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Bot.: A genus of Iridacew. It consists of beauti. jăbi-bēr-ing, pr. par., a. & 8. [JABBER, v.) jăc'-a-rê, s. (Jackare and yackare, South Amer ful Cape bulbs, with spikes of showy flowers. Ixia A. & B. As pr. par. & particip. adj.: (See the ican Indian names of the species.].. viridiflora has large sea-green flowers, with black verb.)

Zool.: A genus or sub-genus of Alligators estabmarkings. It is from the Cape of Good Hope.

lished by Dr. Gray. There are various species, as

C. As subst.: Jabber, nonsensical talk, gibberish. Ix-1-0-lite. 8. (Named by Nordenskiold after

the Dog-headed Jacare (Jacare latirostris), the

"Twag chattering, grinning, mouthing, jabbering all." Long-shielded Jacare (J. longiscutata), the Eyed Ixion, a relatíve of Tantalus, ixiolite being a variety

Pope: Dunciad, ii. 237. of tantalite.)

Jacare (J. ocellata), &c. All are natives of South Min.: The same as KIMITOTANTALITE (q. v.).

Jabbering-crow, s.

Ix-o-dēş, 8. (Gr. ixõdēs=like birdlime, sticky,
Ornith.: Corvus jamaicensis.

*jăc-a-too', 8. [COCKATOO.] (Evelyn.) clammy: ixos=birdlime, and eidos=form, appear

*jăb-bēr-měnt, 8. (Eng. jabber; -ment.] Jab Bắc-chis, I-ốc'-chis, 8. [Greek,=a name of ance. ber, nonsensical talk, gibberish.

Bacchus.] Zool.: The typical genus of the family Ixodidæ. "At last, and in good hour, we are come to his farewell, Zool.: A genus of Cebidæ, American Monkeys, Ixodes ricinus is the Dog-tick, 1. dugesii being also which is to be a concluding taste of his jabberment in containing the Marmosets. More commonly called found on the dog, I. reduvius on the sheep, I. pictus the dog i redove on the sheen picture law." -Milton: Colasterion.

Hapale (q. v.). on the deer or on mosses, and I. plumbeus upon the jăbi-bēr-nowl, 8. [JOBBERNOWL.]

lắc-cdn-bt, 8. [JACONET.] Rockswallow (Hirundo riparia) or in its nest. *jab-ble, *jable, v. i. & t. [JABBER, v.] To Jā-cent, a. (Lat. jacens, pr. par. of jaceo=to

ix-o-di-dæ, ix-o-dě-7, 8. pl. [Mod. Lat. ixodes splash, as water. (q.v.); Lat. adj. suff. -idæ or masc. -ei.]

lie.) Lying down; recumbent; lying at length.

*jăbi-ble, 8. (JABBLE, v.] Agitation on the sur. Zool.: A genus of parasitic spiders, order Acarina. face of water.

“Because so laid, they sbrick or squared stones) are The mouth is suctorial. By means of it these para

more apt in swagging down, to pierce with their points, 1ăb:-1-rů, s. (Brazilian jabiru, jaburu.)

than in the jacent posture."- Reliquiæ Wotton, p. 20. sites attach themselves to the bodies of sheep, oxen, dogs and other mammals, holding on so tena. Ornith.: Mycteria, a genus of Ciconina (Storks). lac'-inth. 8. THYACINTH. 11.2 (1.1 ciously that, when pulled a way, they often bring off They resemble the adjutants, and are not much less with them part of the skin of the animal on which in size. They are found in South America.

jăc-i-ta-ra, 8. [The Brazilian name of the tree.) they were parasitic.

jăb-0-răn-di, s. (A word used by some Indian

used by some Indian Bot.: Desmoncus macracanthos, a fine palm, fifty

or sixty feet long, with a stem as thin as a cane. It Ix-0-15te, 8. [Gr. icon=the mistletoe, any viscous tribes of Brazil.].... substance, and tyõ=to loose, to dissolve.]

Bot.: A plant, either a Piper or of the Rutaceous grows along the Amazon and the Rio Negro Min.: An amorphous mineral, of greasy luster

genus Pilocarpus. The Indians believe it very usefăck (1), *jacke (1), 8. [Fr. Jacques, from Latin and hyacinth-red color, becoming ocher-yellow or

ful in fevers, and a Portuguese medical man, called Jacobus ; Gr. Iakobos, from the Heb. Yaaqob=one

Coutinho, having sent some of the leaves to M. who seizes by the heel, agab=a heel. In the prinbrown when pulverized. Found in a coal stratum near Gloggnitz.

Rabuteau, the celebrated Parisian pharmacist, the cipal modern languages John, or its equivalent, is a

latter gentleman ascertained by experiment that common name of contempt, or slight. Thus the Ix-ör-a, 8. (Said to be altered from Sansc., &c., they were powerfully sudorific. He believes them Italians use Gianni, whence Zani; the Spaniards, ishwar, a name of God. (See def.)] as valuable as cinchona.

Juan, as bobo Juan=a foolish John=the French Bot.: A genus of Cinchonacea, tribe Coffee, o, jăb-or-o-82, 8. [South American word.)

Jean, &c. Hence in English we have Jack-fool, family Psychotridæ. Ixora coccinea is a fine Indian

Jack-an-apes, Jack-pudding, and perhaps Jackass. shrub. with scarlet flowers, which are presented asBot.: A genus of Solanaceæ. Jaborosa runcinata

A Jack o' the clock (Shakesp.: Richard II., V.5) was votive offerings in many Hindu temples. [Etym.] is used in South America as an aphrodisiac.

a figure whicb, in old clocks, struck the hours upon. It is used in India for various medicinal purposes. ja-ba-ti', 8. (Brazilian.]

the bell: hence the word Jack came to be applied 1-ỳnx, 8. [YUNx.]

Bot.: Psidium albidum, which furnishes an excel. to various implements, which supplied the place

of a boy or attendant, as the jack which turns the lent dessert fruit used in Brazil. iz-ar, 8. (Derived from the Arabic.]

spit in a kitchen, a boot-jack, &c. Still more genAstron.: A fixed star in the constellation Bootes. ja-ba-ti-car-ba, ja-bot-i-ca-bu-ras, s. (Bra.

erally it is applied to a large variety of implements Called also Bootis. zilian.)

or instruments which are used in the place of Bot.: Eucalyptus cauliflora, which furnishes one

another hand or of an assistant, and in this way is Iz'-ard, Iz-zard (1), 8. [Etym. doubtful.) of the most agreeable fruits eaten in Brazil.

frequently compounded with other words, the assoZ08l.: A name for the Ibex (q.v.). lao-cạ, 8. [JACK (3).]

ciated word expressing either its purpose, structure, “For the carcass of an izzard he received only ten

jaca-tree, 8. (JACK-TREE.)

or relation, as jack-screw,jack-frame, rail-jack, &c.] trancs."-Capt. Mayne Reid: Bruin, ch. xxiii.

jăc-a-măr, 8. [French jacamar; Brazilian jaca iz'-zard (2), 8. [Prob. a corruption of s hard.]

