“The statesmen of the Junto would do nothing for him." It is the largest

-Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch. xxiii. Path.: Remittent fever, which is apt to attack kind of Chinese Europeans and others who pass through Indian vessel. It has

jů-pa-ti', 8. [Brazilian.] . jungles (forests) during the rainy season. Called no prominent

jupati-palm, s. also, by Anglo-Indians, hill fever. stem or keel.

Bot.: Raphia lædigera, a fine Brazilian palm. jungle-fowl, s. Tho bow on

The leaf-stalks, which are twelve to fifteen feet deck is square, Ornithology:

long, are used for building bouses and making and the anchors 1. In Australia, Megapodius tunicatus.

baskets. are on each side 2. In India, Gallus sonneratii. of the bow. The

Jūpe, s. [Fr.] A jupon (q. v.). jungle-nail, s. stern is full, the

JQ'-pi-tēr, 8. [Lat. for Jovis pater.) rudder susPot.: Acacia tomentosa. pended, and at

1. Rom. Mythol.& Archool.: The supreme Roman jungle-sheep, s. sea is lowered

deity, identified with the Greek Zeus. He was the Zool.: Kemas hylocrinus, found in India.

beneath the


son of Saturn and Rhea. depth of the bot

Jupiter was the king and 1ūn'-glý. a. Eng. jungle); -3.] Of the nature tom of the vessel. The immenso masts are in one father of men, but his power of a jungle; consisting of or abounding with jun. piece; the lug-sails are sometimes of matting.

extended over the deities gles.

"Which have now butjunks and canoes, abounded then

also ; and everything was jungly-gau, s. in tall ships."- Baoon: New Allantis, p. 12.

subservient to his will ex

cept the Fates. From him Zoöl.: A kind of ox, Bos sylhetanus, found in junk-bottle, s. A porter-bottle. (Bartlett.)

mankind received their Sylhet and the adjacent districts.

jăók (2), 8. [From chunk (q.v.).) A thick lump, blessings and miseries; ja -ni-õr, a. & 8. [Lat. compar. of juvenis= a chunk.

they looked on him as acyoung.)

júnk (3), 8. [Port. junco, from Lat. juncus=a quainted with everything A. As adjective: rush )

past, present, and future.

The oak was sacred to him, 1. Younger than another; not so old as another. Nautical:

because he first taught 2. Lower in standing; as, a junior partner, a jus 1. Pieces of old cable and rope cut into lengths for making mats, swabs, gaskets, sinnet, oakum,

mankind to live on acorns. nior counsel.

His most famous temple | Junior is used as an appendage to the name of dc. the younger of two persons bearing the same name

was at Elis, in Olympia,

where, every fourth year, in one family, the older using the appendage senior. Voyages, from its being as tough as old rope.

3. Scraps of old iron, rags, paper, &c.

the Olympic games were B. As substantive :

celebrated in his honor;and 1. One who is younger than another. Junk-dealer, s. One who buys and sells old iron,

The Olympian Zeus.

his most favorite _oracle (aster Phidias.) rags, &c.

was at Dodona, in Epirus.
“The fools, my juniors by a year."

The Romans considered Jupiter as the especial
On the Death of Swin. Junk-ring, 8.

patron of their city. He is generally represented 2. One who is of lower standing in his profession 1. A metallic ring which is screwed down and as sitting on a golden or ivory throne, holding in than another, especially at the bar. confines the hemp packing of a piston.

one hand thunderbolts ready to be hurled, and in "That gentleman behind him is Mr. Skimpin, his juo 2. A steam-tight packing around the piston of a the other a scepter of cypress, while the eagle nior."-Dickens: Pickwick, ch. xxxiv. steam-engine.

stands with expanded wings at his feet. White, the Junior-right, 8. The same as BOROUGH-ENGLISH

color of the day, was sacred to him,

Junk-shop, s. A shop where old iron, rags, &c., 2. Astron.: The largest planet of the solar sys (q. v.). are bought.

tem. Its diameter is about 85,000 miles, its bulk “The distribution of the junior-right in England re

funk-wad. 8

nearly 1,250 times that of the earth; but, its density quires a more particular notice."-Elton: Origins of Eng. Tish History, p. 188.

Ordnance: A wad made of oakum bound with being one-fourth that of the earth, it weighs only ju-ni-or:-1-tý, 8. (Eng.junior; -ity.]

spun-yarn, and filling the bore of the gun. It is about threo hundred times as much as our planet

placed between the charge and the ball. For red. The average distance of Jupiter from the sun is 1. The quality or state of being junior.

hot shot two are used, the inner dry and the outer 478,000,000 miles; and a railway train, traveling 2. The same as BOROUGH-ENGLISH (q.v.). wet.

fifty miles an hour, would require nino centuries to “One must coin a new phrase like juniority, or junior- Tank-ēr (as y), 8. [German.) A young German

go from the sun to Jupiter. The latter body reright."-Elton: Origins of English Hist., p. 185.

volves oz its axis in about nine hours and fifty-five noble; a member of the aristocratic party in

minutes, which is the length of its day and night, 10-ni-or-ship, 8. (Eng.junior; -ship.) The same Prussia.

Though traveling in its orbit round the sun at the as JUNIORITY (q.v.).

jūn-kēt, *jon-ket, *jun-cade, *jun-cate, 8. rate of 28,743 milos an hour, its takes nearly twelve ja -nip-ēr, 8. & a. (JUNIPERUS.]

[Ital. giuncata=a kind of fresh cheese and cream, years to complete its revolution; this, therefore, is A. As substantive:

so called because it is brought to market upon the length of its year. It is surrounded by four Botany:

rushes; also a junket (Florio), from giunco=a rush; conspicuous belts of a brownish-gray color, two 1. Juniperus communis, and other species of the me communis and other species of the Lat. juncus; 0. Fr. jomcade.)

north, two south of the equator, with foebler once

1. A kind of sweetmeat; curds mixed with cream, toward the poles. The equatorial region of tbe genus.

2 The Nova Scotian name of the American larch. sweetoned and flavored ; any kind of delicate food. planet is brighter than the rest. Jupiter has four Abies pendula.

