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♦Jerque, v. t. [jeegue.]
Jerquer, s. [jerguek.]

JSr-reed, Jer-rid,s. l Jereed.]

jSr -Tf, s. [A contemptuous abbreviation of Jeremiah, originating probably after the Restoration, in ridiculoof the Puritans, among whom the uso of Old Testament names was common ; cf. Jeremiad. The use of the term in the building trade, it is said, aroso in Liverpool, Eugland, when the northern suburb was being built, shortly after the passing of the Deerhouso Act, in 1820. J [JERRYSHOP.]

Jerry-builder, s. A speculative builder of houses of the low est kind, the materials employed being of the commonest description.

Jerry-built, adj. Unsubstantially built; constructed hastily and of bad materials.

"Two lump* of piaster full from the roof of the jerryGuilt palace; then the curse begins to work."—JPall Mall Gazette.

Jerry-shop, s. A beerhouse, so called on account of its inferiority to a fully-licensed house. [tomAn r>- J E H R Y . j (Eng.)

JeV-ry'-m&n-de'r, v. t. [gerrymander.]
J§r'-sey\ s. [From the island of that name.]

1. Fine yarn wool.

2. Combed wool; the finest wool separated from the rest.

3. A close-fitting woolen shirt worn in rowing, Ac. (guernsey. J

Jersey-livelong, *.

Bot.: Gnaphalium luteo-album.
Jersey-pine, *.
Bot.: Pinus inops.
Jersey star-thistle, *.

Bot.: Cenfaurea aspera or isnardi, a raro plant,
found in Guernsey rather than in Jersey.
Jersey-thistle, s.
Bot.: Centaurea isnardi,

J5-TU-sa-lgm & a. [Hob. Yerushalaim =

the woll-known sacred city, the capital of Palestine.! (Sco etym. and compounds.)

Jerusalem-cross, s.
Bot.: Lychnis chalcedonica.
Jerusalem-pony, «. An ass.
Jerusalem-sage, s.
Bot.: Phlomis fruticosa.
Jerusalem-star, s.

Bot.: (1) Tragopogon porrifolius; (2) Cerastium omentosum.

Jerusalem-thorn, *.

Bot.: Parkinsonia aculeata.

Jg-ru'-sa-lSm (2), *. [A corruption of Italian <jirasole = the sunflower (Helianthus tuberosus).] (Soo the compound.)

Jerusalem-artichoke, s. [artichoke.]

Jer -vie, a. [Eng. jerv(ine); -tej (See the compound.)

Jervlc-acid, s.

Chem.: CuHioO|2*2H20. An acid extracted from ■white hellebore by Weppen, in 1872. It requires 100 parts of water for solution at the ordinary temperature, and a little loss of boiling alcohol. It is decidedly acid, and forms crystallizable salts, containing four equivalents of metal.

I5r -vln, Jgr-vlne, *. [Sp. jerr(n)=the poison of Veratrum album; -in, -ine (Cftem.).]

Chem.: C3oh4gn203'2h^o. An alkaloid discovered by K. Simon in the root of whito hellebore (Veratrum album), in which it exists together with veratrine. To obtain it, the alcoholic extract of the powdered root is mixed with dilute hydrochloric -acidl and sodium carbonate added. The resulting precipitate is separated by filtration, dissolved in alcohol, decolorized with charcoal, and the alcohol removed by distillation. The solid residue obtained is a mixture of jorvine and veratrine; the latter beiug uncrystaJlizable, may be entirely removed by submitting it to pressure; or the residue may bo treated with dilute sulphuric acid, which takes up the voratrine sulphate, and leaves tho jervine sulphate. When pure, it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, insoluble in water,readily soluble in alcohol, and sparingly so in ammonia. Its most characteristic reaction is said to bo with strong sulphuric acid, which colors it first yellow, then green. With acids it yields salts which are all very soluble.

jSss, 8. [A corrupt, of O. Fr. jects, or gects, from Jecter; Lat.jacfo=to throw.]

1. A short strap of leatherwith which hawks wore tied by tholog.and towhich tho leash was attached.

"The pomp nnd flutter of bruve falconry.
The bells, the./es^t's, aud bright scarlet hood."

Longfellow: Student's Tale.

2. A ribbon hanging down from a garland or ■crown in falconry.

Jes -sa-mlne, s. [jasmine.]

*JeV-sa-my\ s. [A corrupt, of jessamine (q. v.).] A fop, from the fops' habit of wearing sprigs of jessamine in their button-holes.

Jess -ant, a. [A corrupt, of issuant (q. v.)-] Her.: A term used to express the shooting forth or springing up of vegetables.

Jessant-de-lis, t.

Her.: A term applied to tho head of a leopard, having a fleur-de-lis passing through it.

JSs -sS, s. [See def.] A large brass candlestick, branched with many sconces, nangingdown in the middle of a church or choir; so called from its resemblance to the genealogical-tree of Jesse, the father of David, a picture of which used to be hung up in churches. The idea of representing Our Lord's genealogy under the semblance of a vino aroso probably from tho passage in Isaiah xi. 1.

Jesse-window, s.

Arch.: A window of which the tracery and glazing represent a genealogical-tree of Jesse. There is a famous one at Dorchester, in Oxfordshire, England.

Jessed, a. [Eng. jess; -ed.]

Her.: Having jesses on. (Said of a hawk.)

jSst, *gest, *geste, s. [O. Fr. geste; from Lat. gesta(res) = (a thing) done, from gestus, pa. par. of j7ero=to carry out, to do.] [gest.j

*1. A story, a tale.

*2. An exploit, a deed, an achievement.

3. A joke; something ludicrous said or done to provoke mirth.

"Too bitter is thy Jest."

Shakesp.: Love's Labor's Lost, iv. 5.

4. The object of laughter or mirth; a laughingstock.

"The earnest of each was the jest of the other."—3facaulay: Ilist. Eng., ch. ill.

*5. A masque; a masquerade. 6. The contrary to earnest or seriousness. "'Tis no jest that I do hate thee." Shakesp.: Midsummer Might's Dream, Hi. 2.

^[ In jest: As a jest or joko; not seriously or in earnest.