I. Ordinary Language: marica.]

1. The diminutive of the proper name John. An old name for the letter Z.

Ornith. (pl.): The name generally given to the 2. A term of contempt; an upshot, a clown, a " You go over, the first chance you get, and hook every birds ranked under Galbuline, a sub-family of boor. one of their izzards."--E. A. Poe; X-ing á Paragrab. Alcedinidæ or King-fishers. The Jacamars have the “Do you play the flouting jack ?" -Shakesp.: Much bill less stout than

about Nothing, i. 1.
the typical Alce-
dinætheir body

3. A common equivalent for a sailor; a tar. also is more slen.

*4. A cant word for a Jacobite. der; the tail long;

“ With every wind he sailed, and well could tack, the toes either in

Had many pendents, but abhorred & Jack." two pairs, or two

Sroift: Elegy on Judge Boat. THE tenth letter and the sev. before and one be

5. A measure; sometimes half-a-pint, sometimes enth consonant in the English hind, the anterior

quarter of a pint.
alphabet. It was formerly ones being united.
interchangeable with i, the They are bright-

II. Technically:
same character being used for colored birds, gen-

1. As the name of an instrument: both. It is a palatal, its erally with a good

(1) Domestic: sound being that of g in gem deal of green in

(a) An instrument for turning a roasting joint of or of dg in ridge, edge. Even their plumage.


meat; a bottle-jack; a smoke-jack. up to a comparatively recent They are found in

"So footboys, who had frequently the common name of date i and were not sepa- the tropical parts of South America and in the West Jack given them, were kept to turn the spit, or to pull off rated in English dictionaries, Indies, breeding in cavities of trees, and sallving their master's boots; but when instruments were invented alphabetical lists, &c. forth from a branch or spray to capture the insects

for both these services, they were both called jacks." As a symbol, j is used in medical prescriptions at on which they feed. Sometimes elevated into a

which they feed. Sometimes elevated into a Watts: Logic, pt. i., ch. iv. the end of a series of numbers for 1; as, vij.=seven, family, Galbulidæ.

(6) A contrivance to assist a person in taking off viij.=eight, &c.

jăc-a-na, 8. (In Brazil the name of the water. his boots; a boot-jack. jā'-al, jā'-e1, s. [Arab. jaal; Chal.jaela.] (See hen.]

(c) A pitcher, formerly of waxed leather, but now etym. and compound.)


of metal; a black-jack. jaal-goat, s.

1. Sing.: The name of Parra, a genus of wading. "Body of me, I'm dry still ; give me the jack, boy." 2001.: Capra jaela, the Abyssinian Ibex, an ibex font have ti birds belonging to the family Palamedeidæ. The

Beaum. & Flet.: Bloody Brother, ii. 2. feet have fuur very long toes, found in the mountains of Abyssinia, in Upper

(2) Knitting: The pivoted bar or lever in a knitseparated to their root, and Egypt, at Mount Sinai, and probably in Persia.

ting-machine, from whose end is suspended the with their claws, especially (Grifith's Cuvier.)

sinker which forms the loop; a beater. the hind one, so long that jăb-bēr, *jaber, *Jable, *Jabil, *jabble, v. i. &t. these birds have been called

(3) Mach.: A lifting instrument; a contrivance

for lifting great weights. (JACK-SCREW.] (A weakened form of gabber, gabble, the freq. forms by the French, surgeons. The

(4) Metal-working: A form of metal planing-ma. from gab; Icel. gabba=to mock, to scoff.] [GAB- wing is generally armed with

chine which has short, quick motions, and is used BLE.] a spur. The common species,

in shaping objects, planing seats for valves, &c. A. Intrans.: To talk rapidly and incoherently; to Parra jacana, is black with a

(5) Mining: A wooden wedge used in mining to chatter, to prate; to utter nonsensical or unintel. red mantle, the primaries of

aid in the cleavage of strata ; a gad. ligible sounds. the wings are green, and there

(6) Music: Formerly the hammer or quill-carrier are fleshy wattles under the "Jabb'ring specters o'er her traces glide."

of a clavichord, virginal, harpsichord, or spinet, Jones: Hymn to Laschma. bill. It is found in all the

but now an intermediate piece which conveys to the warmer parts of this country. B. Trans.: To utter rapidly and indistinctly; to 2. Pl.: Parrina, a sub-fam.

hammer the motion imparted to the key. gabble.

(7) Nautical: ily of Ralldiæ. 1ăb'-bēr. 8. [JABBER, v.) Rapid, indistinct, or


(a) The cross-trees. jăc-a-răn-da, s. [The Bra

b) A small flag; the union without the fly. nonsensical uttering of words; gibberish. zilian name of one species, J. brasiliana.)

(UNION-JACK.) jăb-bēr-ēr, s. [Eng. jabber; -er.) One who jab- 1. Bot.: A genus of Bignoniaces. It consists of (8) Sawing: A saw-horse or saw-buck. bers.

South American trees with showy flowers in terminal (9) Spinning: A coarse bobbin and fly-frame, oper. “Out-cant the Babylonian laborers

panicles. Jacaranda procera and other species of ating on the sliver from the carding-machine and At all their dialects of jabberers." the genus are used in syphilitic affections.

passing the product to, or fitting it for, the fine Butler: Hudibras, iii. 2. 2. Comm.: (ROSEWOOD.)

roving-machine. sāte, făt, färe, amidst, whãt, fâli, father; wē, wět, hëre, camel, hēr, thêre; pine, pit, sîre, sir, marîne; gó, pot,



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(10) Sports:

(a) Any one of the knaves in a pack of cards. (6) The small bowl aimed ut iu the game of bowls. {Butler: Human Learning, pt. ii.)

(11) Weaving: Tlio hock-box; a grated frame for conducting the threads from tho bank to the warp* ing mill.

2. As applied to animals:

il) A male. [jack-hake, Jackass.]

(2) A young pike; a pike.

(3) A name given to various brilliantly colored fish of the mackerel family, found in the West indies.

M 1. Jack-at-a-pinc.h:

(1) A Demon unexpectedly or suddenly called upon to do something.

(2) A clergyman who has no cure, but officiates for a fee wherever wanted.

2. Jack-by-the-hedge:

But.: Alliaria officinalis. Ono of the names of Sisymbrium alliaria.

3. Jack-in-a-basket:

Naut.: A basket on a pole marking a shoal; a beacon.

4. Jack-in-offlce: Ono who is proud of a petty oflice. f Wolcott: Peter Pindar, p. 18.)

5. Jack-in-the-box:

(1) Ordinary Language:

{a) A toy consisting of a box out of which, on raising the lid, a figure springs.

(6) A game or sport in which some article of more or toss value is placed on the top of a stick or roil, standing in a hole, and thrown at with sticks. If the article bo hit so as to fall clear of the hole, the thrower is entitled to claim it.

(2) Technically:

(a) Bot.: Hernandia. a genus of Lauracece, and spec. H. sonora. So called because the seeds rattlo in the seed-vessel.

(6) Machinery:

(i) A name conferred upon tho jack-frame, a device for giving a twist to tho drawn sliver and winding the same on a bobbin as it was received in tho roving can. [jack-frame.]

(ii) A largo, wooden, solid screw turning in a nut in a bridge-pieco and rotated by means of a lover. It is a clumsy form of screw press, used for various purposes.

(iii) A screw-jack for lifting and for stowing cargo.

n v) A burglar's implement, used for forcing a box-lock off a door.

6. Jack-in-the-box shears:

Mech.: A pair of shears, the lower jaw of which is worked by a cam motion from below. This allows the knife to drop to its full extent immediately thecut is made, giving the workman plenty of time to place tho work in position ready for the oext operation.

7. Jack-in-the-bush:

Bot.: Cordia cylindrostachya. [W. Indian.)

8. Jack-in-the-green: A chimney-sweep inclosed in a portable framework of boughs for the processions on tho first day of May.

9. Jack- in-t he-pulp it:

Bot.: Ariscema triphyllum, or Indian turnip. 1U. J ack-of-all-trades: One who can turn his hand to any business.