“How fairy Mab the junkets ate."

satellites, numbered first, second, third, and fourth. “He saw the prophet also how he fled

Milton: L' Allegro, If named, they are called lo, Europa, Ganymede, Into the desert, and how there he slept 2. A feast, an entertainment.

and Callisto. The first revolves around him in 1 Under a juniper." Milton: P. R., ii. 272 jún -kět, v. i. &t. (JUNKET, 8.]

terrestrial day 18 hours and 28 minutes, the second *B. As adj.: Bitter, sharp.

in 3 days 13 hours 14 minutes, the third in 7 days A. Intrans.: To feast, to banquet.

3 hours 43 minutes, the fourth in 16 days 16 hours “She will read me a juniper letter (hand suave enoa "Whatever good bits you can pilfer in the day, save and 32 minutes. They were first soen by Galileo, mium) for coming home in such a pickle."-Bailey: Eras. them to junket with your fellow servants at night."-Swift:

them to junket with your fellow servants at night.” -Swift: with his small telescope, on January 7, 1610, and mus, p. 39. Directions to Servants.

identified on the 13th as small planets rovolving Juniper-oil, oil of Juniper, 8.

B. Trans. : To entertain at a feast; to feast. round the luminary. They are now called satelPhar.: An oil distilled from the unripe fruit of jūn-kēt-ing, 8. (Eng.junket; -ing.] A feast, an htes. the juniper. It is a powerful stimulant and diuretic, entertainment, a junket.

"It may not be amiss to state here that the motions of Juniper-resin, 8. [SANDARAC.]

“The apostle would have no reveling, or junketing Jupiter's satellites are much disturbed by the ellipticity of upon the altar."-South: Sermons, vol. i., ser. 7.

Jupiter's body."-Prof. Airy: Pop. Astron.(6th ed.), p. 208 ju-nip -or-ŭs, 8. (Lat. = tho jsniper.) Bot.: Juniper: a genus of Coniferæ (Pinacem). JU-10, 8. (Lat.]

*3. Old Chem.: The ancient name for tin. sub-order Cupressew. Generally diccious, some 1. Astron.: (ASTEROID, 3.)

Jupiter's-beard, s. times monocious. Male catkins globose, anther

2. Rom. Mythol.& Archæol.: A celebratod deity of one, three to six-celled ; female cone a galbulus, the Romans, identified with the Hera of the Greeks, Botany: (1) Anthyllis barba joris. (2) Semper. small, globoso, of four to six docussato or whorled and generally regarded as the daugbter of Saturn oivum tectorum scales, which, becoming enlarged and fleshy, ro and Rhea, and sister and wife of Jupiter. The

Jupiter's-flower, 8. Bemble a berry; ovulos erect; seeds one to three; principal seats of her worship were Argos, Samos,

Bot.: (1) The genus Dianthus, including the Car. leaves opposite or whorled in threes, subulate or Carthage, and afterward Rome. The hawk, goose, scale-like: trees or bushes with a red heart-wood. and particularly the peacock, often called Junonia

niä nations or Pinks. Twenty-seven are known. Juniperus communis is avis, were sacred to her. She presided over mar- jll-pon, *jup-pon, 8. (Fr. jupon, from jupe the Common Juniper. There are two varieties of riage and childbirth, and as the goddess of all power (q. v.); Sp. jupon. A sleeveless overcoat, com: J. communis-J. communis proper, leaves spread and empire, and the patroness of riches, is repro- posed of several thicknesses of material sewed ing, straight, subulate, and . nana, leaves shorter, sented sitting on a throne with a diadem on her through, and faced with silk or velvet, upon which broader, imbricate, incurved. The juniperis a pow head and a golden scepter in her right hand. The were embroidered the wearer's arms. It fitted erful diuretic. lts berries are used for flavoring Roman consuls, when they entered on office, were closely to the body, and, descending below the Geneva and gin: its wood in vencering. The fotid always obliged to offer her a solemn sacrifice. The hips, terminated in an enriched border of various oil of J. oxyced us is used in veterinary practice. public financos were also under her care, and the patterns : with it was worn the military belt, upon eks carved their mint at Rome was in her temple.

which much ornament was lavisbed. images. J. sabina, the Savin, is diuretic. J. ber Juno's-tears, 8. pl.

*Jūr, *jurre, v. i. (A variant of jar (q. v.).] To mudiana is the Pencil-cedar, J. virginiana, the Redcedar, and J. excelsa, the Himalayan Pencil-cedar.

Bot.: Verbena officinalis.

clash; to strike harshly against anything. Tho resinous twigs of J. recurvu aro much used in jun-ta, s. [Sp.) A council; specif., the Spanish *jūr, *jurre, s. (JUR, v.] A clash, a crash, a India for incense. Grand Council of State.

hard-sounding collision. fate, făt, färe, amidst, whãt, fall, father; wē, wět, hëre, camel, hēr, thêre; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; gó, pot,

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jussiæa JQ'-, s. & a. [See def.]

*10:-ris-con-sůlt, 8. (Lat. jurisconsultus, from Jurte, jurt (J as y), yourt, 8. (YURT.] A. As substantive:

jus (genit. juris)=law, and consultus, pa. par. ofja -rš, *u-rie, 8. (Fr. jurée, prop. tho fem. of

consulo=to consult.) One who is learned in the juré. pa. par. of jurer=to swear; Lat. juro.] Geog.: A range of mountains between France and civil lai

. Switzerland, west of the lakes of Genova and Neuf. law; a jurist; one learned in jurisprudence. civil law; one who gives his opinion in cases of

1. A number of men selected according to law, chatel.

impaneled, and sworn to inquire into and to de

cide upon facts, and to give their true verdict acB. As adj.: Of, belonging to, or derived from the

ja -ris-dic-tion, s. (Fr., from Latin jurisdicJura Mountains. tionem, accus, of jurisdictio, from jus (genit. juris),

cording to the evidence legally laid before them. and dictiora saying, proclaiming; Sp. jurisdic

In Courts of Justice there are three kinds of juries, Jura-limestone, s. cion ; Ital. giurisdizione.)

grand juries, special juries, and petit or common Geol.: A limestone of oðlitic age constituting the I. Ordinary Language and Law:

juries. (For grand jury, see under GRAND.] Petit chief part of the Jura Mountains.

