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B. Transitive:

a small town on the Tiber, which he called Janica Japanese-deer, s. 1. To cause to sound harshly or discordantly.

lum. As the name implies, Janus was the god of Zool.: Cervus sika. 2. To utter in a discordant or harsh manner.

doors and gates, and in token of his office carried a There is in jangling more of cross questions key in his hand. The first month of the English Japanese-humpback, Japanese humpbackand perverse replies than direct differences of year receives its name from him, and he presided whale, 8. opinion: those jangle who are out of humor with over the dawn of every day and the commencement Zool.: Megaptera kuzira, extending through the each other: there is more of discordant feeling and of every undertaking. Janus was usually repre- Pacific from Japan to California and Aleutia. opposition of opinion in jarring: those who have sented with two heads, looking in opposite direc- Japanese-silks. no good will to each other will be sure to jar when tions. His temple at Rome was kept open in the

Fabric: A kind of dress goods having a linen they come in collision; and those who indulgethem- time of war, and shut in time of peace.

chain and silken weft. selves in jarring will soon convert affection into ill Janus-cloth, subst. A fabric having each side will. Married people may destroy the good humor dressed, and different colors on the respective Ja-pånned', pa. par. or a. (JAPAN, v.] (See the mpany by iangling, but they destroy their sides. (Used for reversible garments.)

compound.) domestic peace and felicity by jarring. To wrangle

g wrangie Janus-face, 8. A double-face: a deceitful face. japanned-leather, 8. Leather treated with sevis technically what to jangle is morally; those who

aco eral coats of Japan-varnish and dried in a stove. dispute by a verbal opposition only are said to

"The Janus-face of courtly pride."

Thomson: Liberty, iv. 610. ją-pă n-nēr, 8. [Eng. Japan; -er.] urangle; and the disputers who engage in this scholastic exercise are termed wranglers.

Janus-faced, a. Double-faced; double-dealing; 1. One whose business is to japan wares.

*2. A shoeblack. jăn -gle, 8. [JANGLE, v.) Wrangling, quarrel. two-faced. ing, prate, chatter; a discordant sound.

Janus-headed, a. Double-headed.

ja-păn'-ning, pr. par., a. & s. [JAPAN, v.] | Đăn-glor, *an-glour, 8. [Eng. jang (e); -er.] A Jạ-pin, 8. [Seo def. 1.]

A. & B. As pr. par. & particip. adj.: (See the wrangling, chattering, prating fellow; a wrangler. 1. The name of an island lying E. N. E. of China.

verb.) jão-glēr-ěsse, s. [Eng. jangler: -esse.] A 2. A hard, black varnish, obtained from the Stag. C. As subst.: The art of coating wood, metal, or female jangler; a noisy, wrangling woman. maria verniciflua of the East Indies.

paper with a thick coat of hard, brilliant varnish. 3. An asphaltum varnish.

It originated in Japan. *Bãi-glẽ -ỹ, ojan-gler-le, *jan-glar-ie, s..

4. Work varnished and figured in the Japanese [Eng. jangle; -ry.) Wrangling, chatter, bickering.

Ja-păn-nish, a. (Eng. Japan; -ish.] Of or style. jă o -gling, 8. (Eng. jangl(e); -ing.] Wrang- 5. An old colloquial English name for a black

pertaining to Japan; resembling Japanese art or

S Dame for black wares. ling, bickering, quarrelsomeness.

cane. Jăn -1-pha, s. (Brazilian janipaba, the name of

*jāpe, v.i.&t. (Etym. doubtful, but probably the Japan-black, s. The same as JAPAN-LACQUER

same as GAB (q. v.).] the plant.

(q. v.). Bot.: A genus of Euphorbiaceæ, tribe Crotoneæ.

A. Intrans.: To jest, to play tricks, to amuse one's Janipha manihot is the Manioc (q. v.), formerly

Japan-cedar, 8.

self. Jatropha manihot, now generally called Manihot Bot.: Cryptomeria japonica.

B. Trans.: To mock, to deride, to cheat. utilissima. [MANIHOT.) Japan-clover, s.

jāpe, s. [JAPE, v.] A jest, a trick, a joke. jăn - iş-sar-7, s. (JANIZARY.]