11. Jack-of-the-Buttery: Bot.: Sedum acre.

12. J ack-of-the-clock: A figure which struck tho hours on the bell of a clock.

13. Jack-with-a-lantem, Jack-a-lantern: A will-o'the-wisp; an ignis fatuus.

If Blackjack: [black-jack.] 'Jaclc-adams, s. A fool. (T. Brown: Works, ii. 22U.)

lack-a-dandy, s. A little foppish fellow; a coxcomb, a dandiprat. (S. Warren: Ten Thousand a Year, ch. vii.)

*Jack-a-lent, •iacS-o-lent, «.

1. Lit.: A puppet which was thrown at in Lout, in Shrovetide games.

2. Pig.: A simple fellow. Jack-arch, s.

Arch.: An arch of the thickness of one brick, jack-back, s.


1. A vessel below tho brewery-copper which receives the infusion of malt and hops therefrom, and which has a perforated bottom to strain off tho hops.

2. A tank or cistern which receives tho cooled wurt in a vinegar-factory.

jack-block, s.

Naut.: A block used in sending the top-gallant mast up and down.

Jack-boot, *. [jackboot.]

•Jack-cap, *. A helmet. (DeFoe: Tour, ii. 148.)

lack-Chain, s. The chain revolving on tho wheel of a kitchon-jack.

jack cross-tree, s.

Naut.: An iron cross-tree at tho head of a topgallant mast. Jack-flag, s.' Naut.: A flag hoisted at the spritsail top-mast head.

Jack-frame, s.

Cotton Man.: A contrivance, formerly in great favor, for giving a twist to the roving as it was delivered by the drawiug rollers. Jack-fruit, s. Tho fruit of tho jaca-tree (q. v.). Jack-hare, s. A malo hare.

Jack-head pump, s. A form of lift-pumps for mines and deep borings, in which the delivery-pipo is secured to tho cylinder by a goose-nock.

Jack Ketch, s. A hangman, an executioner: said to bo derived from Richard Jaquette, lord of tho manor of Tyburn, in England, where felons wore for a long timo hanged.

lack-knife, s. A horn-handled clasp-knife with a laniard, worn by seamen.

jack-ladder, s.

Naut.: A ladder with wooden steps and side ropes.

■jack-nasty, s. A sneak, a sloven. Jack-pin, s.

Naut.: A bclaying-pin in tho fife-rail or elsewhore.


Carp.: Ono of the short rafters used in a hip-roof. Jack-saw,«.

Ornith.: A provincial English name for tho Goosander, Mergus merganser, a kind of duck.

jack-screw,s. A lifting implement which acts by tho rotation of a screw in a threaded socket, jack-sinker, «.

Knitting-machine: A thin iron plato suspended from tho end of the jack, and acting to depress the loop of thread between two needles. The jacksin Iters alternate with lead-sinkers, the former being movablo separately, but tho latter am attached to a sinker-bar, and move together.

Jack-snipe, s. Tringa maculata. A small grass snipe or sandpiper, common iu this country and the Old World. Jack-spanlard, s. A scorpion, jack-staff, s.

Naut.: A flag-staff on the bowsprit-cap for flying tho jack. Jack-stay, s.

Naut.: A rib or plate with holes,or a rod running through eye-bolts, passing along tho upper side of a yard, to which the sail is bent. Jack-timber, s.

Carp.: A timber in n building which is shorter than tho other timbers, being intercepted by another piece; as (1) a studding in a partition, which is intercepted by a brace or window or door frame; (2) a rafter in a hip-roof, which meets tho hip, and is shorter than those which run a full length and meet at tho comb or ridge; (3) a rib in vaulting or groiuiug, shorter than the main rib. Jack-towel, s. A coarse towel on a roller. Jack-tree,«. [jaca-tuee.] *j&ck (2), »Jacke (2), *Jaque, *Jak, *jakke, s. [O. Fr.jaque; cf. Dnt.jak; trur. jacke; Sw.jocka; ltal.omco; Sp. joco.]

Old armor: A coat of mail; defensive body-armor worn by troops from tho fourteenth to the seventeenth century inclusive. It consisted of a leathern surcoat worn over the hauberk, and sometimes quilted like a gambeson. Tho illustration is taken from a MS. of tho Roman de la Rose (1433).

"At those dnyea the yomen had theyr lymnies at lybertie.fortheyre ho»yn were than fastened wt one poynt, and theyr iackes [were] longeand easy to shote in. —Fabyan (1115).

Jack (3), Jac. Ja -ca, subst. \Jaca is a word from tho Indian Archipelago.]

Bot.: Artocarpus integrifolia, Jack, a tree which furnishes an ediblo fruit, but inferior to tho bread-fruit itself, to which it is allied.

lack al. [In Ger. schakal; Fr. & Sp.chacal; Turk, chicat.]

Zo6l.: Tho Canis (Sacaliutt) aureus, an animal of tho family Canida?, and presenting a close affinity to tho dog. It is yellowish-gray above, whiter

underneath, the tail is bushy and at its extremity tipped with black. The jackal inhabits the warm parts of Africa, Southern Asia, and Europe. All who have lived in the East must havo heard its unearthly yells suddenly breaking in upon the Bilence of night. Jt hunts in packs. It is not, consciously at loast, tho "lion's provider." It is not generally on living animals that it feeds, but on carrion. It is, therefore, improbablo that, as a rule, a troup of jackals hunts down prey, and then the lion, presenting himself, takes it from them. More probably he hunts it down, and they consume what ho loaves. Thero is another species, C. mesomelas, the black-backed jackal. It is found at tho Cape of Good Hope. Jackal-buzzard, s. Ornith.: Buteojackal, found in Africa. Jack -a napes, s. [For Jack on apes—Jack of ape*.} •1. A monkey; an ape.

"I could lay on like a butcher, and sit like a jackanapes."Shakesp'.: liznry V,, v. 2.

2. A coxcomb, a fop, an upstart, conceited fellow.


'*That jaekanapss withn
SKakesp.: All's Will that Ends Well, Lit 5.

lack ass, s. [Eng. jack (1), and ass.}

1. A male ass.

"I have seen * jackass from that country above fifteen haudahigh."—Goldsmith: Animated Maturei The Asa.

2. A term of reproach or contempt; a stupid, ignorant fellow.

U Laughing or feathered jackass: Ornith.: Dacelo gigantea, the groat brown kingfisher of Australia. Jackass-penguin,«.

Ornith.: Eudytes demersa. A species of Penguin which rises to tho surface and again dives with groat, rapidity, so that according to Mr. Darwin it might be mistaken for a fish leaping fur sport.

Jack boots, [Eng.jack (1), and 6oof.]

1. Large, overall boots, reaching up to tho thigh, worn by tishermon.

2. Large boots with a front-pieco coming abovo tho knee, worn by cavalry men, and sometimes by huntsmen.

"Some had been so used to wear brogues that they •tumbled and shuffled about strangely in their military jackboot*."Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch. vi.

J&Ck -dftw, daw, «. [Eng. jack (1), and date]

Ornith.: Colceus or Con-usmonedula. Thosmallest of crows, being but thirteen iuches in length. Tho general color is black, with a grayish shade on tho margins of tho feathers, tho back and wings purplish; the crown of tho head is glossy blueblack, forming a cap; tho neck hoary-gray, the bill and feet black, the eye bluish-white. Both sexes colored alike. The bird breeds in towers and old buildings, also in hollow trees. Eggs fourto seven, more bluish than those of ordiuary crows, and blotched with brown spots.