or common juries and special juries consist of

The legal power, right, or authority of admin. twelve men each, and the verdicts given must be 40-ral, a. (Lat. jur (genit. juris); Eng, adj. istering justice; the legal power which a court of unanimous. They are appointed both in civil and suff. -al.) Pertaining to natural or positive right. equity has of deciding cases brought and tried criminal cases. A special jury is resorted to in 70-ra-měn'-tal-ly, adv. (Lat. juramentum= beroreitithe legal

'gal rigut by wnica Juages exercise cases of too great importance to be decided by a

their authority; judicial authority over a cause. an oath; Eng. adv. suff. -ly.) With an oath.

petit jury. After the evidence in a cause has been

2. The power or right of governing or legislating; given, and summed up by the judge, the jury retire 'ja'-rănt, a. & 8. (Lat. jurans, pr. par. of juro= the power or right of exercising authority, or of to consider their verdict, and in order to avoid delay to swear.] making and enforcing laws.

and abuses are kept without drink, fire, or light, A. As adj.: Swearing.

3. The extent to which such authority extends; unless by permission of the judgo. In Scotland the B. As subst.: One who takes an oath.

the district within which such power may be exer- number of the jury in criminal cases is fifteen, and

cised. _JQ-răs -sic, a. (Fr. Jurassique, named from the

the verdict is determined by the voice of the major

II. Roman Theol.: Ecclesiastical jurisdiction is ity.
Jura Mountains. ]
Geol.: Of or belonging to the formations well

defined as the “power which is concerned with the 2. Hist.: It has been much disputed whether the

worship of God and the salvation of souls, and is germ of the modern jury system was of Anglo-Saxon developed in the Jura Mountains.

exercised in foro externo as well as in foro interno." or Norman origin. Those who hold the former view Jurassic-period, 8.

By commission from the Supremo Pontiff, whose attribute it to King Alfred, of England, about A.D. Geol.: The period of time during which the Ju- powers, theologians teach, are derived from Christ 886. It does not seem to have been closely conrassic rocks were deposited. (JURASSIC-SYSTEM.]

through Peter, are constituted legates, patriarchs, nected with the appointment of twelve compurgaJurassic-system, Jurassic-formation, s.

primates, and prelates; by law or canon, rectors of tors for canonical purgations. The establishment

universities, superiors of convents, provosts, and of proper jury trials seems to have been under Geol.: The name given on the Continent to a sys vicars-general receive their jurisdiction; and a ju- Henry II., lato in the twelfth century. It was well tem or a formation corresponding to the Oolitic risdiction exercised without challenge for forty rooted in the time of King John, and is insisted on and Liassic systems elsewhere.

years is valid by prescription. To absolve a penis in Magna Charta, as the great bulwark of liberty. ja -răt (1), #ja-răte (1), 8. (Prov. Fr., from Lat.

tent, jurisdiction is necessary. Secular priests ob- In 1353, under Edward III., juries impaneled to try

tain this from their bishops: but confessors belong. aliens were to consist half of foreigners. Various juratus, pa. par, of juro=to swear; Fr. juré; Sp. &

ing to the regular orders have jurisdiction from the laws have since been passed on the subject of juries, Port. jurado; Ital. giurato.] A person under oath; specii., a magistrate in some corporations; an

Pope over all the faithful when they have obtained but the changes made have not been of essential

the approbation of the bishop. A penitent in artic- importance. alderman.

ulo mortis may be validly absolved, even in reserved “It is true. the terms of jury and verdict were introju-răt (2), 8. (Lat., third pers. sing., indic. of cases (q. v.), by a simple priest, even if degraded, duced by the Normans, with many others in the style furorto swear.]

apostate, or irregular. In ordinary cases, absolu- and practice of our laws; but the trials by twelve men, Law : A memorandum of the place where, the tion given by a priest without jurisdiction is void. with that essential circumstance of their unanimous time when, and the person before whom an affidavit (Addis & Arnold.)

agreement, was not only used among the Saxons and Nor. is sworn. (Wharton.)

(1) Appellate' jurisdiction: Jurisdiction in mans, but is known to be as ancient in Sweden.”—Temja -răte (2),s. (Lat. juratus, pa. par. of juro= cases of appeal from inferior courts.

ple: Introd. to Hist. England. to swear.) A person sworn to give evidence, to ad- . (2) Original jurisdiction: The legal right of hear. 3. A body of men selected to award prizes at pubminister justice, &c.

ing and determining a case in the first instance. lic shows, exhibitions, &c. 10-ră-tion, s. (Lat. juratio, from juratus, pa. jQ-ris-dic-tion-al, a. (Eng. jurisdiction; -al.]

[ To hang a jury: To cause a disagreement of

opinion and prevent the return of a verdict. par. of juro=to swear.)

Of or pertaining to jurisdiction; as, jurisdictional Law: The act of swearing; the administration of right.

"At least two of those men,' he said, pointing to the an oath.

jurors who still sat in the jury-bor, 'committed perjury ju-ris-dic-tive, a. (Lat. jus (genit. juris)=law; when they said that they could try Dan Coughlin without 0-ra-tor, 8. [Lat., from juratus, pa. par. of dictio=a saying, proclaiming, and Eng. suff. -ive. 1 prejudice. I can't tell you who those men are, but they juro=to swear.) Having jurisdiction.

were well trained to answer properly any questions put to Law: A juror.

them, and they are there to hang the jury instead of Dan ja-ra-tõr-ý, a. (Lat. juratorius, from juratus,

ja-ris-prů-dence, 8. [Fr., from Lat. jurispru- Coughlin.'"'Chicago Record, Nov. 28, 1893. pa. par. of juro=to swear; Fr. juratoire; Sp. jura- a

dentia, from jus (genit. juris)=law, and prudentia Tury-box, 8. The inclosed place in which the torio: Ital. giuratorio.1 Pertaining to or contain: skull; Sp. Jurisprudencia, Ital. giurisprudenza. I

jury sits in a court of justice. The science of law; the knowledge of the laws, cusing an oath.

toms, and rights of men in a community, necessary Jury-list, 8. juratory-caution, s. for the due administration of justice.