Bot.: A low annual plant (Lespedeza stricta), a jāp'-ēr, 8. [Eng. jap(e); -er.) A jester, a bufjăn -1-tõr, s. (Lat., from januara door.) A native of Eastern Asia, introduced in some unknown foon, a trickster, a deceiver. doorkeeper; a porter; one who has the care of a manner, before 1845, into this country, where it has

spread with great rapidity. It grows to the height building, suites of offices or rooms.

*jặp -ẽr-ỹ, *jap-ẽ8-1b, 8. [Eng. jape; -ry.] Jostof a little over a foot on the poorest soil, and is ing, buffoonery, trickery. jăn -1-tréss, 8. A female janitor. much used as fodder. (Annandale.)

*Jă-pět:-1-dæ, s. pl. (From Japhet, one of the *ăn -1-trix, 8. (Formed from Lat. janitor, with Japan-earth, 8.

sons of Noah.]

Anthrop.: Dr. Latham's name for one of the three fem. suff.-ix.) A female doorkeeper; a portress. Tanning: Terra japonica, catechu, cutch. An

great divisions into which he divides the family of jă n-i-zăr', 8. (JANIZARY.]

astringent matter obtained from the Areca catechu Man, the others being the Mongolida and Atlantijă n-i-zär-1-an, a. (Eng. janizary; -an.] Of and Acacia catechu, used in tanning.

dæ. The Japetidæ comprise those nations also or pertaining to the janizaries or their government.

Japan-ink, 8. A writing-ink which has a dark, known as Indo-European (q. v.). glossy color when dry.

Jă-phět'-ic, a. [Eng. Japhet; -ic.] Of, pertainjăn -1-zar-ě, jằn'-iş-sar-8, s. [O. Fr. anissaire, from Turk. yeni=new; askari=a soldier.]

Japan-lacquer, s. A kind of hard black varnish ing to, or descended from Japhet.
A sol.

sol: used in japanning, and obtained from Stagmaria Ja-pon-ic (1), a. [Mod. Lat. Japonicus=of or dier of the old Turkish footguard; origin

verniciflua, a tree belonging to the natural order belonging to Japan.) prisoners trained to arms.

Anacardiaceæ. It is very acrid and excoriates and The Janizaries were a body of Turkish troops, blisters the skin.

Japonic-province, s. formed originally, about 1330, of the children of

Japan lacquer-tree : Stagmaria verniciflua. Christians who had been conquered and were reared

Zool. & Geol.: A province of shells. It embraces

the Japanese Islands and the Corea. (S. P. Woodas Mohammedans. Latterly they acted as the Japan-Illy, 8.

ward: Mollusca.) Imperial body-guard of the Sultan at Constantino- Bot.: Lilium japonicum. The flowers, which are a non-c(2)... Lat. (terra) japonica=Japan. ple, but on the ground of being turbulent and dan- white with a streak of blue, are seven inches across; earthocy See compound gerous to the state, in consequence of their rising the whole plant is five feet high, against the Sultan, the force was dissolved June 17, 17, Japan-medlar, s.

japonic-acid, 8. 106when 15,000 were executed, and more than

Chem.: C12H2005. An acid produced by exposing 20.000 banished.

Bot.: Diospyros kaki.

to the action of the air a solution of catechin in jă -kēr, 8. (Etym. doubtful.] A long pole on

Japan-pig, s.

caustic potash. It is a black substance slightly two wheels, used in transporting logs. (Scotch.) Zool. : Sus plicipes, a breed of pigs with the skin soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol and ether, but

very soluble in alkalies, from which it is precipităn-nock. 8. Probably derived from bannock in thick folds. Called also the Masked Pig.

tated by acids. With potash it forms a black salt, (q.v.).] Oat-bread.

Japan-varnish, s. [JAPAN, 8., 2.)

which produces black precipitates with metallic ján'-nock, a. & 8. [Cf. Gael. ionannach=fair.) Japan-varnish tree: Stagmaria verniciflua. solutions. A. As adj.: Fair, just, straightforward. Japan-whale, s.

Ja-põn'--cą, s. (From Japonia=Japan.) B. As subst.: Fairness, fairplay.