Jack -51, *. [Fr. jacauette, dimiu. of O. Fr.jaque =a jack or coat of mail.]

I, Ordinary Language:

1. A short coat extending downward to the hips.

2. A kind of coat or dress mado of cork to support tho wearer while swimming; a cork jacket.

3. A short, outer, close-fitting garment worn by women.

II. Technically:

1. Machinery:

(1) A steam-jacket is a body of steam between an inner and outer cylinder or casing; its usual purpose is to warm or maintain tho warmth of the contents of the inner cylinder.

(2) Tho steam space around an evaporating-pan to heat tho contents. Other jackets are of wood or other non-conducting material. Cylinders of stoamongines are sometimes covered with felt and an ornamental wooden casing to prevent radiation of heat. Steam-boilers, for the same purpose, are jacketed with felt on the upper part. Also called deeding, deading, laggiug.

2. Nautical:

(H A double or outer coat.

(2) A casing for a steam-chimney where it passes through a deck.

1J To beat or dust one's jacket: To thrash one. (Slang.)

Jack'-St, v. t. [jacket, «.]

1. Lit.: To cover or envelop in a jacket; as, to jacket a steam-boiler.

2. Pig.: To thrash, to beat. (Slang.)
jack man, s. [Eng. jack (2), and man.]

1. A soldier dressed in n jack; a horse-soldier.

2. A retainer, au attendant. (Scott.)

Jack -plane, s. {Eng. jack (1), and plane.'] Carp.: Tho first and coarsest of tho joiner's

bench-pianos, tho others being the tryiug, panel,

and smooth planes.

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Jac o bin, Jac 6 bine, «. A a. [ft. J<imhin, from Low Lat. Jauobtnus, from Lat. Jacoous— James.J

A. As*ub*iantire:

1. Originally a synonym for a Dominican friar,
though the name did not extend beyond France.

"Sow mux I Robert, now Robin,
Sow Irarv Minonr, now JarrS/in.TM

Homaunt of the Rose, 6.34L

2. A member of a faction or clubof violenr repub-
licans, so called from the Jacobin club, which met
in the hall of the
Jacobin friars, in


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tober, 17*9.
"3. One who was
radically opposed
to the existing
government of
England; specif.,
applied to the ex-
treme section of
the revolutionary
party at the end of
the last century.

4. A va r i e t y of
hooded pigeon.

B. As adj.: The
same as Jacobix-
ic (q.v.).

"Franee is f ormid-
able, not only as sbe is France,
France/'—Burkt: Regicide Peace.

Ja: -6 bine, s. [jacobin.]
Jac 6 bin -Ic, Jac-o-bln-lc-al, a. [English
Jacobin; -4c. -tea/.] Of or pertaining to the Jacobins
of France; turbulent, revolutionary* demagogical.
Her own ill policy, which dismantled nil her towns
all her subjects by Jacobinical innora-
PoitcM of the Alii*:

Jac 6 bin -1 cal If, adv. [F^g. JaroftiwiVa/; ty.]
In jacobinical, revolutionary! or demagogic prin*

JaC -6-bIn-Is,rn, s. fEng. jarnbin: -ism.] The principles or objects of the Jacobins; revolutionary or demagogic principles.

Jac 6-bIn-lie, r. f. fEng. jacobin: -ize.] To imbue or tint with jacobinism.

•JSC -6-bln-iy, adv. [Eng. jacobin; -ly.] In the manner of the Jacobins: jacobinically.

Jfcc -o-n£t, Jac -C6 net, #. {Yr.ja.conas.']

Fabric: A fine, close, white cotton goods, inter* mediate between cambric and lawn.

Jac-quard ^quask',*. [The name of a stmwhat manufacturer in Lyons, who died in 1S34.J (.See etym.and compound.)

Jacquard-loom, ». A loom for weaving figured goods. A cbain of perforated cards is made to pass over a drum, and tbe strings by which the threads of the warp are raised pa*s oTer an edge with a wire or leaden weight of small diameter suspended from each. These weights, at each stroke of the loom, are presented to each successive card, and some of them are intercepted by the card, while others pass through the holes therein, the latter thus determining which threads of the warp shall be raised. In this way the figure on the card determines the nature of the figure on the fabric.

Jacqueminot 'pron. Jak -ml-n6«, *. The nam of a very handsome deep crimson rose, called after General Jacqueminot, of France.

Jacqnerie ipmn. ziak -re . *- [Fr. Jacques— James.J [jack (1).J

Hist.: A name given to a revolt of the peasants against the nobler iu Picardy, France, in 1358. Any revolt of peasants.

•Jac -taUHjjf, *. [Latin jactantia, from jactans, pr. par. of jaeto, freq. of jacio—to throw.] A boasting, a boast.

jac ta tion, *. [Lat. jactatio, from jaclo, fre~ quent. of jacio=tct throw, j The act of throwing; agitation or shaking of the body in exercise, as in riding.

jac ti ta tion. «. I Lat. jactito, a double frequent, from jacio— to throw.]

1. A tossing or shaking of the body; restlessness.

2. Vain boasting, vaunting.
7\ Jactitation of marriage:

Ecclcs. Law: A term applied to a false pretension or claim to be married made by any one with a view to gain tbe reputation of being married.

*Jac -U-la ble. a. [jacttlate.] Fit to be thrown.

Jac u late, r. t. [Latin jaculatus, pa. par. of jaculor = to throw a dart or javelin; jacuium=a -*jacio=to throw.] To throw or dart out; to

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Jac -6 bite, *. & a.

suff. -ite.]
A. As substantive:

1. Eng. Hist.: A partisan or supporter of James
II., after his abdication, and of his descendants,
tbe Pretenders: one who opposed the Revolution of
1688 in favor of William and Mary.

2. Church History (pi.)

brass circle divided into four equal parts by two The followers of Jacob Baradapu:

diametric lines. At each extremity la a perpendic- jJJK^fJ ifJS»LI!2? re?t/-'r * th?,1^cJt to PfoSPfntr
ular riglet over the lines, with a hole below each
rflit for discovering objects. Tbe cro**s is mounted
on a staff. A cross-staff.

2. An instrument used to measure distances and heights. It has a square rod, with a cross or cursor, which has a set screw to keep it in position on the rod when required. The rod is three or four fe*»t in

(1) The followers of Jacob Baradssus, a Mono. lysito monk who restored the sect to prosperity after it bad become extinct. Ho died at Edessa in 575.

Vl) A name for the Monothelites fq. v.).

(3) An order of mendicant monks, which arose
and obtained the sanction of Pope Innocent III.,
in the thirteenth century* but very soon became

(4) A name for the Dominicans. [jacobin (1).]
B. As adj.: Pertaining to the Jacobites; holding

the opinions of the Jacobites.

Jac 6-bIt -Ic, *Jac 6 bit -le-aJ, a. [Eng. Xico-
bitfe); -<c.] Relating or pertaining to the Jaco-
bites; supporting or adhering to the Jacobites.

Jic 6~blt -Ic-al-ly, adv. [Eng. jacobitical; -ly.]
In a jacobitical manner; like the Jacobites.

Jac -6 blt-Iam, s. [Eng. Jacobit(e); -ism.] The
principles of the Jacobites or adherents of James II.

Ja c5b§'-He, *. [Named by Damour after its original locality, Jacobsborg, Wermland, Sweden; guff, -ite (A/in.). |

Min.: An oxide of iron and manganese, repre-
sented by the formula Inn (Fealnn^O'i. Isometric,
occurring in octahedrons: bardness=6; specific
gravity, 4*75; luster, brilliant; color, deep black;
streak, blackish-brown; magnetic. Occurs with a
white mica and native copper in a crystalline lime-

Ja -c6b-sdn, a. The name of its discoverer. (See
etym. and compound.)
Jacobson s-nerve, s.