♦Jest-monger, s. A jester, a joker; one fond of or given to jesting. JSst, v. i. & t. [jest, *.] A. Intransitive:

1. To joke; to utter jests; to provoke mirth by ludicrous actions or words; to make game.

"He must observe their mood on whom he jests."

Shakesp.: Twelfth Night, iil. 1.

*2. To play a part in n masquo or masquerade. 3. To make light, to laugh.

"He jests at scars that never felt a wound."

Shakesp.: Romeo and Juliet, 11. 2.

*B. Transitive:

1. To utter in jest; to say jestingly.

2. To make a jest or joko on; to make game of.

If One jests in order to make others laugh; one jokes in order to please one's self. The jest is directed at the object; tho joke is practiced with tho person or on tho person. Ono attempts to make a thing laughable or ridiculous by jesting about it, or treating it in a jesting manner; one attempts to excite good humor in othors, or indulge it in one's self, by joking with them. To make game of is applicable only to persons; to make a sport of, or sport with, is applied to objects in general. (Crabb: Eng. Synon.)

*jSst-eS', s. [Eng.jeaf; -ec] A person on whom a jest is made; a butt.

"The jester and jetitee."Sterne,- Tristram Shandy, i.65.

Jest'-Sr, *gest-our, s. [Eng. jest; -cr.] *1. A professional story-teller.

2. Ono who jests or jokes; a merry fellow.

3. A buffoon; a person retained by persons of high rank to make sport for them and their friends. The jester wore a motley or particolored dress, with a cap or head-dress furnished with bells and asses' ears.

"Dressed in the motley garb that jesters wear."

Longfellow: Sicilian's Tale, I.

JSst -f ul, a. [Eng.jcsf,; -/«/(/).] Full of jests or jolces; given to jesting or joking. jSst'-Ing, pr. par., a. & s. [jest, V.]

A. As pr. par.: (See tho verb.)

B. As adj.: Fit for joking; to be jested about. "He will find that theme are no jesting matters."—

Macaulay Bist. Eng., oh. xv.

C. Assttbst.: Tho act or practice of joking; a jest. *Jestlng-beam, s. A beam introduced into a

building for appearance, not for uso.

♦Jesting-stock, *Jesting-stocke, s. A laughingstock.

Jest -Ing-ly*. adv. [Eng. jesting; -ly.] In a jesting, joking manner; not in earnest. "Bacchus . . . shakingwith laughter, thus jestingly spoke." Boyse: Wine the Curt for Love.

tjesf -w5rd, s. [Ene.jesU and trord.] A person or thing made the object of jest or ridicule; a laughing-stock, a butt.

"The jest-word of a mocking band."— Whittier.

Jof'-U-lt6, 8. [Eng. Jesu{s); -ate; Fr. JfsuaU. So called from the frequency with which tho order pronounced tho name of Jesus. 1

Church Hist, (pi.): A name ultimately tfiven u> a monastic order, which, when first founded in 136S, was called Apostolic Clerks (q. v.).

Jfi§'-U-Iti*- [Eng. Jcsu(s); suff.-i'f; Fr.Jlnuto.]

1. Ch. Hist, (pi.): The Society of Jesus, the most celebrated ecclesiastical order of modern times. The great religious revolution of the sixteenth century ran through the three stages which tend to occur in revolutions in general. First there was a moderate departure from the previously existing state oT things; then the Anabaptists burst loose from control, and went into extravagances and excesses. [anabaptists.] Reactionthen became inevitable, and if a suitable leader should arise was bound to become powerful. That leader was found in Don Inigo Lopez do Recalde, generally known from the castle or Loyola where he was born, in 1491, as Ignatius Loyola. He became an oflicer of great bravery in tho army, though he was not above tho ordinary military vices. Dreadfully wounded in 1521 while defending Pampeluna against the French, and long confined in consequence to a sick bod, ho saw the vanity of the world, and. renouncing it. resolved in future on a devotedly religious life. When, on his recovery, ho was at the University of Paris, he made converts of two fellow students who lodged with him, one a youth of aristocratic descent, Francis Xavier, afterward the Apostle of the Indies. In 1534 he and they, with four others, seven in all, formed a kind of religious society, the members of which preached through the country. On August 15 of that year they took vows of chastity, absolute poverty, devotion to the care of Christians, and to the conversion of infidels. This was the germ of tho Jesuit order. Loyola, like most othor Spaniards of aristocratic descent, was devotedly attached to the old order of things, rudely shaken by the Reformation. A soldier, ho bethought him of an army in which inferiors should give implicit obedience to their superiors. A general should command, and should have none above him but the Pone, to whom he should give loyal support. Paul III. issued a bull in 1540 sanctioning tho establishment of the order with certain restrictions, swept away three years later. In 1542 Loyola was chosen general of the order, and afterward resided generally at Rome. His followers went everywhere giving special attention to the education of youth, the instruction of adults by preaching, tho defense of Catholicism against heretics and unbelievers, and the conversion of tho heathen and Mohammedans. His order spread with groat rapidity, and at the death of Loyola on July 31, 1556,consisted of above 1,000 persons, with 100 houses divided into twelve provinces. Tho Jesuits rendered great service to the Papacy, but ultimately became unpopular with the civil government in most Roman Catholic countries. The people thought them crafty. [Seo the derivative words which follow.] In September. 1759, an order was given for the expulsion of the Jesuits from Portugal and Brazil. In 1764 the order was suppressed in France, and its property confiscated. On March 31, 1767, similar destruction overtook it in Spain, and soon after in Spanish America, and next, after 1768, in the Two Sicilies and Parma, till at length on July 21, 1773, tho Pope issued a bull suppressing the order altogether. Austria and tho other Roman Catholic states obeyed the decree. In August. 1814, Popo Pius VII. reestablished it. In June, 1S17. tho Jesuits were expelled from Russia, and the British Roman Catholic Emancipation Act, 10 Geo. IV. c. 7, passed in 18'29, left them under some disabilities, which have since been removed. Upon being expolled from France, many of them sought an asylum in England and this country, successfully claiming that religious liberty which is considered the right of all religious organizations.

2. Fig.: A sly, crafty, intrigueing persou.

Jesults'-bark, s.