Zoől.: Balæna japonica. It is black above, Bot.: A very handsome Japanese plant, a species Jăn-sen-işm, s. (For etym. see def.]

paler below, and extends through the Pacific from of the Camellia. It has become domesticated in Japan to America.

this country, and is notable for its large red or Church History: 1. The tenet of a sect or party in the Roman Ja-pän', v. t. (JAPAN, 8.]

white flowers. Church, dealing mainly with the Calvinistic doc- 1. To coat wood, metal, or paper with a thick jă-pēģ-1-dæ, 8. pl. [Mod. Latin japyx (q. v.); trines of free-will and grace, named after Cornelius coat of hard brilliant varnish. Japanning involves Class. Lat. iapya : tem. pl. adj. suff. -ida.] Jansenius, Bishop of Ypres, in the Netherlands, the baking of the varnished article. The Japanese Entom.: A family of insects, order Thysanura who died A.D. 1640.

employ a lacquer obtained from a tree (Rhus vernix genuina, Bristle-tails. 2. An opinion or utterance characteristic of Jan- by making incisions in the trunk and collecting thé jā'-pỹx, a. [Class. myth.=a son of Daedalus; a Senist teaching.

juice: this is at first like cream, but becomes black Jån-sen-ist, s. & a. (For etym. see def.]

by exposure to the air. Their process is said to be Zoöl.: The typical genus of the family Jap ygidae

as follows: After the juice bas assumed a deep black (q. v.). Japyx solifugus is a white species, about A. As subst.: A follower of Cornelius Jansenius.

color, finely pulverized charcoal is added to it. half an inch long, from the south of Europe, and (JAXSEXISM.)

The lacquer is applied to an article in several suc- J. gigas, about an inch, is from Cyprus. B. As adj.: Pertaining to or characteristic of cessive coats, each being dried in the sun before jar. v. i. &t. [Representing an older *char, only Jansenism (q. v.).

the next is put on. It soon becomes extremely found in its diminutive #charken=to creak like a făn-tů, 8. [Hind.] A water-raising machine of hard, and is polished with a smooth stone and water cart or door, from the same bas great antianity, used in Bengal for irrigation. It until it becomes as smooth as glass. On this sur13 a trough, counterweighted by an extended arm face ornaments and figures are traced with a brush and Lat. garrio=to croak.]

dipped in a varnish of boiled oil and turpentine. and balanced across a bar. As the trough end

A. Intransitive: descends it dips water, and as it rises the water Before this is quite dry, gold or silver leaf is laid on, 1. To utter a harsh or discordant sound. as from runs toward the axis of vibration, and escapes at a and the whole afterward receives a finishing coat the shake or vibration of a substance struck or lateral orifico into a trough, which conducts it to * te of varnish.

moved; to vibrate harshly; to be discordant. the field. 2. To give a polish and gloss to boots.

2. To be unpleasant, barsh, disagreeable, or of"Aids with soot the new japanning art.”

fensive; as, a word jars upon the ear. Jăn-u-ar-, s. (Lat. Januarius, from the god

Gay: Trivia, bk. ii. 3. To disagree, to quarrel, to dispute. Janus (q. v.).] The name given to the first month

“Preach all Faith up, and preach all Reason down, Jăp-an-ēşe, a. & s. (Eng. Japan; -ese.] of the year.

Making those jar whom Reason meant to join.". Jan -ăs, 8. (Lat., from januara door.) A. As adj.; Of or pertaining to Japan or its in

Churchill: Gotham, iii. habitants. Roman Mythol.: One of the most celebrated di.

4. To clash; to disagree; not to be in accord; to vidities of ancient Rome, and the only one having B. As substantive:

be inconsistent. no equivalent in the Grecian mythology. He was 1. A native or inhabitant of Japan.

“Perchance my heart and harp have lost a string, represented as a son of Apollo, and as having built 2. The language spoken in Japan.

And both may jar."-Byron: Childe Harold, iii. 4. boil, boy; póut, jowl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.