Anat.: The tympanic branch of the cranial nerves.

Ja co bus, [Lat. = James.] A gold coin, current in England in the reign of James I. It was of the value of 25s. sterling, or about $6.

h-ngth, and divided into four or five equal parts. The cursor has a pqnare socket and slips on the staff. The instrument is mounted on a tripod when in use, the cursor being in the plane of the horizon when measuring distances, and vertical to it when measuring heights.

3. A straight rod shod with iron, and with a socket-joint and pintle at the summit for supporting a surveyor's circumferentor.

Jacob's-stone, «. A stone fabulously said to be that on which Jacob rested his head at Luz, which was used as the coronation-stone of the kings of Scotland at Scone, in Perthshire, and was thence transferred by Edward J. to Westminster, where it still remains, inclosed iu tbe coronation-chair. Ja -cob '2),*. [From Jacob, its discoverer.] Anat.: (See etym. and compound.) Jacobs-membrane, s.

Anat.: The columnar layer, or layer of rods or cones, constituting the seventh layer covering the retina of the eye. (Quain.)

Jac 6 be an, Ja c6 Uk an, Ja-c6 -bl-an, adj. [Lat. Jacoh(us)— James; English suff. -can, -»««.]

Arch.: A term sometimes applied to the style of architecture prevailing during the later years of the reign of Elizabeth and that of James I. It differs from tbe Elizabethan or Tudor style, in having a greater admixture of Italian, greatly owing to the influence of the Italian architect Palladio.

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, w5t, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; g6\ pot

Jac U la -tion, [Lat. jaculatio. from jacutatus, pa. par. of jaculor.] The act of throwing or hurling missive weapons.

jac u la tor, .s. [Lat., from jaculatus, pa. par. of jaculor.] •1. (>rd. Lang.: One who throws or darts. 2. Zobl.: The Archer-fish (q.v.).

Jac u la -t5r-y\ adj. [Latin jaculatorius, from jaculatus, pa. par. of jaculor; Fr. jaculatoire.] Throwing or darting out suddenly; uttered or thrown out suddenly or in short sentences; ejaculatory.

J&C U las, *. [Lat.=that which is thrown ; ;i fishing-net; a serpent which darts at its prey; a noose thrown over the horns of cattle. ]

Zobl.: A genus of Dipodida?. Jaculus labradorius is the Labrador Jumping Mouse.

Jade (1), *. [Etym. doubtful, probably of Teutonic origin.]

1. A sorry nag; a broken-down, worthless horse.

2. An old woman, a wench, a quean. (Used in contempt.)

3. A young woman. (Not necessarily used in contempt.)

Jade (2), s. [Sp. ptetra di hij'ada = kidney-stone. {King.)]

Min.: A massive or sometimes cryptocrystalline silicate of magnesia, allied to hornblende, with specific gravity from 2"9&-3*lR, and hardness from 5"5-6'5. Damour divides it into "Oriental Jade,'" with specific gravity 2*96-3*u©>: colors white and white variously tinted, greenish-gray, and many shades of green; and "Oceanic Jade/' specific gravity 3'18. differing also from the former in possessing a silky luster due to exceedingly delicato libers. Found in situ in Central Asia, C hina, and New Zealand. Much used for ornamental and other purposes by ancient peoples, having been found as implements in the remains of prehistoric lakedwellings, and by Dr. Schliemann on the sit«> of Troy. (For geographical distribution and archaeological uses, see Fischer: Xephrit u. Jadcit, Stuttgart. 1SSU.)

Jade, v.«. A t [jaj>e (l),«.]
A. Transitive:

*1. To ride or drive overmuch; to overdrive.
•2. To treat as a jade: to spurn, to kick.
3. To tire out. to fatigue, to weary*
•4. To make appear like a jade; to make appear

ridiculous; to befool.

*B. httrnus.: To become weary or worn out; to lose spirit.

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Jade Ite, H. [Named by Damour from jade;

sun", -ite (Min.).j

Mm.: A silicate of nluminn, soda, a little lime, magnesia, and iron. Specific gravity 3"28-ii*4 ; hardness, 6*5-7; colors, milky-white with bright-green veins and splotches, various tints of greenish and bluish-gray, orange-yellow, apple and emeraldgreen (all green shades brighter than in oriental jade.lf rarely violet. The splinters fuse in the flame of a spirit-lamp. Damour, from analyses, suggests a relation to tho opidores. Found in Central Asia, China (where, under the name of " Feitsui," it is much prized), and as articles worked by the Aztecs, in Mexico. (See Fischer: Xephrit u. Jadeitt Stuttgart, 1880.)

lad -st ft *Jad 5r iS, *. [Eng. jade (1); -ry.]

The cricks or manners of u jade. jad'-Ish, a. lEag. jad(e) (1) ; -ish,] il. Like a jade; virions, ill-tempered. *2. Unchaste, incontinent. * Jag (1), *Jagg, *jagge, subst. [Ir. gag=R cleft;

gagaim U-* split or notch ; (iael. gag=a cleft; gag

= to split; Wei. gagen~a cleft.] I. Ordinary Language:

1. A notch, a ragged protuberance, a cleft, a donticulation.

2. A prick.

II. Bot.: A cleft or division. {Goodrich & Porter.)
Jag-bOlt, «. A bolt with a barbed shank.
Jag (2), s. [Etym. doubtful.]

1. A small load, as of grain, hay, or straw.

2. A saddle-bag, a peddler's wa llet.

To have a jap on: To be in a state of partial intoxication; the idoa being that when a man is fully intoxicated he has a load, but when partly intoxicated ho has on only a. jag. (U. H. Slang.) Jag(l),r. f. [jag (l),a.]

1. To notch ; to cut into notches; to form denticulationsin.

2. To prick, as with a pin or thorn.

Jig (2), v. t. [jao (2), *.] To carry, as a load. Jag-an-na'-tha, J&g'-a-nat, Jag-gan-ath, *.


Jag-a-tal , *. [From Jagatai, the native name of Turkistan. from Jagatai, a son of Genghis Khan.J The dialect used by the inhabitants of Turkistan.

Jag -6r, 8. [Etym. doubtful.]

Ornith.: A name for the predatory gulls of the genus Lestris. (Stcainson.)

Ja -fcer-ant,«. [jazerant.]

Jag -$T-f, K. [jaggery.]

jag ged, a. [jag (1),*.]

1. Ord. Lang.: Having jag* or notches; nottued: specif., in heraldry, applied to a division of the field or of tlio outlines of the ordinary, when appearing rough, as if forcibly torn away.

2. Bot.: Cut in a coarso manner, jagged-chickweed,«.

Bot.: The genus Ilolosteum. //.umbel latum, the Umbelliferous Jagged Chickweed, is British.

Jag ged ness, s. [Eng. jagged: -newt.] The quality or state of being jagged or notched; unevenness,

Jag -ger (1), s. [En* Ja* (1); -er.]

J. One who or that which jags.

2. A small wheel, mounted in a handle and used for crimping and ornamenting edges of pies, cakes, Ac., or cutting them into oruamcntal shapes; a jaggiug-iron.