Pharm., rf-c. .* Cinchona bark, so called because its virtues were first made known by the Jesuit missionaries.

Jesuits'-drops, s. pi.

Pharm.: Friar's balsam (q. v.).
Jesuits'-nut, s.

Bot.: The nut of Trapa natans. [trapa.]

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he shall save his people from their sins." Somo persons supposo that when Christ is superadded, Jesus is analogous to what now would bo called tho Christian name, while Christ is the surname. This view is erroneous. The only personnl name is Jesus, and Christ is tho designation of office or mission, indicating that tho being who bore it claimed to bo the Messiah promised to the fathers. [CnaiBT, Messiah.] Nearly all the Churches of the world, the Unitarian one being tho chiof exception, recognize a divine and a human nature in Christ,regarding him with respect to the former as tho Second Person of the Trinity and the Son of God; with regard to the latter, as tho perfect type of humanity, the only sinless man that has lived on earth. "Tor details regarding his birth at Bethlehem, the lieht of Joseph and Mary, taking him with them into Egypt, the return to Palestine, tho boyhood and early manhood spent at Nazareth, his itiuerant ministry—believed, chiefly on chronological data supplied in St. John's Gospel, to have lasted about throe years, see tho FourGospels. For tho significancy of his deathtseo Atonement. For his resurrection and ascension, seo those words.] Tho birth of tho Savior is generally believed to have been in B. C. 4, the commencement of his ministry A. D. 26, and his crucifixion A. D. 29. % Society of Jesus: [jesuit.] Jet (1). jett, 'get, ». [Fr., O. Fr. ject, gect; ItaL ffetto, getto d or qua.) [jet, t?.]


I. Ordinary Language:

1. Tho act of throwing or shooting out; a sudden rush or shooting out of water.

2. A ipout or tubo for the discharge of water. (Pope:, ii. 177.)

8. That which shoots or issues out; as, a jet of water.

4. Drift, scope, meaning, as of an argument. II. Technically:

1. Foundn/: A tubo or channel for passing melted metal into a mold.

I. Print.: The spruo of a type, which is brokon from it when tho type is cold.

Jet-ant, s.

Pn*om.: Formica fuliginnsa, n British species, which makes out of masticated wood-dust a nest of cardboard, which it manufactures in the stumps oi trees.

Jet-pump, «. A pump stated to' have boon originally contrived to ompty the pits of submerged water-wheels. It acts by tho pressure of a column of air passing through an annular throat; or, conversely, an annular jot around a contra! orifice. It has since been usod in oil-wells.

J8t (2). *geat, s. [Greek gagates, from Gagas, a town in Asia Minor.]

Min.: A black and compact variety of lignite fq. v.). hard, light, and capablo of being turned into articles for personal ornament; takes a good polish.

jet-black, a. As black or jet of the deepest black color.

"His locks upon Mr forehead twine:
Jet-black, save where some touch of gray
litis ta'en the youthful hue away."

Scott: Lord of the Isles, iv. 22.

Jet d'eau, Jette d'eau, s. [jetteau.]

jet, *Jette, v.»'. A t. [O. TT.jetterJecter, getters

to cast or fling; Lat. jacto, frequent, of jacio=t»


A. Intransitive:

1. To cast or fling about; to shoot out; tojutont, •2. To act insolently.

"Think you not how dangerous
It is to jet upon a prince's right*"

Shakesp.: Titus Androniaus, il. 1.

B. Trans.: To shoot out, to omit, to spout out. jSt'-Sr-fis, s. [Etym. doubtful.]

Pot.: A morbid yellowness of parts which normally aro green; vegetable jaundice.

Jet -sara Jet -son, j8t-tI-son,». [O. Ft. jetter= to throw; Eng., Ac, suff. -»um = together.] [flot8AM.1

1. The act of throwing goods, cargo, Ac, overboard in order to lighten a ship in a storm, and thus preservo hor.

"Jetsam Is where goods are cast Into the sea, and there sink and remain under wutor."—lilackntonet Comment., bk. I., ch. 8.

2. Tho goods, cargo, Ac, thus thrown overboard. tJSt'-teau (eau as 6), *jSt -t6. s. [For Fr. jet

d'eau=n spout of water, a fountain,] [jet (1),s.j A fountain ; a jot or spout of water.

J8t -teS (2),«. The fiber of Marsdenia tenacissima, a small climbing plant of the natural order AsclepiadaceaB, of which thoRajmahal mountaineers make bowstrings, remarkable for their groat elasticity, which they are supposed to owe in somo moasuro to tho prosence of caoutchouc. (Annandale.)

jSt-tSr, s. [Eng.jrf, v;-er.] One who Jots or Btruts about; a fop.

Jef-tl-n8ss, s. [Eau.jetty; -ness. ] Tho quality

or stato of being jetty; blackness.

Jet -ting, pr.par., a.,A s. [jet,i>.]

A. A E. As pr. par, dt particip, adj.: (See the verb.)

*C. Assuhst: The net of strutting about.
Jetting-out, «.

Arch.: Tho projection of a corbel or molding beyond the general surface. Jet -tl son, s. [jetsam.]

J6t'-tl-s6n, v.t. TJettison, e.J To lighten a vessel in a storm by throwing overboard some of the cargo.

"After having Jetttsoned a large quantity of her cargo."

London Daily Telegraph.

•JSt -ton, s. [Fr.] A piece of brass or other metal stamped and usod as a counter in games of cards.

•Jit'-ty1, v. i. [jetty,*.] To jut. J8t'-t? 'Jet-tie, a. [Eng. jet (2) s.; -».] Made or roscmbling jot; black asjet.

Among the Moor*, thejettiest black are deemed
Tho beatifull'st." Drayton: Polyotbion, a. 26.

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Ioudaios, from Lat. Judcea; Gr. Ioudaia Jinla u; Heb. yen«da/i=Judah. (Soedef.).l

1. Ord. Lang., Ethnol., # Htst.: A Semitic race and people, chiefly from tho tribe of Judah. The ton tribes carried into captivity to Assyria are not reported ever to have returned in mass, though individuals probably did so. Both Judaea and Galilee wore, therefore, peopled after tho Babylonish captivity by the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin. Tho latter was small, and therefore Judah gave name first to Judaea, tho Roman province, and then to the Jewish peoplo.