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highly esteemed as a stimulant application in Jaunt-1-něss (au as a), *jant'-I-nēss, *jaunt-y- *jăv-ě-lot-tiër', 8. (O. Fr., from javelot=a jave. rheumatism and paralysis. Taken internally, they ness, 8. [Eng.jaunty ; -ness.] The quality or state lin.) The same as JAVELINIER (q. v.). are violently purgative, irritant, and poisonous. of being jaunty; lightness, briskness, sprightliness. Tâw (1), *châw, *chew, *jawe, *jowe, *geowe, 8. Those of J. multifida are also purgative, emetic, “I felt a certain stiffness in my limbs, which entirely from the verb to chaw or chero (q. v.); Dan. kiave, and poisonous. The expressed oil of J. glauca is destroyed that jauntyness of air I was once master of."- =a jaw:0. Dut. kauwe=the jaw of a fish, kouwe used in India as an external application in chronic Addison: Spectator, No. 530. rheumatism and paralysis: the root of J. officinalis

the cavity of the mouth; Dut. kaauwen=to chew.)

jaunt -ing (au as a), pr. par. or a. (JAUNT, v.] is given in Brazil in syphilis. J. manihot, of Lin

1. Ordinary Language: næus, is now Manihot utilissima; and his J. pur- jaunting-car, $. An Irish vehicle having two 1. Lit. : In the same sense as II. 1. gans, Curcas purgans, his J. urens is Cnidoscolus seats, back to back, over the wheels, a well in the

"His feeble jawes and hollowe voyce could make quinquelobus. middle, and a seat for the driver in front.

None other sounde.' jaud, jadd, s. [JADE, s.) A jade, a mare. (Scotch.) jaun'-tý (au as a), *jan -tý, *jaun'-teě, a. (Eng.

Gascoigne: Dan Bartholemew of Bathe. Jauk, t. i. (JOKE, v.) To dally, to trifle.

jaunt; .Y.] Easy and sprightly in manner; airy, 2. Fig.: Coarse raillery, abuse, impudent lanJâuk-ing, 8. [JAUK, v.] Trifling, dallying.

showy, tinical ; affecting unconcern; self-satisfied. guage, wrangling. (Vulgar.)

"We owe most of our janty fashions now in vogue to "An' aye she win't, an' ay she swat,

"Stop your jaw about him."--H. Kingsley: G. Hamlyn, some adept beau among them.Guardian, No. 149. I wat she made nae jaukin'."

ch. xxvi. ***Burns: Halloween. Jâup, jâwp, v. i. & t. [Etym. doubtful.) . II. Technically: jau-ling-ite (au as ow), 8. [Named by Zeph- A. Intrans.: To dash and rebound as water; to1. Anat.: One of the maxillæ, or mandibles. Ono arovich from its locality, Jauling, Austria; suff. make a noise like water shaken in a close vessel. of two bones of the lower part of the face. The -ite Min.).)

B. Trans.: To bespatter, as with water or mud. lower jaw is the thickest and strongest bone of the Min.: A hyacinth-red resin, resembling amber;

face, and moves on the rest of the skall by condyles. hardness, 2-5; specific gravity, 1'09 to 1:11.

1ầup. lâwp. s. JAUP, v.) A jerk of water; a It is shaped like an inverted arch, bent forward in

little quantity of water dashed or splashed up from itself. It has a middle and horizontal part, jaumange (pron. zho-mang), 8. (Fr. jaune= * yellow, and manger=to eat.] Dutch flummery; a

Ja'-vą, s. & a. [Native name.]

with two rami or ascending branches. The superior

or alveolar portion of it is hollowed out, so as to variety of blancmange.

A. As substantive :

constitute sockets for the lower range of teeth. The Jaunce, v. i. ro. Fr. jancer.] JAUNT. v.] To Geog.: One of the Sunda Islands. The chief seat

upper jaw, or superior maxilla, consists inferiorly ride hard; to work or drive a horse hard. of the Dutch power in Southern Asia.

of a thick ridge, the alveolar process, and the lâun-děr, v. i. (A freq. form of Scotch jaunt=to nected with the island described under A. B. As adj.: Of, belonging to, or in any way con- sockets or alveoli for the teeth of the upper jaw.

2. Machinery: talk idly.) (JAUNT, v.1" To go about idly from place to place; to rove about aimlessly.

(1) One of two opposing members capable of Java-plum, s.

being moved toward and from one another, as the jaun-dēr, s. (JAUNDER, v.] A roving about idly

Bot.: Calyptranthes jambolana.

jaws, cheek, chaps, chops, or mouth of a vise or or aimlessly. (Scotch.)