3. A toothed chisel.

Jag-ger (2), 8. [Eng. jag (2); -er.] One who carries a jag or wallet; a peddler. Jag -ger f, Jag -ghSr-ry*,Jag -er-f,Jag -gSr-jf,

s. [ Hind. jVmi'i.l Comm.: A kind of sugar separated from the juice

of the flower and stems of the cocoanut, Caryota

urens, and some other palms. Jag par., a. Scs. [jao (1), t\] A. &■ B. As pr. par. d> particip. adj.: (See the


C. As subst.: The act of cutting in jags or notches. Jagglng-board,s.

Metall.: An inclined board in a buddle or frame on which slimes of ore are deposited to be gradually washed by a current of water to the inclined bed where the slimes are sorted according to gravity.

Jagglng-iron, s. The same as Jagger (1), 2 (q.v.). Jag -gft a. [Ena. jag: -j/.] Full of or marked with jags; jagged, uueven.

Ja -ghir, Ja-ghe*er, Ja -gger, s. [Hind.] Land given by government as a reward for services, especially of a military character.

Ja -ghlr-dar, *. [Hind.] One holding a jaghir (q. v.). (Anglo-Indian.) Ja guar' (U as W), 8. [Braz. jaguara.] Zofil.: Felis onca, n ferocious-looking feline animal, u little larger than a leopard, which it resembles in color, except that in tno jaguar the spots are arranged in larger and more definite groups. It is found in the southern part of the United States, through Mexico, Central America^ mid Brazil, us far south as Paraguay. It can climb trees and swim rivers. In some places its chief foot 1 is tho capybara, but it will attack horses, cattle, and even man.

Ja guar-on'-dl (uasw), s. [A South American word. J

Zooi.i Felis jaguarondi, a small, long-bodied feline animal, of a variable dark-brown color, found in the thick forests of Brazil, Paraguay, and (iuiana, where it feeds on fowls, small mammals, Ac.

Jah, s. [Heb. lah or Yah, nn abbreviation of Jehovah in its older form.J (For def. beo etym.J [jehovah.]

"Sing unto Go<1. ding praises to his nnme: extol him that riueth upon the heavens by hit* name J All."Psalm lxvili. 4.

Jail, gaol, *gayhol, *gayl, s. [O. Fr. gaiole, gaoie, from Low Lat. gabiola, dimin. of gabio = a cage, a coop; cavus— hollow; Fr. geole ,* Sp. gayola, jaula; Port, gaiolo; Ital. gabbiunla. I A prison; a place of confinement for porsons legally committed to custody for any crime or offense against thelaw.

Jail-bird,*. A person who has been in jail; an incorrigible rogue.


1. Lit. cf> Law: A judicial process, by which jails are delivered of the persons confined in them, either by trial, or by discharge of court.

2. Fig.: A release from any confinement or restraint, as of tho soul from tho body.

Jail' er, 8. [Eng. jail; •er.'] One having charge of prisoners legally committed; a keeper of a jail. Jail-fever, s.

Path.: Tho name given prior to A. D. 1759 to a fever very prevalent in jails, where the unhappy inmates were often half-starved. It was called also putrid, pestilential, malignant, camp or hospital fever. It is that now known as typhus fever (q. v.).

Jail-keeper, *. A jailer (q. v.).

Jail, v. t. [jail, *.] To commit to jail; to imprison.

Jain, Jai na, s. & a. [SaiiPC.,/iHrt=victorious over all human passion and infirmities.]

A. Aa subst.: A professor of the Jain faith. [jainIsm.]

B. As adj.: Of or belonging to the Jains or their worship.

Jain-architecture, *.

Arch.: The architecture of the Jains. Their chief seats in Iudiu being (iuzorat and Mysore, the chief temples and ruins exist in those provinces; the oldest are believed to bo about Junaghar in Gnzerat. There are fine onos on Mount Abu, a granitic mountain 5,000 or 6,000 feet high, in tho name province. One temple there is of date between A. D. 11U7 and 1247, another about A. D. llEf2. In Jain architecture thero is generally n horizontal dome supported by eight leading pillars, with other less important ones, tho whole number in some cases amounting to fifty-six. There are cells as in Buddhist monasteries; they are occupied, however, not by monks, but by tho cross-legged images of tho Tirthankars, to whom it is dedicated. There is elaborate ornamentation; tho temples are surrounded by porticos. Some Jain temples have been converted into mosques. (Fergitsson, Ac.)

Jain-I^m, s. [Goozcrathee, Ac, Jain, from Sansc. no = victor over all human passions and infirmities; Puff. -WIH.|

Religions; An Indian faith, most closely nkin to Buddhism (q.v.). Tho Jains, like tho Buddhists, disregard tho authority of the Vedas. Like them, they give high adoration to mortal beings; but while the Buddhists practically confine their worship to seven Buddhas, the Jains nominally recognize seventy-two, viz., twenty-four for the past age, twenty-four for the present one, and twenty-four for the future. Theso are called Tirthankars or Tirthakars—persons who have crossed ovrrltiryata anena)—». c, tho world compared to tho ocean. They aro then deified, and divine qualities are predicated of them in their present state. They are called supreme lords and gods of gods. Practically speaking, worship is confined to two of the Tirthankars, Parsanath and Mahavira. Tho latter is said to have been the preceptor and friend of Buddha. This would look as if the Jatua faith had preceded Buddhism, but the period of its greatest glory was the eleventh or twelfth century of tho Christian era. just after Buddhism had been driven from India. Fergusson thinks that it actually existed prior to tho rise of Buddhism, and that when

tho latter system fell, perishing under tho weight of its immenso priosthood and its legions of monks* an effort was made by its friends to rovive tho old faith, rut modern Hinduism was shooting op sc vigorously, that it»existenco could not bo ignored. Jainismwas obliged to derive various tenets and practices irom it, so that it became rather a degenerate thau a reformed Buddhism., s. [Etym. doubtful.] A house of office; a privj.

"Their tonetn were nn horrible confunion of nil sorts of Impieties, which flowed into thin eeot us into a jatce*."Jurtin: Remarks on Ecclz*. Hist. (on.

''lakes-farmer, s. Ono who contracted to clean out the public privies and drains.

Ja'-kle, s. [A Guiana word (?).} Z06I.: Pxeudis paradoxa, a greenish frog, spotted and marked with browu, found in Uuiana.

Jal'-ap, s. fFr. jalap; Bp* jalapa. Named from tho city Xnlapu or Jalapa in Mexico, whence tho drug was first brought.]

1. Pharm.: Tho dried tubercles of Exogoniutn. purga. Tho true jalap is called also Vera Vruz. jalap; another kind, derived perhaps from Iiiomwa. simulans, is called Tampico jalap. Tho tubers of true jalap are ovoid, from the size of a nut to that of an orange. They are sometimespliced; the other kind is fusiform. The chief officinal preparations of it are Extract of Jalap and Tincturo of Jalap. Jalap is a brisk purgative, and is also given as a hydragoguo in dropsy.

2. Botany:

(1) The same as Jalap-plant (q.v.).

(Z) I noma? a jalapa.

.. (1) Mirabilis jalapa was once erroneonsly supposed to bd the true jalap, whence its specific name. The malo jalap of Mestitlan is Ipomcea batatoides(2) Resin 0/ jalap: A resin obtained from jalapby means of rectified spirit. Jalap-plant, s.

Bot.: Exoffonium purga, a beautiful convolvnlaceous twiner, with long crimson flowers.

Jal'-a-pa-te, s. [Eng. jalap(ic); -ate.] Chem.: A salt of jalapic-acid (q. v.). Ja lap-Ic, a. [Eng. jalap(ine); -ic.\ Derived from or in any way connected with jalapine (q. v.). Jalaplc-acld, s.