Law: A list of persons liable to be summoned to Scots Law: A kind of caution sometimes offered T.(1) General jurisprudence: The science or attend as jurymen. in a suspension or advocation, where the com- philosophy of positive law. plainer is not in circumstances to offer any better. (2) Particular jurisprudence: The knowledge of Jury-process, 8. The writ for the summoning It consists of an inventory of his effects, given up tho law of any particular nation.

of a jury. upon oath, and assigned in security of the sums (3) Medical jurisprudence: [FORENSIC-MEDICINE, 10-rý, a. [Etym, doubtful. Skeat thinks it is which may be found due in the suspension. MEDICAL-JURISPRUDENCE.)

connected with Dan. kiore=a driving, kröre=to Ja-rē di-vi-nő, phr. (Lat.) By divino right. #ju-ris-pra'-dent, a. & s. (Fr., from Lat. juris- drive; Norw. kyöre=a drive, a journey; Sw. köra ; Ju-ri-băl-11, 8. (A Demerara word.) (See the prudens, from jus (genit. juris) =law, and prudens

Icel. keyra=to drive.) =skilled; Sp. jurisprudente ; Ital. giurisprudente. )

Naut.: A term applied to any structure of a vescompound.)

sel, made to serve temporarily in place of something Juriballi-bark, 8.

A. As adj.: Learned in the law; skilled in juris- lost. Pharm.: A bark said to be superior to cinchona prudence.

jury-mast, 8. bark in typhoid and malignant fevers. It is a cor B. As subst.: One learned in the law; a juriscon

Naut.: A temporary mast erected in place of one dial and purgative, and, when taken warm, a di- sult.

that has been carried away, or for navigating a aphoretic. It is probably from Moschoxylumju-ris-pra-děn-tial (ti as sh), a. (Eng. juris- vessel to a place where the permanent equipment schwartzii, one of the Meliads.

prudent; -ial.] Of or pertaining to jurisprudence of masting and rigging is furnished. The tempoja-rid-ic, a. (Lat. juridicus, from jus (genit.

jQ'-rist, 8. [Fr. juriste, from Low Lat. jurista= rary rig is termed jury-rig. juris)=law; dicorto say, to declare; Fr.juridique.)

a lawyer, from jus (gen. juris)=law.] One learned Jury-rigged, a. Furnished with rigging of a The same as JURIDICAL (q. v.).

in the law, especially in the civil law; one who pro- temporary kind, to replace that carried away by a ja-rid-)-cal, a. (Eng. juridic; -al.]

fesses the science of law; one who writes upon law. storm. 1. Acting in the administration or distribution of "To that symbol of kingly authority our jurists have jury-rudder, 8.A tomporary ridder employed jastice ; pertaining to a judge or the administration

always ascribed a peculiar and almost mysterious impor. when the original rudder has been lost or damaged. of justice. tance."- Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch. ix.

ja -rý-man, s. (Eng. jury, s., and man.) One 2. Employed in courts of justice; according to Ju-ris'-tic, *ju-ris'-tic-al, a. (Eng. jurist; -ic, who serves upon a jury; a juror. law. -ical.] Of or pertaining to a jurist or jurispru.

"And wretches hang that jurymen may dine." juridical days, s. pl. dence.

Pope: Rape of the Lock, iii. 22. Law: Days on which the courts can lawfully sit. ]

jū-ror, 8. (Fr. jureur, from Lat. juratorem, jūs, s. (Lat.1 Law, rights.

: accus. of jurator=one who swears, from juratus, pa. 10-rid -1-cal-1š, adv. [English juridical; -ly.) par, of jurorto swear.]

jus gentium, phr. The law or rights of nations; Ia a judicial manner; in accordance with the forms 1. One who serves upon a jury in a court of law: International law. of justice.

one who is sworn to deliver a true verdict in any jus-si, s. [A Manilla word.] Ju-rin--a, 8. Named after Jurine, a Genevan case according to the evidence brought before him. Fabric: A delicate fiber from an unknown plant, professor.) [JURY.)

used in making dresses. Bot.: A genus of Composites, tribe Serratulow. "The twelve men were at first both jurors and judges." lūs-si-e'-a. 8. [Named after Antoine de Jussieu, The bruised root of Jurinea macrocephala is ap- - Temple: Introd. to Hist. England.

demonstrator of plants in the Royal Gardens at plied in India to eruptions, and a decoction is give 2. One of a number of men selected to award Paris. in colie. It is also considered a cordial, and given prizes, &c., at a public show or exhibition.

Bot.: The typical genns of the tribe Jussiæeæ in puerperal fever. (Dr. Stewart.)

**3. One who takes an oath; one who binds bim- (q. v.). Jussiæa caparossa and J. scabra have been ja -rin-Ite, 8. [A name attributed to Soret. self by an oath.

used in Brazil for dyeing black, and J. pilosa in Etym. doubtful.)

“I am a juror in the holy league."

the same country to produce a yellow. The leaves Min.: The same as BROOKITE (q. v.).

Marlowe: Massacre at Paris, ii. 6. of J. peruviana form an emollient poultice. boll, boy; poat, JoWl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f. clan.

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justificative jús-81-*--, 8. pl. (Mod. Lat. Jussioola); Lat. 2. Conformity to truth or the facts; fairness in the absence of the sovereign from the kingdom, be torn. pl. adj. suff. ec.)

the representation of facts respecting merit or was ex officio regent. His office was thus one of Bot.: A tribe of Onagracow. demerit; impartiality.

the highest importance and influence.

3. Justness; well-founded right; rightfulness; *3. One who boasts of the justice of his own acts, Jūst, 8. [Joust.)

agreeableness to right. Jūst, a., adv. & 8. (Fr. juste, from Lat. Justus, an

B. As adj.: Presided over by a justiciary.

"To mitigate the justioe of thy plea." extonsion of jus=right; Sp. & Port. justo; Ital.

Shakesp.: Merchant of Venioe, iv. 1.

| High Court of Justiciary: Tbe supreme court giusto.)