Ja -vạn, a. (Java ; with suff. -an.] The same as wrench jâ un-diçe, jaun-dise, jaunes, *jaunis, *jau- JAVA, B (q. v.).

(2) The cheeks of a stone or ore-crusher, one of

which is moved relatively to the other, so as to break nys, jawnes, 8. (Fr. jaunisse, from jaune, *jalne Javan-rhinoceros, 8.

the material fed between them. =yellow; Port. jalne, jalda; Sp. jalde; from Lat. 200l.: Rhinoceros sondaicus, or javanus. It in- (3) The opposed portions of a shearing-machine galbinus, galbanus=yellowish; galbus=yellow.) habits Java, the Malay Peninsula, and the Sunder- or punch, which, by moving past each other, cut the I. Ordinary Language:

bunds of Bengal, and is smaller than the Indian bar or sheet of metal placed between them. rhinoceros.

3. Nautical: 1. Lit.; In the same sense as II. "He (the Pope) was long before sicke of the veloce Jav-a-nēşe, a. & 8. [Eng. Java; n connective,.(1) The forked end of a boom or gaff, which par

tially embraces the mast. The branches of the jaw laundise."--Bale: Pageant of Popes, fo. 196. * and suff. -ese.]

are called horns, and are united by the jaw-rope. 2. Fig.: Anything which disorders the judgment, A. As adj.: Of or pertaining to Java

(2) The space in the shell of a tackle-block occu. presenting things in a false color or light.

B. As subst.: A native of Java; the language pied by the sheave. "And jealousy, the jaundice of the soul." spoken in Java.

4. Railway: The guard-plates in which the axle. Dryden: Hind and Panther, iii. 73. jăv'-el, v. t. (Etym. doubtful.) To bemire, to

boxes of railway-cars play vertically as the springs II. Pathol.: An affection in which many tissues dirt, to befoul.

yield and recoil; the housings or pedestals. of the body are stained yellow, particularly the con lăv-el, 8. [JAVEL, v.] A wandering, dirty fellow; teath are set.

jaw-bone, 8. The bone of the jaw in which the junctiva, skin, underneath the finger-nails, the urine, &c. It is caused by the coloring matter of a tramp.

jaw-box, 8. The same as JAW-HOLE (q. v.). the bile becoming absorbed into the blood from

. “These two javels various morbid conditions of the liver, or the duo

Should render up a reckning of their trauels."

jaw-breaker, s. A ludicrous term for a word denal portion of the intestine, either from mechan.

Spenser: Mother Hubberd's Tale. many-syllabled or very difficult to pronounce. ical obstruction of the bile, or from suppression. Jăv-e-lin, *jăv-el-ing, s. (O. Fr. javelin (m.). jaw-foot, 8. The pulse is slow, with thirst, lassitude, lowness of javeline (f.); Fr. javeline; Ital. giavelina; Sp. 1. Ord. Lang.: A sink; a place into which dirty spirits, white stools, and general debility. The jabalina, Bret. gavlin, Skeat refers the origin of water is thrown. first symptom of recovery is the re-appearance of the word to Irish gaf, gafa = a hook, gabhlara 2. Zool.: (Foot-JAWS, MAXILLIPEDES.] bile in the stools, after which the yellowness gradu- spear, a lance, gabhlan=a branch, a fork of a tree; ally fades away. It is necessary to distinguish be- Gael. gobhal=a fork, gobhlach=forked; Welsh gafling the mouths of animals for the administration

tree jaw-lever, s. A veterinary instrument for opentween obstruction and suppression. Jaundice is a =a fork; gaflach=a dart, the original meaning be- of medicine. symptom, and not a disease per se, treatment being ing a pointed weapon. Cf. A. S. gafeluc, gafeloc; directed to the restoration of the biliary secretion Mid. Eng. gavelok=a javelin.)

jaw-rope, 8. to its normal channel. In malignant disease, how 1. A light spear thrown by the hand, formerly Naut.: A rope attached to the jaws of a gaff to ever, this cannot be looked for.