Chem.: CsiHuOi,. A tribasic acid obtained by boiling jnlapino with baryta-water, and, after accurately precipitating the barium with sulphuricacid, evaporating tho filtrato to dryness, ltisnn amorphous, yellowish, brittle muss, melting n little abovo 100 , very soluble in water and in alcohol, less so in ether. It is odorless, but possesses an unpleasant, bitter taste. When heated on platinum foil to 130 , it decomposes, burning with a bright, sooty flame. Jalapic-acid unites with bases forming salts, in which ono, two. and three atoms of hydrogen aro replaced by the same number of atoms of the raetuls. Tho jalapatcs are all amorphous. When an aqueous solution of jalapic-acid is boiled with dilute sulphuric-acid, a brown semicrystalline mass is formed. By boiling this mass' with baryta-water, and filtering wheu cold, alpha jalapic-acid is formed in the mother liquor. It crystallizes in white, flexible needles, winch melt at 78" to a pale yellow oil. It is soluble in alcohol and in ether, and slightly soluble in water.

Jal a-pln, J&l'-a-plne,*. [Eng.,&c, jalap; suff. -inline (Client.) (q.v.).]

1. Chem.: An amorphous glucoside existing, together with con volvuline; in thetnbersof ofilciual jalap root. In order to prepare it, the jalap root must be several times extracted with water, and then with alcohol, the color removed by animal charcoal, and tho filtrate ovapornted to dryness on a water-bath. The residue is then dissolved in alcohol, filtered, and the glucoside precipitated by means of ether. When pure, it is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, amorphous mass, very soluble in alcohol and dilute acids, slightly solublo in water, but insoluble in ether. It dissolves readily in the fixed alkulies, and is not reprecipitatod by acids, having been converted into amorpnousconvolvulicacid, which is soluble in water. When heated to 100% it becomes brittle, and maybe rubbed down to a white powder. It softens at 123% and melts at 150* to a pale yellow syrup. At a higher temperature it tukos tiro, and burns with a sooty flame, emitting a pungent, empyroumatic odor. When dissolved in strong sulphuric acid, tho solution acquires a beautiful purple color, which cbauges to a brown, and finally to a jet black.

2. Comm.: Thejalapinof the shops is tho resin of jalap, extracted by spirit from the tubers, and afterward precipitated by water.

Jal-a-pIn-bT, s. [Eng. jalapin, and ol(etn).] C/w*m.; 2(%tiIT3oO^,fI>0. A white crystalline body, prepared by adding fuming hydrochloric acid to a concentrated, aqueous solution of jalapic-acid, and jalap i no late

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leaving it to itself till the mixture has solidified to a thick crystalline mass. On washing the product on a filter with cold water, and recrystallizing several times from alcohol, pure jalapinol is obtained. It is inodorous, feels fatty to the touch, melts at 62% and solidifies at 59 to a hard, brittle, crystalline mass. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and in ether.

)al a pin -6-late, s. [Eng. jalapinol; -ate.]

Chem.: A salt of jalapinolic-acid.

Jal a Pin 61 -Ic, a. [Eng. jalapinol; -ic] Derived from or in any way connected with jalapinol (q. v.).

Jalapinolic-acid, s.

Chem.; Ci^H^O^ A monobasic acid produced by treating jalapinol with caustic alkalies, or by heating gradually a mixture of jalapin and sodium hydrate, and decomposing the sodium jalapinolate by means of hot acidulated water. On cooling, jalapinolic-acid separates in the solid form. It is inodorous, but has an irritating taste, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and in ether. It crystallizes from alcohol in the form of white tufts of needles. It melts at 65', and solidifies at 62' to a white.crystalline, brittle mass. At a higher temperature it decomposes, emitting a pungent odor, which attacks the eyes and throat. It forms salts ■called jalapinolates.

JaT-du-sle" (J as xn), s. [Fr., from Ja/oux=jeal•©us (q. v.).] A louvre-window or Venetian shutter.

Jal pa ite, s. [Named by Breithaupt after its locality Jalpa, Mexico; suff. -ite (Min.) (q. v.).]

Min.: Jalpaite is a cupriferous sulphide of silver, with isometric cleavage, and malleable. Color blackish, lead-gray; specific gravity, 6 87-6 S9.

Jam ) . *. [Etym. doubtful: Skeat connects it with Jam, v. (q. v.) J A conserve of fruit boiled with sugar and water.

Jam (2),*. [Pers. & Hind. j«maa = dress.]

1. A kind of muslin dress worn in India.

2. A child's frock.

Jam (3), *. [jam, P.] A crush, a squeeze; a crowd or block of people. Jam (4),*. [jamb.]

Jam.r.f. [Of doubtful origin: according to Skeat the same as cham or champ= to chew, to tread heavily; also as adj. = hard, firm.]

1. To wedge in, to press, to crush, to squeeze

2. To tread hard; to mako hard and firm by treading, as land by cattle. Provincial.)

Jam-nut, s. An auxUliary nut screwed down upon another one to hold it; a check-nut, lock-nut, -or pinchtng-nut. [nut-lock.]

Jam-weld, s.

Forging: A weld in which the heated ends or edges of the parts are square-butted against each other and welded.

Jam -a-dar,s. [jamtdab.]

Ja mal'-ca, s. [O. Sp. Xaymaca-n country abounding in springs.]

Geog.: The name of a large island in the West Indies.

Jamaica-dogwood, s.

Bot.: Piscidia erythrina,

Jamaica-ebony, *.

Bot.: Amerimnum or Brya ebenus.

Jamaica-ginger, s. A variety of scraped ginger imported from Jamaica. [ginger.] Jamaica-kind, *.

Phar.: An extract made from the bark of Coccolaba uvifera* the West Indian seaside grape. Jamaica lace-bark tree, s. Bot.: Lagetta lintearia. Jamaica-milk wood,*.

Bot.: (1) The same as Allspice (q. v.); (2) Brosunn m spurium. Jamaica-pepper,«. Bot.: Pimenta vulgaris. Jamaica-redwood,«. Bot.: Gordonia hoematoxylon. Jamaica-rose. s. Bot.: The genus Meriana.

Ja mai'-can, a.Jc u. [Eng.,Ac., Jamaic(a); suff. -an.]

A. Assubst.: A native or inhabitant of Jamaica.

B. A8 adj.: Belonging to, produced in, or in any way conuected with Jamaica (q. v.J.

Jamalcan-stenoderm, s.

Zo6t.: Stenoderma jamaicense, a frngivorons bat. feeding chiefly on Achras sapota, the Jamaica naseberry.

Ja ma-I-Clne., *. [Mod. Lat. (Geoffroya) jamalc(ensis); suff. -Sue.]

Chem.: An alkaloid discovered by HOttenschmid in the bark of Geoffroya jamaicensis, a leguminous tree growing in Jamaica and in Surinam. To obtain it, the powdered bark is boiled with water, and the solution evaporated to a, syrup. Freshly-ignited charcoal in powder is then added, and the jamalcine extracted from the mixture by repeated treatment with boiling alcohol. It crystallizes in yellowish-brown needles, which are soluble in boiling water and in alcohol, but insoluble in ether It melts at 98° to a brownish-red liquid; at a higher temperature it swells up very much, and burns, giving off an odor of roasted cocoa. It is inodorous, very bitter, and neutral to vegetable colors. The salts of jamaicine are bitter, crystalline, and soluble in water and in alcohol.

Jam-a na, 8ubst. [jacana.j The same as the Jacana (q. v.). (Swainson.)

Jamb, *Jam, *Jaum, *Jambe, *Jaumbe, s. [Fr. iamfee=the leg or shank, a jamb of a door, from Low Lat. gamba = a hoof. Cf. Ital. & Sp. gamba=the leg.]

