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Bot.: A genus of Iridacew. It consists of beauti. jăbi-bēr-ing, pr. par., a. & 8. [JABBER, v.) jăc'-a-rê, s. (Jackare and yackare, South Amer ful Cape bulbs, with spikes of showy flowers. Ixia A. & B. As pr. par. & particip. adj.: (See the ican Indian names of the species.].. viridiflora has large sea-green flowers, with black verb.)

Zool.: A genus or sub-genus of Alligators estabmarkings. It is from the Cape of Good Hope.

lished by Dr. Gray. There are various species, as

C. As subst.: Jabber, nonsensical talk, gibberish. Ix-1-0-lite. 8. (Named by Nordenskiold after

the Dog-headed Jacare (Jacare latirostris), the

"Twag chattering, grinning, mouthing, jabbering all." Long-shielded Jacare (J. longiscutata), the Eyed Ixion, a relatíve of Tantalus, ixiolite being a variety

Pope: Dunciad, ii. 237. of tantalite.)

Jacare (J. ocellata), &c. All are natives of South Min.: The same as KIMITOTANTALITE (q. v.).

Jabbering-crow, s.

Ix-o-dēş, 8. (Gr. ixõdēs=like birdlime, sticky,
Ornith.: Corvus jamaicensis.

*jăc-a-too', 8. [COCKATOO.] (Evelyn.) clammy: ixos=birdlime, and eidos=form, appear

*jăb-bēr-měnt, 8. (Eng. jabber; -ment.] Jab Bắc-chis, I-ốc'-chis, 8. [Greek,=a name of ance. ber, nonsensical talk, gibberish.

Bacchus.] Zool.: The typical genus of the family Ixodidæ. "At last, and in good hour, we are come to his farewell, Zool.: A genus of Cebidæ, American Monkeys, Ixodes ricinus is the Dog-tick, 1. dugesii being also which is to be a concluding taste of his jabberment in containing the Marmosets. More commonly called found on the dog, I. reduvius on the sheep, I. pictus the dog i redove on the sheen picture law." -Milton: Colasterion.

Hapale (q. v.). on the deer or on mosses, and I. plumbeus upon the jăbi-bēr-nowl, 8. [JOBBERNOWL.]

lắc-cdn-bt, 8. [JACONET.] Rockswallow (Hirundo riparia) or in its nest. *jab-ble, *jable, v. i. & t. [JABBER, v.] To Jā-cent, a. (Lat. jacens, pr. par. of jaceo=to

ix-o-di-dæ, ix-o-dě-7, 8. pl. [Mod. Lat. ixodes splash, as water. (q.v.); Lat. adj. suff. -idæ or masc. -ei.]

lie.) Lying down; recumbent; lying at length.

*jăbi-ble, 8. (JABBLE, v.] Agitation on the sur. Zool.: A genus of parasitic spiders, order Acarina. face of water.

“Because so laid, they sbrick or squared stones) are The mouth is suctorial. By means of it these para

more apt in swagging down, to pierce with their points, 1ăb:-1-rů, s. (Brazilian jabiru, jaburu.)

than in the jacent posture."- Reliquiæ Wotton, p. 20. sites attach themselves to the bodies of sheep, oxen, dogs and other mammals, holding on so tena. Ornith.: Mycteria, a genus of Ciconina (Storks). lac'-inth. 8. THYACINTH. 11.2 (1.1 ciously that, when pulled a way, they often bring off They resemble the adjutants, and are not much less with them part of the skin of the animal on which in size. They are found in South America.

jăc-i-ta-ra, 8. [The Brazilian name of the tree.) they were parasitic.

jăb-0-răn-di, s. (A word used by some Indian

used by some Indian Bot.: Desmoncus macracanthos, a fine palm, fifty

or sixty feet long, with a stem as thin as a cane. It Ix-0-15te, 8. [Gr. icon=the mistletoe, any viscous tribes of Brazil.].... substance, and tyõ=to loose, to dissolve.]

Bot.: A plant, either a Piper or of the Rutaceous grows along the Amazon and the Rio Negro Min.: An amorphous mineral, of greasy luster

genus Pilocarpus. The Indians believe it very usefăck (1), *jacke (1), 8. [Fr. Jacques, from Latin and hyacinth-red color, becoming ocher-yellow or

ful in fevers, and a Portuguese medical man, called Jacobus ; Gr. Iakobos, from the Heb. Yaaqob=one

Coutinho, having sent some of the leaves to M. who seizes by the heel, agab=a heel. In the prinbrown when pulverized. Found in a coal stratum near Gloggnitz.