4. Just requital of deserts; just treatment;

. of Scotland in criminal causes. It is presided over A. As adjective:

by the lord justice-general, who is assisted by the merited reward or punishment; just recompense lord justice-clerk, and five Jords of session. There 1. Acting according to what is right and fair; for conduct or actions. giving or willing to give to all their due; fair, im

is no appoal from its decisions.

“He executed the justice of the Lord."-Deut. xxxiii. 21. partial, or equitable in the distribution of justice:

isti Jū3-ti-çi-ēş, 8. (JUSTICE, v.)

Justice is a written or prescribed law, to wbich upright, incorrupt, honest: not willing to overreach or take advantage of others; fair dealing.

one is bound to conform and make it the rule of Law: An old English writ addressed to the sher

one's decisions: equity is a law in our hearts: it iff, empowering him to hold plea of debt in his “Joseph was a good man and just."-Luke xxiii. 53.

conforms to no rule but to circumstances, and county court for any sum, his usual jurisdiction 2. Righteous; God-fearing; of blameless and pure decides by the consciousness of right and wrong. being limited to sums under forty shillings.

The proper object of justice is to secure property; jůs-ti-có, Jŭs-ti-coat, 8. (JUSTE-AU-CORPS.)

the proper object of equity is to secure the rights of “The just shall live by faith."--Galatians iii. 11.

humanity. Justice is exclusive, it assigns to everyJūs-ti-fl-a-ble, a. (Eng. justify; -able.] That 3. Making no respect of persons; rewarding the one his own: it preserves the subsisting inequality may or can be justified, excused, or defended; capagood and punishing the wicked.

between men : equity is communicative; it seeks to

is to blo of being justified or shown to be just; defensible “A God of truth, and without iniquity, Just and right is equalize the condition of men by a fair distribu- by law or reason; vindicablo; excusable. he."-Deut. xxxii. 4. tion. Justice is inflexible, it follows one invariable

“Just are the ways of God, rule, which can seldom bo deviated from consist

And justifiable to men." 4. True to one's promises; faithful, trustworthy. y ently with the general good; equity, on the other

Milton: Samson Agonistes, 234 "Just of thy word, in every thought sincere." hand, varies with the circumstances of the case, justifiable-homicide, 8. Pope: Epistle vii. 6. a

guided by discretion. (Crabb: Eng. Synon.) 5. Conformable to what is right: conformed to

Law: Homicido (i. e., the killing of a human justice-ayre. 8. instice-a In Scotland a circuit made haing)

boing) in circumstances which render it a justitiable truth and justice; fair, bonest.

throughout the kingdom by the lords of justiciary act. When, for instance, an executioner hangs a "Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just for the distribution of justice. (EYRE.]

criminal legally condemned, or when no other way hin shall ye have."-Levit. xix. 36.

*justice-broker, 8. A magistrate who sells his of preventing an atrocious crime, say murder, is 6. True; well founded; not forged or invented; judicial decisions."

available, the deed ceases to be murder and becomes grounded on fact.

“The devil take all justice-brokers."-Dryden: Amphi justifiable-homicide. "Crimes were laid to his charge too many, the least Fryon, WV. 1

jūs-ti-fi-a-ble-něss, s. (Eng. justifiable; -ness.) whereof being just, had bereaved him of estimation and justices' justice, 8. A satirical expression in the quality or state of being justifiable; capability credit."--Hooker: Eocles. Polity.

common use, applied to the disproportionate sen- of being justified, excusod, or defondod. 7. In accordance with facts; not exaggerated; tences and extraordinary decisions of incompetent

"To this end they directed all their energies, careless neither too much nor too little; exact, accurato, Ju curate: justices.

of the honesty or justifiableness of the means."-J. & precise; as, a just description.

#jūs'-tice, v. t. (JUSTICE, subst.) To administer Brewer: English Studies, p. 191. 8. In accordance witb justice or equity; equita- justico to.

jūs-ti-fi-a-biš, adv. (Eng. justifiab(le): -ly.) blo, due, merited, deserved.

“The king delivered him to the French king, to be In a justifiablo manner; so as to be justifiable, ex“He shall receive a just recompense of reward."—He justiced by him at his pleasure."--Hayward,

cusablo, or dofensible. brows ii. 2.

*jūs'-tice-a-ble, a. (Eng.justice; -able.] Liable 9. In accordance with what is proper or suitable; to be called to account in a court of justice.

“No man amongst us can justifiably plead weakness of

conscience in that sense."--South: Sermons, vol. iii., ser. 5. regular, orderly, due, fit, proper, suitable.

Jūs -tice-hood, 8. (Eng. justice; -hood.) The Jūs-ti-fi-cā - tion, s. (Fr., from Lat. justifica “The prince is here at hand: pleaseth your lordship

tionem, accus, of justificatio, from justificatus, pa. To meet his grace. just distance 'tween our armies office or dignity of a justice; justiceship. Shakesp.: Henry IV., Pt. 11., iv. L "Should but the king his justicehood employ,

par. of justifico=to justify (q. v.); Sp. justification; In setting forth of such a solemn toy.'

Ital. giustificazione.) *10. Exact, precise ; neither more nor less.

Ben Jonson: Expostulation with Inigo Jones. I. Ordinary Language: “Bring me just notice of the numbers dead."

*jūs'-tice-měnt, 8. [Eng. justice; -ment.] Pro- 1. The act of justifying: the act of showing or Shakesp.: Henry V., iv. 7.

cedure in courts of justice; the administration of proving to be just, right, or conformable to law and $11. Full, complete; of full dimensions. justice.

justico; vindication, defenso. "He was a comely personago, a little above just stature, *jūs-tic-ēr, 8. (Eng. justic(e); -er.] One who

"I hope, for my brother's justification, he wrote this but well and straight limbed, but slender."-Bacon: Henry Administers justice: a justiciary.

as an essay of my virtue."-Shakesp.: Lear, i 2. VII.

* This shews you are above,

2. The state of being justified or proved to bo just B. As adverb:

You justicers, that these our nether crimes

or right. 1. Exactly, precisely.

So speedily can venge." Shakesp.: Lear, iv, 2.

3. The act of adjusting, making correct, or exact;

the act of causing the various parts of a complex jūs'-tic-ēs, 8. pl. Judges; officors appointed by object t fit together; adjustment. "Just as you left them."-Shakesp.: Tempest, v. 2. Close ; very near in place or position.

competent authority to adininister justice.