1. Arch.: The upright sides of an aperture, as a doorway, window, or fireplace, and supporting the lintel, entablature,or mantel.

"The benmM and pillars also sustaining the said buildings, yea, the jamben, posts, principals, and standenls, all of the same mettall."—P. Holland: Ptiny, bk. xxxiii., ch. 111.

2. Miniiig: A pillar of ore in a mine.

Jamb and Fittings.

A. Architrave. B. Plowed ground. C. Door. D. Rabbeted joint. E. (juurter.

jamb-lining, s.

Carp.: The vertical boarding on the sides of a doorway, jamb-post, s.

Carp.: Oneof the uprights on the sides of a doorway or window, jamb-stone.s.

Arch.: Oneof the stone pillars on tho sides of a doorway or of a window.

J&mb (6 silent), r. f. [jam, V.}

*Jim -bart, s. [jambs].

♦Jambe [pi. *Jambes, *Jam-beux, *Jam-beaux), s. [Fr. jam be = the leg.] Ijamb, S.\

Old Armor: A leg or slnn-piece of cuirbouilli or metal worn during the fourteenth, fifteenth, aud sixteenth centuries, but especially during the reign of Richard II.

•Jam be6, s. [O. Fr. j[am6o»>r=to walk; jambe t bo leg.; A walking-stick or cane. Jam beux, • , /. [jambe.]

Jam bo la ua, s. [The native name.]

Bot.: The Java plum (q. v.).

Jam b6-ree , subst. A spree; a drunken frolic.


lam bd -sa, »• [Malay «cAam&u = tho name of one of tho jsi>ecies.J

Bot.: A sub-genus of Eugenia. It contains tho Rose Apple, Jamboea vulgaris (Eugenia Jamboe), and tho Malay Apple, J. malaccensis. Both are from the East. About thirteen species are cultivated in greenhouses.

Jam dar-1, s. [Hind. j&mah=& robe, dress.]

Fabric: A Dacca muslin woven with figures of flowers and other ornaments.

James,, s. [Fr. Jame, Jacques; Lat. Jacobus; Gr. lakobos; Hcb. 7aagob=Jacob (q, v.).]

Scrip. Hist.: The name certainly of two, and possibly of three, persons mentioned in the Sow Testament.

1. James, the son of Zebodee, and the brother of the apostle John himself also being an apostle (Matt. iv. 21,22, x.2, xvii. 1; Mark i. 19,20, iii. 17, ix. 2, xiii. 3, xiv. 33; Luke vi. ;t ; Acts i. 13). He was martyred under Herod Agrippa I., A. D. 44 (Acts xii.2j.

2. James, tho son of Alpha?us, also an apostle (Matt, x.3; Mark iii. 18; Luke vi. 15; Acts i. 13). It has been greatly debated whether James, "the Lord's brother," mentioned in Gal. i. 19, was the same with the son of Alplueus. If in this passage the word " apostle " is used in its usual technical sense, they are clearly identified, for there were only two Jameses apostles. If used in a loose sense, they may have been different. A, probably the same one, " seemed to be" a'* pillar,' like Cephas and John (Gal. ii. 9). This James apparently had strong Jewish proclivities, finding fault with those Jewish <'hristians who ate with Gentile converts (Gal. ii. 12). It was probably he who presided over

the Council of Jerusalem mentioned in Acts xv.t and he seems to have bad apostolic charge of the mother church at that city (Acts xii. 17, xv. 13, xxi, 18). He was called "the Less," either from being younger than James tho son of Zebedee, or from being shorter than he in stature (Mark xy. 40). [1.1 His mother's name was Mary (Matt, xxvii. 56; Mark xv. 40: Luke xxiv. 10), and he was brother to June or Juaas (Mark vi. 3; Jude 1). *T Epistle of St. James:

New Testament Canon: The first of the catholic or genoral epistles. The apostle James, tho son of Zebedee, died too early to have been its author. [james, 1.] It was penned by either James, the son of Alpha1 us, or James, the brother of our Lord, if the two were different; by the apostle who bore both designations if they were the same. It was addressed to the twelve tribes scattered abroad— i. e., to tho Jewish converts to Christianity beyond tho limits of Palestine. Its teaching is in disconnected portions, and treats more of conduct than of belief, though tho indispensableness of faith to efficacious prayer is strongly insisted on (i. 6). Portions of it look antagonistic to the teaching of St. Paul (cf. Rom. iii. 28 with James ii. 21, 25), and most rationalists believe that the antagonism is real. But faith is used in a different sense in James from that which it obtains in the Pauline writings. What Paul calls simply M faith," James would term a living faith, and it is cot against it but against a dead faith that he contends (ii. 17). The epistle was written probably at Jerusalem. Its date is uncertain. It has been fixed in A. D. 44 or 45, in A. D. 60, in A. D. 62, and not till the second century. Clement of Rome seems to have referred to it. and perhaps Hernias. Origen expressly mentions it as the epistle ascribed to St. James (Comment.on John, tom. xix.). It figures in the Syrian Version of the New Testament. It was ranked by Eusebius among his Antilogoumena. In A. D. 397 the Council of Carthage placed it in the canon. Though Luther spoke disrespectfully of it, yet it is now generally accepted as a portion of Divine Scripture.

James, subst. [From tho name of its first compounder.] James -powder, j.

Pha r.: Oxide of Antimony, SbOs or Sb^O*. It is prepared by pouring a solution of tercnloride of antimony into water, and then treating it with carbonate of soda, the product being oxide of antimony and chloride of sodium. The oxide is afterward washed and dried at a heat not exceeding 212°. (Garrod.)

lame son ite, *. [Named by Haidinger after Prof. Jameson ; suff. -ite (Min.) (q. v.).]

Min.: Essentially a sulphide of lead and antimony, represented by the formula i PbS+SbjSs. Orthorhombic in crystallization, with highly perfect basal cleavage. Hardness, 2-3; specific gravity. 5"5-5*8. Mostly occurs in fibrous masses,originally in Cornwall, but subsequently at many other places.

James town, *. [A place in Virginia.]
Jamestown-weed, s.

Bot.: A popular name for Z>afura stramonium.

jam pan. a. [Japanese.] A sedan-chair, supported between two bamboo-poles, and borne by four men. (East Indies.)

j&m-p&n-fie', s- [Eng. jampan; -ec] One of the bearers of a jampan.

Jam rds ade, *. [Sansc. jamfrtt=therose apple aud Lat. rasa, with suff. -ade (T).] Bot.: The rose-apple (q. v.).

Jan, s. [Arab.] An inferior demon.

Jan -ca, s. [A Spanish West Indian word.]

Janca-tree, «.

Bat,: Amyris toxifera*

•Jane (l).*Jean, ». [A corrupt, of Genoa.]

1. A coin of Genoa; a small coin.

2. [jean.]

Jane (2). *. [Fr. Jeanne, the fern, of JeanJohn.) A woman's name.

Jane-of-apes. *. The female counterpart of Jackanapes (q. v.); a pert, forward girl.

Jan ga -da, *• [Port.] A kind of raft-boat used in Brazil and Peru. Jan -gle. *gan-gle, *jfin -glf. v.i.&t. [O. Fr.

jangler, a word of imitative origin ;cf. l^nUjangalen = to importune, from jonJten = to howl; Low tier. janken— to yelp like a dog; Lat. yannio—to yolp, to talk loudly.] A. Intransitive:

1. To quarrel or bicker in words; to wrangle.

2. To chatter.

3. To sound harshly or discordantly.

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