used by horse and foot in ancient warfare. The prevent its coming off the mast. jaundice-berry, 8. blade of the

jaw-tooth, 8. A molar, a grinder. uppermost Bot.: Berberis vulgaris. javelin in the

jaw-wedge, 8. A wedge to tighten the axle-box jaun'-dice, *jâun -dise, v. t. (JAUNDICE, 8.] illustration is

in the jaw or guard of a railway car-truck. 1. Lit.: To affect with jaundice. very slender;

jâw (2), 8. (Etym. doubtful.] A wave; a quantity it is intended

Roman Javelins. "Jaundised eyes seem to see all objects yellow." -Bp. to bend when

of water or other liquid. Hall: Episcopacy by Dirine Right, pt. iii., $2.

it strikes an object, so that it cannot be used again Jäw, v. i. &t. (JAW (1), 8.] 2. Fig.: To disorder or prejudice the mind or by an enemy. According to Meyrick, the Velites in A. Intrans.: To gossip, to chatter, to scold; to judgment.

the Roman army were armed with seven of these use impudent or abusive language. (Vulgar.) Only used now in the pa. par.

2. A hunting-spear, about 5 feet long, having a B. Trans.: To abuse; to use impudent or offen

wooden shaft and an iron head. It is yet used in sive language to. (Vulgar.) Jaun-ér, 8. [JAUNDER, s.) Foolish, idle talk.

Europe in hunting the boar, and by many savage (Scotch.) nations in ordinary hunting.

jâw (2), v. t. & i. (JAW (2), 8.] Jaunt (au as a), u.i. &t

. jancer=to p
"He stood contented with so much, and no more as lay

A. Trans.: To pour out; to dash out rapidly, as tricks with or tease a horse.)

within one fling, or shot of the javelin which he lanced water or other liquid. A. Intransitive: himself."-P. Holland: Plutarch, p. 309.

B. Intrans.: To gush or pour out rapidly. 1. To wander about here and there; to ramble; javelin-bat, s.

A naked craig wi' a burn jawing ower't."-Scott: Rob to rove idly about.

Zool.: Phyllostoma hastatum, a bat of the vam. Roy, ch. xi. 2. To move up and down in a jolting fashion.

pire family, found on the Amazon. It sucks the 3. To take a jaunt or ride on a jaunting-car (q.v.). blood of horses, cattle, and, when it has opportu

jâwed, a. (Eng. jaw (1); ed.]

1. Having jaws. *B. Trans.: To jolt up and down. nity, that of man.

2. Principally in composition, with words denot. Jaunt (1) (au as a), s. (JAUNT, v.]

javelin-men, 8. pl.

ing the condition of the jaws; as, lantern-jawed, 1. A ramble, an excursion, a short journey, a trip.

Law: Yeomen retained by the sheriff to escort long-jawed. (Now only used lightly, but by Milton solemnly.) the judge of assize.

jâw-fall, 8. [Eng. jaw, and fall.] A depression "Our Savior, meek and with untroubled mind, javelin-snake, s.

or falling of the jaws: hence, figuratively, depresAfter his aēry jaunt, though hurried sore, Zool.: A snake-like lizard, Acontias meleag

sion or sinking of the spirits, as shown in the falling Hangry and cold betook him to his rest." and the genus Acontias, one of the Scincoidæ.

8, of the jaws.
Milton: P. R., iv. 402.
*jăy'-e-lin, v. t. [JAVELIN, s.] To strike, wound,

a jâw-fall-en, a. [Eng. jaw, and fallen (q. v.).] 2. A jolting movement up and down.

or pierce with, or, as with a javelin. (Tennyson: 1. Depressed in spirits; depressed, chap-fallen, 3. A ride on a jaunting-car (q. v.). (Irish.) Merlin and Vivien, 785.)

(Fuller.) Jaunt (2) (au as a), 8. (Fr. jante.) The felly of a săv-e-lìn-iër', 8. [Eng. javelin; -ier.] A soldier ri

oldin "2. Astonished, open-mouthed. (Richardson : Clawheel.

rissa, iii. 54.) armed with a javelin. Jaunt-1-1ỹ (au as a), ant -1-1ỹ, adv. [English “The javeliniers foremost of all began the fight."-P.

ficht_P. *jâw-lėss, a. [Eng. jaw; -less.] Having no jaw.

? jaunty; -ly.) In a jaunty, gay, or airy manner. He'land: Livius, p. 264.

*Jâwn, v. i. (Yawn.) To yawn. (Marston.) boll, boy; póut, jowl;. cat, cell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, ag; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.


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