2. Colloq.: A mean, grasping fellow; a usurer. Jew-baiting, ». A contemptuous appellation for

tho fanatical persecution of tho Jews, practiced even to tho prosont date by intolerant mobs and their fanatical or calculating loadors in parts of Russia and oven of Germany.

Jew-bush, s. [jewbtjsh.]

Jews'-apple, s. [mad-apple.]


Bot.: A tough but gelatinous fungus, Hirneola (exidia) auricula judat, which grows on elder and elm trees, and was formerly used as an ingredient in gargles.

Jew's-eye, jewesg'-eye, «. A popular simile for

anything extremely valuable. The extortions to which the Jews were subject in the Middle Ages,

and the cruel mutilations to which they were exposed if they rofusod to pay the sums demanded of them, probably gavo rise to this expression, ('oilier notes that in the oldor edit'ons this expression is printed " Jewes eye," and says it may be a question whether Sbskospeare did not mean that Launcelot should merely repeat the phrase, leaving " Jewes" to bo pronounced as a di-syllable." Tho corrected folio (1632), alters tho expression to:

"There will rame a Christian by
Will be worth a/fi«<»' eye."

Shakesp.: Merchant of Venice, il. ft.

Jews'-franklncense, s. Gum styrax or benzoin.

Jews -harp, Jews'-trnmp,«.

1. Music: A simplo musical instrument hold betwoon the lips, the sound coming from tho vibrations of a tongue of metal, bent at a right angle, which is sot in motion by being twitched with the forefinger. Tho sound is increased in intensity by tho breath, and altered in pitch by tho shape of the cavity of tho mouth, which acts as a reflector. This name somo derive from jeu, play, from the fact of its being a toy: but more probably it is a dorisive allusion to the harp of David.

2. Naut.: The shacklo by which a cable is bent to the anchor-ring.

Jews'-harp shackle:

Naut.: A clevis and pin whereby the chain cable is bent to the anchor.

Jews'-mallow, s.

Botany: Corchorus capsularis, a tiliocoous plant cultivated by the Jews in Palestine, Egypt, Ac Jews'-manna, s. Bot.: Alhagi maurorum.

Jews'-pitch, ». A kind of asphalt. It has been used by artists as a brown pigment, but it hardens imperfectly. (Weale.)

Jews'-stone, s. [jewstone.]

Jews'-trump, s. [jews'-harp.]

Jew. t>. f. To bagglo ovor a price; to attempt to beat down the value of.

Jew'-buah (ew as u), «. [Eng. Jew, and 6it»A.]

Bot.: A euphorbiaceous plant, Pedilan/Aus paaV. folius. Its root is emetic; it is used in syphilis and amenorrhcea.

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Jew -Ish-ness (ew as u),a. [Eng. Jewish; -neaa.] The quality or state of being Jewish; the manners or customs of the Jews; Jowish nature.

Jew-reln-6w'-lte (ew asfii.a. Named by Nordenskiold aftor Jewreinow; suff. -ite. (Min.).}

Min.: Occurs in pale-brown to colorless crystals with specific gravity 3"39, at Frugard, Finland. It is a variety of idocrase or Vosuvianite (q. v.), which contains little or no magnesia. (Dana.)

Jew ry1 (ewasu), •Jew-er-le.a. [O.Fr.Juierie; Fr. JuiverieA

1. The land of the Jews; Judaea.

"Art thou Daniel whom my father brought out of JewryDaniel v. 13.

2. A district or quarter of a city inhabited by Jews.

Jew stone (ew as u),a. [Eng. Jew, and stone.']

1. Qeol.: A local namo for a black basalt found on the Cleo Hills'Shropshire. The first element is derived from (1) Z>eu«=god, from its volcanic origin; (2) Wei. du=black; or (3) it may bo called jowstone from its resemblance to touchstone, and tho fact that tho Jews were formerly tho only dealers in the precious metals. (Eng.)

2. Pala>ont.: A popular name for the spine of a species of Echinus.

jSl'-e'-bel, a. [From Jzebel, the name of the wicked wife of Ahab, king of Israel.] A wicked, daring, or vicious woman.

JeV-I-dl§, a. pi. [ Yezidis.]

Jheel, a. [Hind.] A largo pool or pond of water filled with rank vegetation. (Anglo-Indian.)

Jha ra.1, a. [Nativo name.]

Zo&L: A long, coarse-haired goat which inhabits the high mountains of India.

Jib, a. [jie, t7.]

1. Naut.: A large triangular sail sot on a stay, forward of the fore stay-sail, between the fore-top mast-head and jib-boom in large vessels. It occupies a position between tho mast-head and bowsprit in cutters, schooners, and small craft, and does not necessarily run on a stay. Jibs are known by various names, according to position, &c., as inner-jib, outer-jib, standing-jib, (lying-jib,spindle-jib, stormjib, jib-of-jibs, <fcc. A jib-topsail or balloon-jib extends toward the topmast head, and in cutter yachts is sometimes a very large sail.

2. Mach.: The extended arm of a crane; or that spar of a derrick which is stepped at the bottom and connected by tackle at the top to tho vertical post. The post is maintained vertical by guys, and tho tackle affords a means for adjusting tho inclination of the jib, tho fall being carried from tho top of tho post to a small crab on tho ground, distinct from the larger crab which operates tho hoisting-tackle. Tho jib of a derrick is stepped, and is adjustablo in inclination. Tho jib of a crano is fast to tho framo and rotates horizontally with it, or is journaled to the framo and is adjustablo thereon, sometimes vertically, for height; always horizontally for sweep.

Jib-boom, a.

Naut.: A movable spar running out beyond tho bowsprit, for tho purpose of affording a base to the jib in large vessels, and to tho flying-jib in schooners and .smaller craft.

Jib-door, a. A door made flush with tho wall on both sides.

Jib-frame, a.

Sleam-eng.: Tho upright framo at the sides of a marine-engine, connecting tho cylinder, condenser, and tho framing.

Jib-halyard, a. [halyard.]

Jib-headed, a. (Soo the compound.)