Rabuteau, the celebrated Parisian pharmacist, the cipal modern languages John, or its equivalent, is a

latter gentleman ascertained by experiment that common name of contempt, or slight. Thus the Ix-ör-a, 8. (Said to be altered from Sansc., &c., they were powerfully sudorific. He believes them Italians use Gianni, whence Zani; the Spaniards, ishwar, a name of God. (See def.)] as valuable as cinchona.

Juan, as bobo Juan=a foolish John=the French Bot.: A genus of Cinchonacea, tribe Coffee, o, jăb-or-o-82, 8. [South American word.)

Jean, &c. Hence in English we have Jack-fool, family Psychotridæ. Ixora coccinea is a fine Indian

Jack-an-apes, Jack-pudding, and perhaps Jackass. shrub. with scarlet flowers, which are presented asBot.: A genus of Solanaceæ. Jaborosa runcinata

A Jack o' the clock (Shakesp.: Richard II., V.5) was votive offerings in many Hindu temples. [Etym.] is used in South America as an aphrodisiac.

a figure whicb, in old clocks, struck the hours upon. It is used in India for various medicinal purposes. ja-ba-ti', 8. (Brazilian.]

the bell: hence the word Jack came to be applied 1-ỳnx, 8. [YUNx.]

Bot.: Psidium albidum, which furnishes an excel. to various implements, which supplied the place

of a boy or attendant, as the jack which turns the lent dessert fruit used in Brazil. iz-ar, 8. (Derived from the Arabic.]

spit in a kitchen, a boot-jack, &c. Still more genAstron.: A fixed star in the constellation Bootes. ja-ba-ti-car-ba, ja-bot-i-ca-bu-ras, s. (Bra.

erally it is applied to a large variety of implements Called also Bootis. zilian.)

or instruments which are used in the place of Bot.: Eucalyptus cauliflora, which furnishes one

another hand or of an assistant, and in this way is Iz'-ard, Iz-zard (1), 8. [Etym. doubtful.) of the most agreeable fruits eaten in Brazil.

frequently compounded with other words, the assoZ08l.: A name for the Ibex (q.v.). lao-cạ, 8. [JACK (3).]

ciated word expressing either its purpose, structure, “For the carcass of an izzard he received only ten

jaca-tree, 8. (JACK-TREE.)

or relation, as jack-screw,jack-frame, rail-jack, &c.] trancs."-Capt. Mayne Reid: Bruin, ch. xxiii.

jăc-a-măr, 8. [French jacamar; Brazilian jaca iz'-zard (2), 8. [Prob. a corruption of s hard.]

I. Ordinary Language: marica.]

1. The diminutive of the proper name John. An old name for the letter Z.

Ornith. (pl.): The name generally given to the 2. A term of contempt; an upshot, a clown, a " You go over, the first chance you get, and hook every birds ranked under Galbuline, a sub-family of boor. one of their izzards."--E. A. Poe; X-ing á Paragrab. Alcedinidæ or King-fishers. The Jacamars have the “Do you play the flouting jack ?" -Shakesp.: Much bill less stout than

about Nothing, i. 1.
the typical Alce-
dinætheir body

3. A common equivalent for a sailor; a tar. also is more slen.

*4. A cant word for a Jacobite. der; the tail long;

“ With every wind he sailed, and well could tack, the toes either in

Had many pendents, but abhorred & Jack." two pairs, or two

Sroift: Elegy on Judge Boat. THE tenth letter and the sev. before and one be

5. A measure; sometimes half-a-pint, sometimes enth consonant in the English hind, the anterior

quarter of a pint.
alphabet. It was formerly ones being united.
interchangeable with i, the They are bright-

II. Technically:
same character being used for colored birds, gen-

1. As the name of an instrument: both. It is a palatal, its erally with a good

(1) Domestic: sound being that of g in gem deal of green in

(a) An instrument for turning a roasting joint of or of dg in ridge, edge. Even their plumage.


meat; a bottle-jack; a smoke-jack. up to a comparatively recent They are found in

"So footboys, who had frequently the common name of date i and were not sepa- the tropical parts of South America and in the West Jack given them, were kept to turn the spit, or to pull off rated in English dictionaries, Indies, breeding in cavities of trees, and sallving their master's boots; but when instruments were invented alphabetical lists, &c. forth from a branch or spray to capture the insects

for both these services, they were both called jacks." As a symbol, j is used in medical prescriptions at on which they feed. Sometimes elevated into a

which they feed. Sometimes elevated into a Watts: Logic, pt. i., ch. iv. the end of a series of numbers for 1; as, vij.=seven, family, Galbulidæ.