11. Justices of the Peace: Public officers invested 11. Technically: “Now was she just before him as he sat."

with judicial powers for the purpose of preventing 1. Bookbinding: Attention to keeping the matter Shakesp.: Venus and Adonis, 819.

breaches of the peace, and bringing to punishment of pages in exact register or correspondence, to se8. Exactly; precisely or nearly in point of time. those who have violated the law. They also have cure even margins. u To-night at Herne's oak. just twixt twelve and one jurisdiction in certain states in civil suits for 2. Law: The bringing forward in court of a snm. Shakesp.: Merry Wives of Windsor, iv. 6. & limited amounts.

cient reason why a defendant did what he is called

2. Chief Justices: The presiding judges of the upon to answer; such a plea must set forward somo 4. Noarly, almost, all but.

Supreme Court of the United States, and of the special matter. "How Proserpine lately was chuckling to think state supreme courts.

3. Print. The adjustment of distanco botween the She had just caught you napping on Phlegethon's lūg'-tice-ship. 8. [English justice: -ship.] The

letters in the words and the words in a line, so as brink." Cambridge: To Osias Humphrey, Esq. office or position of a judge or justice.

to avoid any glaring disproportion, and mako thom 5. Barely, merely, only; as, He only just escapou.

fill the measure. “From this beginning having run through many de 4. Theologu: *C. As subst. : That which is just, fair, and right; grees of honours, he mounted up to this dignitie of præ- (1) Protestant Theol.: A forensic act by which justice, right. fecture, or justiceship."--P. Holland: Ammianus, p. 51.

God declares the sinner rightoous, and acquits him *just-borne, a. Borno in the cause of justice or Jūs-ti-c1-a (cassh), s. [Named after J.Justice, of all guilt on account of the meritorious lifo and right. an ancient Scotch horticulturist and botanist.)

atoning death of Jesus Christ the Redeemer, im. Bot.: A genus of Acanthads, tribe Eranthemeæ. puted to the sinner and received by faith alone. The “Our just-borne arms."-Shakesp.: King John, il. 2. It consists of ornamental and freely-flowering scripture passages adduced in support of this view #fuste-au-corps (as zhůst'-7-kör), subst. (Fr.= plaats with red, purple, blue, white, or yollow floware Isa. liii. 11; Acts xiii. 39; Rom. iii. 20-31, iv. 1-25, close to the body.) A close-fitting body-coat, similar ers. They are natives of the hotter parts of Asia v. 16-21; viii. 30; Gal. ii. 16-21, iii. 8, 11: Tit. iii, 7. to, if not identical with, the jupon.

and America. Many are cultivated in groenhousos. &c. A broad distinction is drawn between iustifica. juste-milieu (as zhûst -mē-lyd), 8. (Fr.=the Just Justicia ecbolium is a diuretic.

tion and sanctification. (See the Eleventh Article,

and the Homily., Of Justification, also Confession just inean.) The golden mean; the true medium; "jūs-ti-ci-a-ble (C as sh), a. [English Justice: that mode of administering government which con- -able. Proper or fit to be examined in a court of (2) Roman Theol.. The infusion of righteongness sists in maintaining a just and fair middle course justice.

into the sinner by the Spirit of God. On that view between extreme parties on either side.

jăs-ti-ci-a-rý, *jăs-ti-ci-ar (c as sh), *jūs there is not essential distinction between justificajūs'-tice, 8. (Fr., from Lat. justitia=justice; ti'-ti-ar (ti as shi), s.&a. (Lat. justitiarius, from tion and sanctification. In support of this view, Low Lat. justitiara tribunal, a judge, from Lat. justitia=justice.]

and against the distinction drawn by Protestants jusłus=just (9.v.); Sp.justicia; Ital. giustizia. ] A. A8 substantive:

between justification and sanctification. Roman 1. The quality or stato of being just; uprightness,

theologians cite 1 Cor. vi. 11. St. Paul has been

1. An administrator of justico; a judge of justice. telling the Corinthians that tho" uprighteous shall impartiality; fairness in dealing with others; tho rondering to each what is bis due; conformity with

"O Savior, the glittering palaces of proud justiciaries not inherit the kingdom of God." He continnes. the laws human and divino; rectitudo, equity,

are not for thee."-Bp. Hall: Contemplations; Zaccheur. "And such were some of you; but yo are washed. integrity.

2. An officer appointed by William the Conqueror but yo are sanctified, but ye are justifiod." Here

sanctification is put beforo justification. (Soo also "Justice is two-fold, namely general or strict justice, which consists in observing the laws, and the aim of land. The Chief Justiciary was tho highest legal

Cub.iv. 24.) which is public good; and particular justice or equity, officer in the kingdom; he was president of thojūs tif -1-că-tive, a. (Latin justificat(us), pa. which aims at the good of individuals."-- Beattie: Moral Court of King's Bench and of the Exchequer, and par, of justifico; Eng. sufl. -ive. Having power to Sci:nue, pi. iii., ch. ii.

all other courts were undor his authority. In justify: justifying, justificatory. fāte, făt, färe, amidst, whãt fâli, father; wē, wět, hëre, camel, hõr, thêre; pine, pit, sïre, sir, marine; gó, pot,


of Faith. chuyu Of Justification, alson Article

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2, but justites, or defends.

Jňs-tif -I-că-tõr, 8. (Low Lat., from Lat. Justif. 2. Conformity to truth or facts; accuracy, fair

THE eleventh letter and the Icatus, pa. par. of justifico.] ness, propriety.

eighth consonant of the Eng I. Ord. Lang.: One who justifies, excuses, or de “Cowley has with greater justness of thought compared

Jish alphabet. This letter has fends. & beautiful woman to a porcupine, that sends an arrow

before vowels, and before all II. Law: from every part."-Addison: Spectator, No. 377.

consonants exceptn, the same

phonetic value in all the al. 1. A compurgator (q. v.). Jŭt, v. i. (A variant of jet, v. (q. v.)] To push or

phabets where it appears-a 2 A juryman.

shoot forward in prominencos; to project beyond Jis-tit-1-ca-tỘT-, a. [Eng. justificator: rg.] the main body.

guttural momentary sound "

produced by raising the back Justifying, excusing, defensory. jit, jutte, 8. [JUT, U.]

of the tongue to the back of the Jūs'-ti-f1-ēr, 8. (Eng.justify; -er.] 1. That which juts or projects out; a projection,

palate, as in kill, keen, king. a prominence.