Jib-hended topsail; A triangular fore-and-aft topsail, having no gaff.

Jib-Iron, a.

Naut.: The traveler of tho Jib. An iron hoop, fixed to tho jib and sliding on the boom. Jib-sheet, a. [sheet.] Jib-stay, a.

Steam-eng.: A portion of tho stay-frame of a marine steam-engine. [jib-frame.]

Jibe, v. t. [gibb.]
Jib-let, a. [giblet.]

Jiblet-check, Jiblet-cheek, a. [giblbt-csekx.}

Jlck a-jdg, JIg-jSg, a. [A reduplication of jiff or jog. 1 A shake, a push, a jog.

Jif-fy5, a. [Etym. doubtful.] A moment, an instant. (Colloquial.)

Jiff, a. [O. French gige,gigue=(l) a sort of wind instrument; (2) a kind of dance; from M.H. tier. gige; Ger. geige~a fiddle; Ital. giga—A fiddle; So. giga=& lively tune or dance.]

I. Ordinary Language:

I. In the same sense as II. 1. *2. A kind of ballad in rhyme. 3. A trick, a prank.

II. Technically:

1. Music:

(1) A lively dance which may be performed by oneor more dancers. It is popular among many nations, is distinguished by various titles, and lias a certain amount of difference in the steps according to thehabits and customs of the people by whom it is adopted. With somo it is a sober, steady, jog-trot sort of a country-dance; with others it is a wild, savage exercise, without point or meaning. With somo it is mado a means or displaying tho agility of the lower limbs of a combined company of dancers; with others it is a terpsichorean drama for two performers, in which all the emotions excited by love, aro represented by gestures and monosyllabic cries.

(2) Asa movement in a "suite," the jig is found in works produced toward the latter part of the seventeenth century, and onward to the time of Haydn. At first the phrases were short-, and of no more variety than was needed for the purposes of thoadance, for tho jig was occasionally ono of the figures of the country dance. Butlaterit was made tho vehicle for display in harpsichord playing, and was lengthened and elaborated and became the origin of the last movement of the sonata. It was written in }. {j. |, g, J, |, and V time; tho peculiarity of the rhythm of triplets was nearly always preserved, if not insisted upon.

2. Mach.: A handy tool. The name is applied to various devices, and in many trades small and simple machines aro called jigs.

3. Sports: A trolling bait, consisting of a bright spoon and an attached hook. A ball of light metal on a hook.

1[ The jig's up: Tho work is over; overy thing is finished. (Colloq.) Jig, v.t. & t. [jig, a.]

A. Intrans.: To dance a jig; to skip about.
You jfg, you amble, and you lisp, and nickname God'e

■ iU. 1.

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creature**. "Shakesp.
•I. Ordinary Language:

1. To sing in jig time; to sing in the style of a jig. "Jig off a tune at the tongue's end."—Shakesp..- Love's

. Labor's Lost, iii. 1.

2. To choat, to impose upon, to delude. II. Technically:

1. Min.: To dress ore in a iiggor. [jigger.]

2. Felting: To harden ana condense a folted fabric by repeated quick blows from rods, or by a platen or plateus having a rapid vibratory motion.

Jlg-brOW, 8. [JlNNY-KOAD.]

Jig-saw, subst. A vertically-reciprocating saw, moved by a vibrating lever or crank-rod. The saw is arranged between two slidinghead-blocks, to the upper ono of which is attached an index to mark tho bevel, a vernier plato being fixod to thocircular iron-banded timber to which tho blocks aro secured by braces. It is moved by a segment of a cog-wheel under the carriage, gearing and working into pinions, and by a pulley-band over a drum.

Jlg'-ger (l),a. [Eng./iff,v.; -«r.]

I. Ordinary Language:

1. One who or that which jigs.

2. A fiddlestick. II. Technically:

1. Billiards: A rest for a cue, when tho player cannot roach to the ball, {Eng.)

2. Brewing: A kind of pump used in brewing.

3. Coopering: A drawing-knife, with a hollowingblado.

4. Felting: A machine for felting fiber by an intermittent rolling action upon the material, which lies upon a table, and is kept warm and wot.

b. Leather; t A machine for graining morocco leather, consisting of grooved boxwood rollers, fitted in a frame suspended from tho ceiling, ana swung backward and forward like a pendulum.

6. Mining: A riddle or sieve shaken vertically in water, to separate the contained ore into strata, according to weight and consequent richness. The siovo commouly consists of a hoop with handles.

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and a bottom of sheet-brass, finely perforated. It is osod by striking it squarely upon the water, and giving it a semi-rotation simultaneously, to sort the pulverized ore according to gravity. The lighter portions are scraped from the top, and the lower stratum removed for smelting or further concentration.

7. Nautical:

(1) A doublo and single block tackle, used for such jobs as holding on to the cablo, abaft the capstan, as the cable is heaved in. Also used in hauling home tho topsail sheet and other similar work.

(2) A small tackle attuched to the bigbtof another rope, to increase the purchase.

(3) A supplementary sail rigged on a mast and boom, from the stern of a cutter or othor vessel.

(4) A small mast erectod on the storn of a yawl

(5) A yawl.

(6) A weighted line with several hooks, set back to back, dropped suddenly into the water, and suddenly jerked upward to catch fish.

8. Pottery:

(1) A horizontal table carrying a revolving mold, on which earthen vessels are shaped; a potter's wheel: a throwing wheel.

(2) A templet or former which is used In shaping tho interior of a cruciblo or other vossel when the clay is upon the wheel.

9. Print.: A contrivance used by compositors to keep copy in position, aud to mark tho lines they are setting.

Jigger-knife, --. A drawing-knifo with a blade bent at one end and curved at the other, used by wheelwrights.

Jig -ge"r (2), «. [See dof.] A corruption of chigie, or chigoe (q. v.).

Jlg'-gSred, a. [Eng.jigger; -ed.] Suffering from the burrowing of the jigger or chigoe (^q. v.).

* This word is often used as an imprecation. Davies (Supp. Gloss), says "the expression arose from tho suffering caused by the chigoe insect in tho Wost Indies." An alternative etymol., suggested by the common use of the word in tho mining districts, is from Jigger (1), II. 6.