(6) A contrivance to assist a person in taking off viij.=eight, &c.

jăc-a-na, 8. (In Brazil the name of the water. his boots; a boot-jack. jā'-al, jā'-e1, s. [Arab. jaal; Chal.jaela.] (See hen.]

(c) A pitcher, formerly of waxed leather, but now etym. and compound.)


of metal; a black-jack. jaal-goat, s.

1. Sing.: The name of Parra, a genus of wading. "Body of me, I'm dry still ; give me the jack, boy." 2001.: Capra jaela, the Abyssinian Ibex, an ibex font have ti birds belonging to the family Palamedeidæ. The

Beaum. & Flet.: Bloody Brother, ii. 2. feet have fuur very long toes, found in the mountains of Abyssinia, in Upper

(2) Knitting: The pivoted bar or lever in a knitseparated to their root, and Egypt, at Mount Sinai, and probably in Persia.

ting-machine, from whose end is suspended the with their claws, especially (Grifith's Cuvier.)

sinker which forms the loop; a beater. the hind one, so long that jăb-bēr, *jaber, *Jable, *Jabil, *jabble, v. i. &t. these birds have been called

(3) Mach.: A lifting instrument; a contrivance

for lifting great weights. (JACK-SCREW.] (A weakened form of gabber, gabble, the freq. forms by the French, surgeons. The

(4) Metal-working: A form of metal planing-ma. from gab; Icel. gabba=to mock, to scoff.] [GAB- wing is generally armed with

chine which has short, quick motions, and is used BLE.] a spur. The common species,

in shaping objects, planing seats for valves, &c. A. Intrans.: To talk rapidly and incoherently; to Parra jacana, is black with a

(5) Mining: A wooden wedge used in mining to chatter, to prate; to utter nonsensical or unintel. red mantle, the primaries of

aid in the cleavage of strata ; a gad. ligible sounds. the wings are green, and there

(6) Music: Formerly the hammer or quill-carrier are fleshy wattles under the "Jabb'ring specters o'er her traces glide."

of a clavichord, virginal, harpsichord, or spinet, Jones: Hymn to Laschma. bill. It is found in all the

but now an intermediate piece which conveys to the warmer parts of this country. B. Trans.: To utter rapidly and indistinctly; to 2. Pl.: Parrina, a sub-fam.

hammer the motion imparted to the key. gabble.

(7) Nautical: ily of Ralldiæ. 1ăb'-bēr. 8. [JABBER, v.) Rapid, indistinct, or


(a) The cross-trees. jăc-a-răn-da, s. [The Bra

b) A small flag; the union without the fly. nonsensical uttering of words; gibberish. zilian name of one species, J. brasiliana.)

(UNION-JACK.) jăb-bēr-ēr, s. [Eng. jabber; -er.) One who jab- 1. Bot.: A genus of Bignoniaces. It consists of (8) Sawing: A saw-horse or saw-buck. bers.

South American trees with showy flowers in terminal (9) Spinning: A coarse bobbin and fly-frame, oper. “Out-cant the Babylonian laborers

panicles. Jacaranda procera and other species of ating on the sliver from the carding-machine and At all their dialects of jabberers." the genus are used in syphilitic affections.

passing the product to, or fitting it for, the fine Butler: Hudibras, iii. 2. 2. Comm.: (ROSEWOOD.)

roving-machine. sāte, făt, färe, amidst, whãt, fâli, father; wē, wět, hëre, camel, hēr, thêre; pine, pit, sîre, sir, marîne; gó, pot,



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(10) Sports:
jack cross-tree, 8.

underneath, the tail is bushy and at its extremity a) Any one of the knaves in a pack of cards..

tipped with black. The jackal inhabits the warm (b) The small bowl aimed at in the game of bowls. gallant mast.

Naut.: An iron cross-tree at the head of a top

parts of Africa, Southern Asia, and Europe. All (Butler: Human Learning, pt. ii.)

who have lived in the East must have heard its un(11) Wearing: The heck-box; a grated frame for Jack-flag, 8.

earthly yells suddenly breaking in upon the silence conducting the threads from the bank to the warp- Naut.: A flag hoisted at the spritsail top-mast of night. It hunts in packs. It is not, coning mill. head.

sciously at least, the “lion's provider." It is not 2. As applied to animals: jack-frame, s.

generally on living animals that it feeds, but on (1) A male. [JACK-HARE, JACKASS.]

carrion. It is, therefore, improbable that, as a rule, (2) A young pike; a pike.