Before n it is not sounded in 1. One who justifies, vindicates, or defends.

*2. A push, a shovo.

English, as in knee, knell, knife. From the six. They were not men, but justifiers of themselves and Int-window. 8.

teenth to the last century it was used in English at hypocrites."-Strype: Life of Parker, an. 1566.

the end of words after c, apparently to strengthen 2. One who pardons and absolves from sin and Carp.: A bow-window projecting from the faco of the hard c. as in alchemick, musick, publick, but punishment. " a building; a bay-window."

this usage is now confined to monosyllables, as jõs-ti-fý, *jus-ti-fye, v. t. & i. (Fr. justifier. jate, 8. (Uriya jhot.] Tho fiber of two Indian check, clock, duck, sick. It also frequently occurs trom Lat. justifico, from justus=just, and facio=to pla

plants, Corchorus capsularis, cultivated chiefly in at the end of monosyllables followed by e mute, as make ; Sp. & Port. justificar; Ital. giustificare.]

the central and eastern parts of Bengal, and C. duke, strike; or alone after long vowels or diph.

olitorius in the neighborhood of Calcutta. It is thongs, as in seek, speak, hook, look, hawk, or preA. Transitire:

manufactured into(a) cloth of different qualities ceded by tho consonants l, n, r, as milk, skrink, dirk. I. Ordinary Language:

ranging from substitutes for silk, or sbirtings. It is met with in the middle of words only where 1. To prove or show to be just, true, or conform curtains, carpets, and "gunnies" (bags for holding the monos able to right, law, justice, propriety, or duty; to grain); (b) paper prepared chiefly from the rejec. pounded, as in speaking, firkin, mawkish, tinker, vindicate, to defend, to excuse.

tions" and "cuttings": (c) cordags from the coarser inkling, mankind. It takes a prominent part in 2. To prove; to establish by evidence; to show; and stronger qualities.

the formation of derivatives, as in the suffixos -ock, to demonstrate.

Jŭt-land-ēr, 8. (From the country Jutland;

-ikin. "I here could pluck his highnees' frown upon you, suff. -er.) A native or inhabitant of Jutland.

| Forming part of the original Phoenician alpha. And justify you traitors.Shakesp.: Tempest, v.

bet, k passed into Greek and the oldest Latin; but 8. To absolve; to acquit; to declare to be free pertaining to Jutland, or its people.

Jŭt-land-ish, a. [Eng. Jutland; -ish.] Of or c was substituted for it in the latter at an early

date, and it only survived in a few common abbre. trom guilt or blame: to exonerate.

jūt'-ting, pr. par., a.& 8. [JUT, v.]

viations (see below). In the early part of the prese "The law hath judg'd thee, Eleanor;

ent era, moreover, the sound of ke or c (hard) was I cannot justify whom law condemns."

A. & B. As pr. par. & particip. adj.: (See the lost in 'Italy. It 'underwent palatization-i. e., it Shakesp.: Henry IV:, Pt. II., ii. 3. vert.)

was produced by raising the middle instead of the 14. To cause to fit together exactly, as the various C. As subst.: The act or state of projecting out. back of the tongue to the palate, and c was sounded parts of a complex body: to adjust, to fit together, jutting-out, s.

as ch (tsh). Those modern alphabets, therefore, to make exact. (JUSTIFICATION, I. 3.)

derived from Italy (i, e., Celtic, Modern Italian, 5. To condemn, to execute, to hang. (Scotch.)

Arch.: A projection; said of windows, corbels,

said of windows, corbels, French, and Spanish) have, properly speaking, no

cornices, &c. The only drap o' gentle blaid that's in your body was

k, and the sound and letter are only present in a our great grand-uncle's that was justified at Dumbarton."

Jŭt-ting-ly, adv. (Eng. jutting; -ly.) In a jut- few foreign importations. In those alphabets, how. -Soott: Roo Ro, eh. xxiii. ting or projecting manner.

ever, derived through the Greek (i.e., Teutonic and 6. Print.: Tospace ont lines of type accurately; #jăt-tý, v. t. [JUT, v.] To project beyond: to Slavonic), k plays an important part. But in Eng. to make lines even or true. overhang.

lish the letter holds a very ambiguous position, Jặt-tỹ, 8. (JUTTY, v.] A projecting part of a

The earliest Anglo-Saxon alphabet, being derived II. Theology:

from Roman missionaries, was without k, and c was 1. Protestant Theol.: To declare tho sinner wall, as sinner wall, as of a prominent course; a pier, a mole.

generally used to represent its sound, but German righteous; to acquit the sinner. (JUSTIFICATION, *ja'-věn-al, 8. [A corrupt. of juvenile (q. v.).) influence soon introduced it to northern England, U. 4 (1) A young man, a youth, a juvenile.

and made it interchangeable with cthroughout tho “That which gives us a title to a perfect righteousness 10-věn-'-l1-a. s. Lat. nent. pl. of iuvenalis= country, and the two letters were used indifferently Sithout as by which alone we stand justified before God." vouthful. iuvenile, suitable for young people.

(cf. ci ning, kyning). The Norman French of the -South: Sermons, vol. iii., ser. 4.

Roman Antiq.: Games for young people, insti.

Conquest brought in many words in which k could 2. Roman Theol.: To infuse righteousnoss into tuted by Nero.

have no place, and not only often softened the old the sinner. (JUSTIFICATION, II. 4 (2).]

c (hard) to ch, or c (sibilant) (cf. cild, child), but

ja-věn-ěs'-cence, s. (Eng. juvenescen(t); -ce.] gave c general predominance over k, even when the *B. Intrans.: To agree; to coincide or conform The quality or state of being juvenescent; a grow- original sound was retained. In northern England, exactly; to form an even surface or exact line with ing young.

however, it continued to bo freely used in words in anything [ To justify bail: To prove the sufficieucy of bail jû-věn-ěs-cent, a. (Lat. juvenescens, pr. par. which in southern dialects k had given way to chord

(sibilant) - N. rike (kingdom), S. riche; N. croke or sureties for the amount for which they go bail. of juvenesco=to grow young, from juvenis=young.) "And, if excepted to, the bail must be perfected; that

(cross), S. crouche; N. Alnwick, S. Greenwich: N. ad. that Growing or becoming young.