Jig -glng, pr. par., a. & ». [jig, t>.]

A. & B. As pr. par. cfc particip. adj.: (Soo the verb.)

C. As subst.: The act or process of dressing ores in a jigger. Jlgglng-machlne, s. [jigger (1), II. 6.]

•JIg-glsh, a. [Eng. jig; •!»».]

1. Of or pertaining to a jig; resembling or fitted for a jig.

2. Playful, frisky.

Jig -gle, r. i. [Eng. jig, s.; frequent, Buff.-lo.] To wriggle or skip about.

Jig -gllng, a. [jiggle.] Wriggling about; frisking.

•|Ig -gum-bob, 'Jig -gam-bob, «. [Of. TbtnoCmbob.j A knick-knack, a trinket, a play.

Jig -Jog, *. & a. [A reduplication of jog (q. v.).]

A. Aasuttst.: A jogging, jolting motion.

B. As adj.: Having tho motion described supra.

•Jig mak er, ♦Jlgge mak er,«. [Eng. jig, and nafcrr.]

1. A writer or composer of jigs.

2. A ballad-maker.

Jig -pin, s. [Eng. jig, nnd pin.] Min.: A pin used to hold the turn-beams and prevent them from turning.

Ji-had , J6 had , s. [Arabic.] A holy war proclaimed by the Mussulmans against Christians. The Sheeahs do not now consider it legitimate to do this. The Soonoes reserve the measure for groat emergencies. Fanatics attempted to sot ono on foot in India in 1877. Sheik ul Islam, at Constantinople, proclaimed one against the Russians about 1877.

J111U),«. [gill.] A giddy or flirting girl.

Jill-flirt, s. A giddy or wanton girl; a jilt.

JI11(2),». [gill.] Amotalcup.

JU -let, «. [Eng. jill; -ef.] A jilt, a giddy girl.

Jilt, ». [A contract, of jillet.~\

1. A coquette; a woman who capriciously or wantonly allows her lover to indulge hopes, and then deceives him; a flirt.

2. A term of con tempt for a woman.

Jilt, r. t. A i. [jilt, «.]

A. Trans.: To trick and deceive a man by flattering his love with hopes, and then casting him off for another.

B. Intrant. ■ To play tho jilt; to lead on, and after cast off a lover.

Jim -crack, *. [gimcrack.]


Jim -crow, ». [From the burden of an old song.]

1. An implement for bending or straightening rails.

2. The jimcrowplaning-machino is furnished with a revorsing tool, to plane both ways, and named from its peculiar motion, as tho tool is able to "wheel about and turnabout." Tho table is moved endways by a quick-throaded screw, which allows the driving motion to bo placed at tho end.

Jlmcrow's-noae, s.

Bot.: A Wost Indian name for Phyllocoryne.

JIm'-jamf, s. pi. [Reduplicative form of jam or jim.\ A slang name given to mania apotu; delirium tremens.

jlm-me"r,«. [gimbal.]

JIm'-mJ,«. A cant term for a short crowbar used by burglars in breaking open doors, Jtc. [jemmy.]

Jimp, v. i. [jump.] To jump.

Jimp, a. & adv. [gimp.]

A. As adj.: Neat, spruce, handsome.

B. As adv.: Barely, scarcely, simply.

JImp'-iy, adv. [English jimp, a.; ■ly.'i Barely, scarcely, hardly.

JImps. s. pi. [Etym. doubtful; cf. jimp, a.] Easy stays. (Scotch.)

Jimp -f, a. & adv. [Eng. jimp, a.; -lyJ]

A. As adj.: Neat, jimp.

B. As adv.: Neatly, tightly.

Jim son, s. [A corruption of Jamestown ] Bot.: An American name for Datura stramonium. This name was given to the plant because it is said that the early English Bottlers at Jamestown, Va., mistaking it for an ediblo vegetable, partook largely of it, many of them boing, in consequence, disabled, and a few dying.

Jin, Jinn, «. [Arab. jinni=ono of the genii ; pi. ,/i«>i = tho genii.]

Mohammedan Mythol.: Ono of a race of genii said to havo had for their male progenitor Jan, and for their female one Marija. They differ from man in their nature, their form and their speech. They are spirits residing in tho lowest firmament, and havo the power of rendering themselves visible to man in any form they please. Tho bodies they assume are material, but not grosser than the essence of fire and smoke. The extent of their knowledge is unknown. Their character is good.

Jin gall', s. [gingal.]

Jin -gle, *gln-gel en, 'gln-glen, 'gln-gle, v. i.

& t. [A froquent. formation from jink, itself a form of chink (q. v.).]

A. Intransitive:

1. To clink; to sound with a tinkling metallic noise; to chink; to tinklo.

"Every chime that jingled from Ostend."

Byron: English Bards and Scotch Reviewers.

2. To correspond in rhyme or sound, so as to catch the ear.

"From sermons with sixteen heads down to Jingling street ballads."—Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch. xv.

3. To make rhymes, possibly doggerel.

"Whene'er my Muse does on me glance,

1 jingle oX her." Burns: To John Lapraik.

B. Trans.: To cause to sound with a tinkling metallic noiso; to tinkle.

Jln'-gle, *gln-gle, «. [jingle, V.]

1. A tinkling metallic sound, as of coins, a chain, &c.

2. That which jingles or gives out a tinkling sound; a child's rattle.

3. A correspondence of sound in rhymes, especially when tho verses have little or no roal merit.

4. Verse of an ordinary, indifferent, or homely nature; doggorel.

5. A covered two-wheeled car. (Ireland.)

6. (PI.) A popular namo for St. Anthony s Are.

JIn-glSr. *gln-gle"r, s. [Eng. jingl(e); -er.] One who or that which jingles.

Jin -gllng, pr. par., a. & ». [jingle, t>.] A. & B. As pr. par. oi particip. adj.: (See the vorb.)