Cotton Mun.: A contrivance, formerly in great

great a troup of jackals hunts down prey, and then the (3) A name given to various brilliantly colored favor, for giving a twist to the roving as it was lic

18 lion, presenting himself, takes it from them. More fish of the mackerel family, found in the West delivered by the drawing rollers.

probably he hunts it down, and they consume what Indies.

jack-fruit, 8. The fruit of the jaca-tree (q. v.). he leaves. There is another species, C. mesomelas, 1. Jack-at-a-pinch: jack-hare, 8. A male hare.

the black-backed jackal. It is found at the Capo (1) A person unexpectedly or suddenly called

of Good Hope. upon to do something. jack-head pump, 8. A form of lift-pumps for

jackal-buzzard, s. (2) A clergyman who has no cure, but officiates mines and deep borings, in which the delivery-pipe for a fee wherever wanted. is secured to the cylinder by a goose-neck.

Ornith.: Buteo jackal, found in Africa. 2. Jack-by-the-hedge:

Jack Ketch, s. A hangman, an executioner: said Jăck-a-nāpes, s. (For Jack on apes=Jack of Bot.: Alliaria officinalis. One of the names of to be derived from Richard Jaquette, lord of the apes.) Szymbrium alliaria.

manor of Tyburn, in England, where felons were for *1. A monkey; an ape. 3. Jack-in-a-basket: a long time hanged.

"I could lay on like a butcher, and sit like a jackaNaut.: A basket on a pole marking a shoal; a

jack-knife, s. A horn-handled clasp-knife with napes." --Shakesp.: Henry V., v. 2. beacon. 4. Jack-in-office: One who is proud of a petty

2. A coxcomb, a fop, an upstart, conceited fellow. a laniard, worn by seamen.

"That jackanapes with scarfs." office. (Wolcott: Peter Pindar, p. 18.) jack-ladder, 8.

Shakesp.: All's Well that Ends Well, iii. 5. 5. Jack-in-the-box:

Naut.: A ladder with wooden steps and side 1ăck -ăss. s. [Eng jack (1), and ass.] (1) Ordinary Language:

ropes, (a) A toy consisting of a box out of which, on

1. A male ass. out of which, on *jack-nasty, s. A sneak, a sloven. raising the lid, a figure springs.

“I have seen a jackass from that country above fifteen (b) A game or sport in which some article of jack-pin, 8.

hands high."-Goldsmith: Animated Nature; The Ass. more or less value is placed on the top of a stick Naut.: A belaying-pin in the fife-rail or else. 2. A term of reproach or contempt; a stupid, ig. or rod, standing in a hole, and thrown at with where.

norant fellow sticks. If the article be hit so as to fall clear of the hole, the thrower is entitled to claim it. jack-rafter, s.

| Laughing or feathered jackass : Carp.: One of the short rafters used in a hip-roof. fisher of Australia. (2) Technically:

Ornith.: Dacelo giganted, the great brown king(a) Bot.: Hernandia, a genus of Lauraceæ, and jack-saw, 8. spec. H. sonora. So called because the seeds rattle

jackass-penguin, s.

Ornith.: A provincial English name for the Goosin the seed-vessel.

Ornith.: Eudytes demersa. A species of Penguin ander, Mergus merganser, a kind of duck.

which rises to the surface and again dives with (b) Machinery:

Ti A name conferred upon the jack-frame, a de- jack-screw,8. A lifting implement which acts great rapidity, so that according to Mr. Darwin it vice for giving a twist to the drawn sliver and by the rotation of a screw in a threaded socket. might be mistaken for a fish leaping for sport. winding the same on a bobbin as it was received in jack-sinker, s.

jăck-boots, 8. pl. [Eng. jack (1), and boot.] the roving can. [JACK-FRAME.]

Knitting-machine: A tbin iron plate suspended 1. Large, overall boots, reaching up to the thigh,

the jack, and acting to depress the worn by fishermen. in a bridge-piece and rotated by means of a lever. It loop of thread between two needles. The jack 2. Large boots with a front-piece coming above is a clumsy form of screw press, used for various sinkers alternate with lead-sinkers, the former the knee, worn by cavalry men, and sometimes by purposes.

being movable separately, but the latter are at huntsmen. (iii) A screw-jack for lifting and for stowing tached to a sinker-bar, and move together.