Caister, S. Chester. In Lowland Scotch, likewise, is, they must justify themselves in court, or before the jo-věn-ile, a. & §. [Fr., from Lat. juvenilis, k still retained, as it does to this day, its old impor. commissioner in the country, by swearing themselves from juvenis=young.

tance (cf.kirk and church). Khas undergono many housekeepers, and each of them to be worth the full sum A. As adj.: Young, youthful.

other phonetic changes in Indo-European lan. for which they are bail after payment of all their debts."

B. As subst.: A young person, a youth.

guages. In the Greco-Latin branch it was some. -Blackstone. Comment., bk. iii., ch. 10.

times labialized, and became p (cf. Lat, equus and Jóş-tin-1-an, 8. & a. (Seo def.]

10-věn-ile-năss. 8. Eng. juvenile: -ness. The

Gr. hippos= horse, Sansc. kankan, and Gr. pente, quality or state of being juvenile ; youth, youthful. i. e., penpe=five).' In English it has been occasion. A. As subst.: One of the Roman Emperors.

ness. B. Az adj.: Pertaining or relating to the Insti.

ally replaced by t (cf. Old Eng. bak, Mod. Eng. bat,

JQ-věn-11-Y-tý, s. [Fr. juvénilité, from Lat. ju- make=mate, maked=made). tutes or laws of the Emperor Justinian.

venilitatem, accus. of juvenilitas, from juvenilis= Jūs-tin-1-an-Ist, 8. (Eng. Justinian; -ist.) One youthful.)

I. As an initial K is used: In orders of knight

hood for knight: as, K. G., Knight of the Garter: bo is skilled or learned in the Institutes of Jus. 1. Youthfulness, youth.

K. T., Knight of the Thistle; K. Č. B., Knight Com

2. A light and careless manner; youthful actions tinian; one learned in civil law. (Wharton.)

mander of the Bath. Jós -tle (tle as el), v.i. &t. (JoSTLE, v.]

or conduct. !), v. i. &t. (JoSTLE, v.]

II. As a symbol K is used: A. Intrans.: To run up against anything; to tatis), from juvenis=young.) Youth, youthfulness.

*ja'-věn-tāte, 8. (Lat. Juventas (genit. Juven- 1. For Numerals (Roman)=250, or with a lino elash, to encounter, to jostle.

above it(K)=250,000; in Greek, K with a perpendice “Injury of chance jQ'-vi-a, 8.

ular stroké below it=20; but when the stroke is Pats back leave-taking, justles roughly by."

Bot.: The Brazil nut (Bertholettia excelsa), a fine written abore it, the sum is increased a thousand Shakesp.: Troilus and Cressida, iv. 4. tree 100 or 120 feet high, from the Orinoco, &c. fold, and it then equals 20,000. B. Trans.: To jostle; to run or knock up against; ju-wan'-sa, jQ-wan-zą, 8. (Etym. doubtful.]

2. In chemistry for potassium (being the initial to push, to drive.

letter of Kalium) (q. v.), by which name the metal *I am in case to justle a constable."-Shakesp.: Tem

Bot.: The camel's thorn (q. v.). (ALHAGI.) is also known. pest, iii. 2. Lema ja-war', 8. (JOWAREE.)

*ka, 8. [Ca.) A chough, a jackdaw. Jūstle (tle as el), 8. [JUSTLE, v.] A shock, a júx-ta-pöşe', v. t. (Lat. juxta=close, next, and ka-a-ba, s. [CAABA.] pash, an encounter, a jostle.

Eng. pose.] To place next or near; to set side by kaa'-ma, s. [Native name.) " By any ambiguous expression, accidental justle, or enkind repartee."-Tatler, No. 250.

túx-ta-pog'-It, v. t. (Latin juxta=close, next, Called also the Hartebeest (q. v.).

Zool.: Bubalis caama, a South African antelope jăst-18, adv. (Eng. just; -ly.)

and positus, pa. par. of pono=to place.) To place kăb. s. TCAB, 2.1 1. In a just manner; in accordance with justice, next or near; to juxtapose. law, or right; honestly, uprightly.

jůx-ta-po-sl-tion, 8. [Lat. juxta = close, next. kab'-a-la, 8. [CABALA.] "I am justly killed with mine own treachery." and Eng. position (q. v.).] The act of placing or kab-ane, 8. [CABIN.)

Shakesp.: Hamlet, v. 2. setting next or near, or side by side; the state of kă-ba'-rð, s. [Native name.) 2. Fairly, accurately, properly; in accordance being set near or side by side; nearness or close Music: A small drum used by the Egyptians and with facts and truth; as, The matter is justly de- ness of position; contiguity.

Abyssinians. (Stainer & Barrett.) scribed.

“But the idea of atoms and of their relative weights, and of the building up of compounds by the juxtaposition of

4 Jõst'-něss, R. (Eng. just; -ness.)

kăb-ba-list-ic-al, a. (CABBALISTICAL.) elementary atoms, is perfectly definite, and affords thekăb-bă s-ou', 8. (Fr., probably from a native 1. The quality or state of being just; justice, up- only satisfactory explanation yot given of the obscrved name.] rightness, equity, fairness.

laws of chemical combination." --Graham: Chemistry (2d Zool. : Cuvier's name for a section of the Arma. "Not the justness of a cause, but the valor of the ed.), vol. ii., p. 612.

dillo genus (Dasypus). The fore and hind legs have soldiers that most win the field."-South: Sermons, vol. i., Ju-zāil', 8. [Native word.) A kind of heavy riflo each five toes; the teeth are from thirty to forty. usod by the Afghans. (Annankule.)

Examplo, Dasypus tatoua. boil, boy; póut, jowl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, ag; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.

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