C. Assubst.: The act or stntoof tinklingorgiving out a tinkling metallic sound; a clink.

Jin-g6, s. &a. [A word of doubtful origin: by Borne considered a corrupt, of St. Gingoulph or Gingulphus, as in Barham s Ingoldsby Legends, by othors from Basque Jingo=Ood.j

A. As substantive:

1. A word used as a mild oath.

2. One of that party in Great Britain which advocatod the cause of tho Turks in tho Turco-Russian


war of 1877-8. In this sense derived diroctly from tho refrain of a song, then popular at music-halls, of which the two first lines ran as follows: "We don't want to flght, but by Jingo it we do, We've got the ships, we've got the men, we've got the money too."

Henco, ono clamorous for war; ono who advocates a" spirited" foreign policy.

"He is a more pernicious kind of Jingo than his predecessors."—London Uruphic.

3. An imaginary idol, worshiped by tho party deseri bed uuder 2.

B. As adj.: Relating or pertaining to the Jingoes; as, a jingo policy.

Jin -go-Ism, «. [Eng.jinoo; -ism.] The views and procedure of tho Jiugoes.

"In the days when Jingoism had to be combated and overcome."—J'all Mall (lazetle.

•Jink, v. t. & i. [Etym. doubtful.]

A. Trans.: To cheat, to impose upon.

B. Intrans.: To elude a person by an active movement; to dodge.

Jink, s. [jink, e.] A quick olusory turn.

(1) To jink in: To on tor a pi aco suddenly. (2) High-jinks: [high-jinks.] Jink er, s. [Eng. jink, v.; -rr.] One who turns quickly; a gay, sprightly girl; a wag.

"That day ye was ajinker noble."

Burns: Auld Parmer's Salutation.

Jinn, s. [JlN.]

Jinn -eS (pi. Jinn), s. [Arab., Hind., &c.=that which is internal or unseen.] [JIN.]

Jln'-njJ, s [A corrupt, of oin=engine. For del soo otym. and compound.]

Jinny-road, s.

Mining: An inclined road in a coal-mine, on which loaded cars descend by gravity, and draw up empty ones.

JIp -p6, ». [French jupe; ct.jupon.'] A sort of waistcoat or stays for women.

Jlr ble, Jalr -ble, v. t. [Etym. doubtful.] To spill any liquid by carelessly moving the bot tle containing it. (Scotch.) (Scott: St. Ronan's Well.)

Jirk -I-nSt, «. [A dimin. of jerkin (q. v.).] A sort of boddice or substitute for stays, without whalebonos, worn by females.

J6, Joe (1), s. [Etym. doubtful; referred by some to Fr.j'oie=joy.] A sweetheart, a darling.

J6'-a-ChIm-He, ». [For etym- see dof.]

Ch. Hist, (pi.): Tho followers of Joachim, Abbot of Flora, in Calabria. They wore a branch of the Fratricelli (q. v.). They were condemned by the Council of Laterun, in 1215, and by that of Aries in 1260-1261.

Joan,«. [Fomnlo proper name, from John (q. v.).] Joan silver-pin, a.

Bot.: A name for tho Opium Poppy (Papaver somni/erum).

Jo &n'-nlte, J6-han-nIte, «. [For etym. see def.]

Ch. Hist, (pi.): Tho followers of John Chrysostom, consecrated Archbishop of Constantinople in A. D. 398. Ho was deposed in 403, for his reproof of sin, and banished in 404. The sect became extinct about A. D. 438.

J6 -ar, s. [jowaree.]

J8b(l),». &a. [O. Fr.Jo6=a mouthful.] [gob.]

A. As substantive:

1. An occasional petty piece of work of any kind, undertaken for a stated price.

"What tool is there Job after Job will not hock?"

Moore: Sale of the Tools.

2. Anything, of greater or less importance, undertaken for a fixed sum; as, The engineer received so much for thej'oo.

3. Any occurrence, fortunate or otherwise; as, It was a good (or bad) job for him.

4. A situation, a placo of employment; as, He has got a goodjob. (Colloq.)

5. An undertaking, ostensibly for the benefit of the country or some public body, really for one's private benefit. (Often applied to a piece of nepotism.)

"No cheek is known to bluBh or heart to throb.
Save when they lose a question or a jolt."

I\>pe: Essays on Criticism, L 104.

B. As adjective:

1. A term applied to collections of things, either miscellaneous or of tho same kind, sold together. Tho idea conveyed is that they are disposed of at a sacrifice.

2. Tho term applied to anything let on hire.

"Letting him have job hones for £150 a year."—Miss Edgeworth: The lottery, ch. i.

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1 (I) To do tkt job for one: To kill him.

(21 To do odd job*: To do occasional work of a pott? kind. (Often applied to the more menial odlces of domestic service.)

(3) To do a thing by the job: To undertake and do work at :*> much for the whole; to work by piecework.

Job-lot, «. A collection of thine*, either miscelJaneons or of the same kind, sold together, ostensibly under market value; as, a job-lot of dry-goods, a job-lot of ties.

Job-master. s. One who lets out carriages or horses, contracting to keep the carriages in repair and to change the horses when required. (Eng.)

Job-printer. A printer whoso business is confined to miscellaneous work, usually of a display character.

Job-watch, <.

Naut.: A watch with a seconds hand, nsed in taking observations to obviate the necessity of conatantly shifting the chronometer, with which the watch has to be compared immediately before and after every observation.

job-work, «.

1. Ord. Lang.: Occasional work, as distinguished from constant employment.

2. Printing: Display or intricate work, as distinguished from straight composition.

fib (2),». [job (2), r.] A sudden blow or thrust with a sharp-pointed instrument.

*i The word nut-jobber is used as a synonym for the nuthatch, because that bird breaks open nuts with a blow of its bill.

Job (1), w.t.ML [job (1), «.]

A. Transitive:

1. To let out in separate portions; to distribute work among contractors or masters; to sublet.

2. To let out for hire; specifically applied to horses and carriages.

3. To engage horses and carriages for hire from a Job-master.

4. To buy goods, as cotton orcigars. in large quantities, often by the cargo, and distribute them to wholesale dealers; as. He jobs large quantities every year.

B. Intransitive:

1. To work at chance work; to undertake employment of a menial or dishonorable kind.

2. To deal in scrip; to carry on the business of a broker.

3. To carry on the business of a job-master (q. v.); as, He jobs largely in the season. {Eng.)

4. To hire carriages or horses from a job-master; •s, 1 shall job with B. (Eng.)

5. To do w >rk, ostensibly for the benefit of others, really for one's own ; hence, to perform public duties with a view to one's private auvantage.