"Some had been 60 used to wear brogues that they cargo,

stumbled and shuffled about strangely in their military iv) A burglar's implement, used for forcing a jack-snipe, 8. Tringa maculata. A small grass

$$ jackboots."- Macaulay: Hist. Eng., ch. vi. box-lock off a door.

snipe or sandpiper, common in this country and the
Old World.

jăck-dâw, dâw, 8. [Eng. jack (1), and daw.] 6. Jack-in-the-box shears: Mech.: A pair of shears, the lower jaw of which jack-spaniard, s. A scorpion.

Ornith.: Colæus or Corrus monedula. Thosmallest is worked by a cam motion from below. This

of crows, being but thirteen inches in length. The

jack-staif, s. allows the knife to drop to its full extent immedi

general color is black, with a grayish shade on ; Naut.: A flag-staff on the bowsprit-cap for flying the margins of the feathers, the back and wings ately the cut is made, giving the workman plenty of time to place the work in position ready for the & the jack.

purplish; the crown of the head is glossy blueDext operation.

jack-stay, s.

black, forming a cap; the neck hoary-gray, the bill 7. Jack-in-the-bush:

Naut.: A rib or plate with holes, or a rod running

and feet black, the eye bluish-white. Both sexes Bot.: Cordiq cylindrostachya (W. Indian.) through eye-bolts, passing along the upper side of

colored alike. The bird breeds in towers and old . Jack-in-the-green: A chimney-sweep inclosed a yard, to which the sail is bent.

buildings, also in hollow trees. Eggs four to seven, in a portable framework of boughs for the proces

more bluish than those of ordinary crows, and

lack-timber. s. sions on the first day of May.

blotched with brown spots.

Carp.: A timber in a building which is shorter 9. Jack-in-the-pulpit:

jăck -ět, s. (Fr. jacquette, dimin. of 0. Fr. jaque than the other timbers, being intercepted by anBot.: Arisoma triphyllum, or Indian turnip.

a Jack or coat or mall.] 10. Jacksofall.trades. One who can turn his hand other piece; as (1) a studding in a partition, which

is intercepted by a brace or window or door frame; I. Ordinary Language: to any business.

(2) a rafter in a hip-roof, which meets the hip, and 1. A short coat extending downward to the hips. 11. Jack-of-the-Buttery:

is shorter than those which run a full length and 2. A kind of coat or dress made of cork to support Bot.: Sedum acre.

which otel the meet at the comb or ridge; (3) a rib in vaulting or the wearer while swimming; a cork jacket. 12. Jack-of-the-clock: A figure which struck the hours on the bell of a clock. groining, shorter than the main rib.

3. A short, outer, close-fitting garment worn by

women. 13. Jack-with-a-lantern, Jack-a-lantern: A will-o'. jack-towel, 8. A coarse towel on a roller. the-wisp ; an ignis fatuus.

jack-tree, 8. (JACA-TREE.]

II. Technically: Black jack: (BLACK-JACK.) *jăck (2), *jacke (2), *jaque, *jak, *jakke, s.

1. Machinery: Tack-adams. 8. A fool. (T. Brown: Works, ro. Fr.jaque; cf. Dut. jak; Ger. jacke; Sw.jocka; inner and onter cylinder or casing: its usual

(1) A steam-jacket is a body of steam between an ii. 230.)

Ital. giaco; Sp. joco. )

old armor: A coat of mail; jack-a-dandy, 8. A little foppish fellow; a cox

purpose is to warm or maintain the warmth of the

contents of the inner cylinder. comb, a dandiprat. (S. Warren: Ten Thousand a defensive body-armor worn by troops from the fourteenth to

(2) The steam space around an evaporating-pan Year, ch. vii.) the seventeenth century inclu

to heat the contents. Other jackets are of wood or *Jack-a-lent, *iack-o-lent, s.

other non-conducting material. Cylinders of steamsive. It consisted of a leathern 1. Lit.: A puppet which was thrown at in Lent,

engines are sometimes covered with felt and an surcoat worn over the hauberk, in Shrovetide games. and sometimes quilted like a

ornamental wooden casing to prevent radiation of

heat. Steam-boilers, for the same purpose, are 2. Fig.: A simple fellow. gambeson. The illustration is

jacketed with felt on the upper part. Also called jack-arch, s.

taken from a MS. of the Roman
de la Rose (1433).

cleading, deading, lagging. Arch.: An arch of the thickness of one brick.