Job (2), •JOb-bya, r. t. [Ir. A Gael. gob = a beak •orbill; Wei. oirp.]

1. To strike forcefully and suddenly with a sharppointed instrument or weapon.

2. To drive in a sharp-pointed instrument or weapon.

J8b (3), Jobe, r. t. [Etym. uncertain. Usually .given as if from the patriarch Job, in allusion to the rebukes he received from his friends, though it Would seem probable, if a word with this meaning were derived from the story of the patriarch, it Would take the foim of the name of one of his friends. Against this view is to be urged the comparative easiness with which his name is pronounced, when compared with theirs. Cf. Xotes and Queries. June 21.1S»4. p. tSS ] To chide sternly; to reprimand, to scold. (Eng.)

Job, ». [Heb- Iuob: Gr. Iob-t patriarch notablo for his patience.] [* ]

«T The Book of Job:

Old Test. Canon: In the English version of the Bible. Job stands first in order id the poetic books of the Old Testament, but it is the third in the Hebrew Scriptures. Psalms and Proverbs preceding It, and the Song of Solomon coming next. A prologue (ch. L ii.) and the conclusion (ch. xlii. 7-17), are in prose. The rest is poetry, and of a very high order. In the historical prologue Job is introduced as deeply pious and exceedingly prosperous. Satan insinuates that he is pious simply because God has bribed him to bo so by means of his prosperity. Bemove the latter, and the former will also depart. Instead of blessing, he will curse God to his face. To prove the falsity of this charge. Satan is allowed

*n,l children, and to

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and views. Job answering in deepest abatement (xxxviii.-xlii.e). The comforters are censured, are enjoined to offer sacrifice, and are pardoned on the intercession of Job, to whom are born exactly the same number of children he had lost (cf. i. 2, and xlii. 13), while he is granted twice tbi* possessions, though before he "was the greatest of all the men of the earth/* (Cf. i. 3 and xlii. 12.) Ho lives 140 years after his trial.

The book of Job is absolutely unique in the Old Testament. The hero is not a Jew. While the name Jehovah is used, the whole history of the Mosaic law and the chosen people is ignored. The author scorns well acquainted with Egypt, its croco

J&ck,s. [jockey,*.) A popular contraction of Jockey.

Jock ey. [Etym. doubtful; prob. a northern form of Jackey, a dimin. of Jack, a familiar of John (q. v.). Littre gives the first meaning of this word, which has passed into French, as "a young servant, whose chief duty is to ride as postilion." For another view, see extract under JocretXSM.1

1. A man who gets a living by riding professionally in horse-races.

2. A horse-dealer; one whose trade it is to bny and sell horses.

3 A cheat; one given to sharp practice, probably

diles (xli.), and its pyramids (T) (iii. 14). and the from the baa reputation of horse-dealers. ; with its ostriches (xxxix. 13-18), its wild ^ ^ contemptuous name

for a Scotchman, from

their calling Jack Jock.

jockey-club, *. A club for regulating all matters connected with horse-racing. Jock -«y, r. t. [jockey, s.]

1. To deceive in trade; to act with sharp practice to; to cheat.

2. To jostle by riding against. (Johnson.)

3. To make use of dishonest measures, such as are

desert ..

a«ses (xxiv. 5, xxxix. 5-8). and its too successful, tent-living, predatory tribes (xii. b). The-language is Hebrew, with various Aramaisms, and with a faint Arabic tinge. The view still held by most commentators is that the book is very ancient, and its author probably Moses. If so, then it is intelligible why there is a resemblance between expressions in Job and in Genesis. (Cf. Gen. ii. 23, and Job ii. 5 - Gen. It. 21, and Job xxi. 12, xxx. 31; Gen.

vi.2 and Job i.6,Ac.) Others place it about the poVlarTy"supp1o^

kEZ* J^nanT °r * oneof the succeeding forse-dealer*;forprocuringthepas*ageorreje«i

the Captivity
that the person

sian origin (i. 6, 7,12). The Talmud originated the
view, since adopted by various Biblical critics, that
the book is only a parable. But against this view
may bo quoted Ezek. xiv. 14,2U, and James v. 11.

Job s-comforter, s. A false friend, who takes, or seems to take, pleasure in atttr buting one's misfortunes to one's owu course of action, while pretending to sympathize. Of course the allusion is to the =evere rebukes administered to Job bj bis three friends, which forend him toexelaim, "Miserable comforters aro ye all " (Job xvi. 2), Bad news.

ays about a hundred years before 0f gome private measure through a legislative Others make it even later, believing body; the English colloquial equivalent of the ■fixation of the evil spirit is of Per- American kindred term to lobby.

•Job*s-news, «.
•Job'S-pOSt. *. A messenger of bad news. [Eng.)
Job'B-tears,«. pi.

Bot.: The hard, bony seeds of a grass, Coir lochryma. [CoiX.J

Job's turkey-hen, #. A pupposititious fowl, mentioned in an old story, which represents the biped as extremely emaciated from a persistent effort to hatch out chirks from dead eggs. The expression occurs usually in the followingnhrase:

Am poor as Job M Turkey-hen: Very poor; extremely emaciated; in dire poverty.

J60-4 tlon, f. [Eng. job (3), v. fq.v.); -ation.] A - v To scolding; a sharp reprimand.

* Of the orthography, derivation, and meaning of this word, as opposed to a tictive jatcbation, G. A. Sala (Echoes, Sept. 6,1SS4), says:

"I wrote 'jobatfon,' because the word means a long, dreary homily or reprimand, and baa reference to the tedious rettakea inflicted on the patriarch Job by his too obliging friend*."

J6b -bcr, s. [Eng. job (1). v.; -cr.]

1. Ono who is employed occasionally; one who depends on chance work.

2. Onw who executes repairs; as, a watch-joofrer.

3. One who lets out horses and carriages for a

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job -blr-t, t. t—.. .

practice of jobbing, in an unfavorable sense; political corruption, unfair means used to obtain a desired end, either in public or private life^

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