2. Nautical: "At those dayey the yomen had jack-back, s.

(1) A double or outer coat. theyr lymmes at lybertie, for theyre

(2) A casing for a steam-chimney where it passes Brewing: hosyn were than fastened wt one

through a deck.

were] 1. A vessel below the brewery-copper which poynt, and theyr iackes receives the infusion of malt and hops therefrom, longe and easy to shote in."-Fa

To beat or dust one's jacket: To thrash one. byan (1415).

(siany.) and which has a perforated bottom to strain off the

jăck -ět, v.t. [JACKET, s.] jăck (3), jac, ja'-cą, subst. hops. 2. A tank or cistern which receives the cooled [Jaca is a word from the Indian

1. Lit.: To cover or envelop in a jacket; as, to Wort in a vinegar-factory. Archipelago.]

jacket a steam-boiler Bot.: Artocarpus integrifolia, jack-block, s.


2. Fig.: To thrash, to beat. (Slang.) a tree which furnishes an edible Naut.: A block used in sending the top-gallant fruit, but inferior to the bread-fruit itself, to which

jăck-man, s. (Eng. jack (2), and man.] mast up and down. it is allied.

1. A soldier dressed in a jack; a horse-soldier. _jăck-âl, 8. [In Ger. schakal; Fr. & Sp. chacal;

2. A retainer, an attendant. (Scott.) Jack-boot, s. (JACKBOOT.]

jăck-plāne, 8. [Eng.jack (1), and plane.) Jack-cap. 8. A helmet. (De Foe: Tour, ii. 148.). Turk. chical.]

.) Zoöl.: The Canis (Sacalius) aureus, an animal of Carp.: The first and coarsest of the joiner's Jack-chain, 8. The chain revolving on the wheel the family Canidæ, and presenting a close affinity bench-planes, the others being the trying, panel, of a kitchen-jack.

to the dog. It is yellowish-gray above, whiter and smooth planes. boll, boy; pout, JÓW1; cat, cell, chorus, çhin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. pb = f. revolt of peasables iu Picardy evolt of the pease




jade jăck-půd-ding, s. (Eng. jack (1), and pudding; Jăc -o-bin, Jăc - -bine, s. & a. [Fr. Jacobin, Jăc'--nět, jăc'-cô-nět, 8. [Fr. jaconas.] cf. Fr. jean-pottage=John-pottage: Ger. Hans-wurst from Low Lat. Javobinus, from Lat. Jacobus= Fabric: A fine, close, white cotton goods, inter= Jack-sausage.) A merry-andrew, a clown, a James.]

mediate between calubric and lawn. buffoon.

A. As substantive:

Jăc-quard' (qu as k), s. [The name of a strawjăck-răb-bit, s. A large rabbit or hare found in 1. Originally a synonym for a Dominican friar, hat manufacturer in Lyons, who died in 1834.] (See some of our southern and western states.

though the name did not extend beyond France. etym. and compound.) jăck-rib, s. (Eng. jack (1), and rib.]

"Now am I Robert, now Robin,

Jacquard-loom, s. A loom for weaving figured

Now frere Minour, now Jacobin." Arch.: Any rib in a framed arch or dome which is

goods. A chain of perforated cards is made to pass

Romaunt of the Rose, 6,341. over a drum, and the strings by which the threads shorter than the rest.

2. A member of a faction or club of violent repub- of the warp are raised pass over an edge with a wire *lack -sauce, s. (Eng. jack (1), and sauce. An licans. so called from the Jacobin club, which met or leaden weight of small diameter suspended from impudent or saucy fellow. in the hall of the

each. These weights, at each stroke of the loom. "Every jacksauce of Rome shall thus odiously dare to Jacobin friars, in

are presented to each successive card, and some of control and disgrace it."-Bp. Hall: Honour of the Maried the Rue St. Jac

them are intercepted by the card, while others pass Clergie, bk. ii., $ 12. ques, in Paris, in

through the holes therein, the latter thus determinjăck-smith, s. [Eng. jack (1), and smith.] A October, 1789.

ing which threads of the warp shall be raised. In workman who makes jacks for roasting.

*3. One who was

this way the figure on the card determines the radically opposed

nature of the figure on the fabric. “ The celebrated watchmaker [Mr. Tompion] who was

to the existing originally a jacksmith."- Dryden: Let. to Mr. Tonson

Jacqueminot (pron.jăk-mi-no), s. The nam government of (1696).

of a very handsome deep crimson rose, called after England; specif., šak'-son-ite. s. Named by Whitney after Dr. applied to the ex

General Jacqueminot, of France. c. T. Jackson; suff. ite (Min.).) treme section of

jacquerie (pron. zhak'-rē), s. (Fr. Jacques= Min.: The same as PREHNITE (q. v.). Found at the revolutionary

James.] [JACK (1).] Ile Royale, Lake Superior, and Keweepaw Point, party at the end of

Hist.: A name given to a revolt of the peasants Michigan. the last century.

against the nobles in Picardy, France, in 1358. Any jăck'-strâw, s. (Eng. jack (1), and straw.]

4. A variety of *1. A figure of a man made of straw; a scarecrow. hooded pigeon.

*jăc'-tan-çý, s. [Latin jactantia, from jactans, *2. A person of no weight or substance.

B. As adj.: The

pr. par, of jacto, freq. of jacio=to throw.) A boast"An inconsiderable fellow and a jackstraw."-Milton: same as JACOBIN

ing, a boast. Def. of the People of England. (Pref.)

IC (q. V.).


jăc-tā -tion, s. (Lat. jactatio, from jacto, fre

quent. of jacio=to throw. The act of throwing: 3. A slip of straw, wood, ivory, bone, or other ma- "France is formid. terial, used in a child's game, in which all the able, not only as she is France, but as she is Jacobin

agitation or shaking of the body in exercise, as in

riding. strips are thrown into confusion on a table to be France."-Burke: Regicide Peace. picked singly with a hooked instrument without Jăc-o-bine . CLODIUL

jăc-ti-tā -tion, s. (Lat. jactito, a double fredisturbing the rest.

quent. from jacio=to throw.] jăck-wood, s. [Eng. jack, and wood.]

jăc-o-bin-ic, jăc-o-bin-ic-al, a. (English 1. A tossing or shaking of the body; restlessness.

rt Jacobin; -ic, -ical.] Of or pertaining to the Jacobins 2. Vain boasting, vaunting. Comm.. The wood of Artocarpus integrifolia. It of France: turbulent, revolutionary, demagogical. | Jactitation og marriage is a turniture and fancy wood. “Her own ill policy, which dismantled all her towns

Eccles. Law: A term applied to a false pretension Jā'-Côb (1), s. [Lat. Jacobus, remotely from the and discontented all her subjects by jacobinical innova

or claim to be married made by any one with a view patriarch Jacob, Heb. Yaaqob.) (Jack.) tions."-Burke: Policy of the Allies.

to gain the reputation of being married. Jacob's-ladder, 8.

jăc-o-bin-1-cal-ly, adv. [Eng. jacobinical; -ly.] *jăc'-u-la-ble, a. (JACULATE.] Fit to be thrown. 1. Botany : The genus Polemonium. One species, In jacobinical, revolutionary, or demagogic prin săc-u-lāte, v. t. [Latin jaculatus, pa. par, of the Blue Jacob's-ladder (Polemonium cæruleum).

jaculor = to throw a dart or javelin; jaculum=a plant with pinnate glabrous leaves and large blue făc-O-bin-ism. 8. [Eng. jacobin: -ism.] The dart; jacio=to throw.] To throw or dart out; to or occasionally white flowers. 2. Naut.: A rope ladder with wooden rounds.

principles or objects of the Jacobins; revolutionary emit. 3. Mech.: The elevator used in brewhouse maor demagogic principles.

jăc-u-lā-tion, 8. (Lat. jaculatio, from jaculachinery for raising spent mash-stuff.

jă c'-7-bin-ize, v. t. [Eng. jacobin; -ize.] To


tuis, pa. par. of jaculor.] The act of throwing or Jacob's-staff, s. imbue or tint with jacobinism.

hurling missive weapons. *I. Ordinary Language:

*Bắc--bin-lý, adv. [Eng. jacobin; -1.] In the

in: In the făc'-u-la-tõr, 8. [Lat., from jaculatus, pa. par.

of jaculor.) 1. A pilgrim's staff, from the pilgrimages made to manner of the Jacobins: jacobinically.

#1. Ord. Lang.: One who throws or darts, the Shrine of St. James (Lat. Jacobus) at Compo- Jăc'--bite, s. & a. (Lat. Jacobus=James; Eng. 2. Zool.: The Archer-fish (q. v.). stella in Spain. suff. -ite.]

Jặc-u-la-tör-ỹ, adj. [Latin jaculatorius, from "In his hand a Jacob's-staff, to stay

A. As substantive: His weary limbs upon." 1. Eng. Hist.: A partisan or supporter of James Throwing or darting out suddenly; uttered or

jaculatus, pa. par. of jaculor; Fr. jaculatoire.) Spenser: F. Q., I. vi. 35.

II.. after his abdication, and of his descendants, thrown out suddenly or in short sentences; ejacu2. A staff containing a concealed dagger.

the Pretenders; one who opposed the Revolution of latory. II. Surveying: 1688 in favor of William and Mary.

jăc-4-lūs, 8. 1. An instrument for taking altitudes, having a 2. Church History (pl.):

(Lat.=that which is thrown; a 2;

v brass circle divided into four equal parts by two

(1) The followers of Jacob Baradæus, a Mono-

fishing-net; a serpent which darts at its prey; a diametric lines. At each extremity is a perpendic. physite monk who restored the sect to prosperity noose thrown over the horns of cattle.)

Zool.: A genus of Dipodidæ. Jaculus labradorius ular riglet over the lines, with a hole below each after it had become extinct. He died at Edessa

is the Labrador Jumping Mouse. slit for discovering objects. The cross is mounted in 510.. on a staff. A cross-staff.

(2) A name for the Monothelites (q. v.).

jāde (1), s. (Etym. doubtful, probably of Ton2. An instrument used to measure distances and (3) An order of mendicant monks, which arose tonic origin.) heights. It has a square rod, with a cross or cursor. and obtained the sanction of Pope Innocent III., 1. A sorry nag; a broken-down, worthless horse. which has a set screw to keep it in position on the in the thirteenth century, but very soon became 2. An old woman, a wench, a quean. (Used in rod when required. The rod is three or four feet in extinct.

contempt.) length, and divided into four or five equal parts. (4) A name for the Dominicans. [JACOBIN (1).] 3. A young woman. (Not necessarily used in conThe cursor has a square socket and slips on B. As adj.: Pertaining to the Jacobites; holding

tempt.) the staff. The instrument is mounted on a tripod the opinions of the Jacobites.

Jāde (2), 8. [Sp. pietra di hijada=kidney-stone. when in use, the cursor being in the plane of the 1ăc-o-bit'-ic. *jăc-o-bit-Ic-al. a. [Eng. Jaco

(King.)], horizon when measuring distances, and vertical to

Min.: A massive or sometimes cryptocrystalline it when measuring heights.

ce bit(e); -ic.] Relating or pertaining to the Jaco silicate of magnesia, allied to hornblende, with 3. A straight rod shod with iron, and with a bites; supporting or adhering to the Jacobites. specific gravity from 2:96-3:18, and hardness from socket-joint and pintle at the summit for support. jăc-o-bit'-ic-al-ly, adv. [Eng. jacobitical; -ly.]

5.5-6.5. Damour divides it into "Oriental Jade." ing a surveyor's circumferentor. In a jacobitical manner; like the Jacobites.

with specific gravity 2.96-3'06; colors white and Jacob's-stone, 8. A stone fabulously said to be Jăc'-6-bit-işm, s. [Eng. Jacobit(e); -ism.] The shades of green; and "Oceanic Jade," specific

white variously tinted, greenish-gray, and many that on which Jacob rested his head at Luz, which was used as the coronation-stone of the kings of principles of the Jacobites or adherents of James II. gravity 3:18, differing also fron Scotland at Scone, in Perthshire, and was thence jā-cobs'-ite. 8. [Named by Damour after its sessing a silky luster due to exceedingly delicate transferred by Edward I. to Westminster, where it original locality, Jacobsberg, Wermland, Sweden; New Zealand. Much used for ornamental and other

fibers. Found in situ in Central Asia, China, and still remains, inclosed in the coronation-chair.

suff. -ite (Min.).) Jā'-cob (2), 8. [From Jacob, its discoverer.] Min.: An oxide of iron and manganese, repre- implements in the remains of prehistoric lake

purposes by ancient peoples, having been found as sented by the formula Inn (Fe Inn2)04. Isometric, dwellings, and by Dr. Schliemann on the site of Anat.: (See etym. and compound.)

occurring in octahedrons: hardness=6; specific Troy. (For geographical distribution and archæoJacob's-membrane, s.

gravity, 4.75; luster, brilliant; color, deep black; logical uses, see Fischer: Nephrit u. Jadeit, StuttAnat.: The columnar layer, or layer of rods or streak, blackish-brown; magnetic. Occurs with a

gart, 1880.) cones, constituting the seventh layer covering the white mica and native copper in a crystalline limeretina of the eye. (Quain.) stone.

jāde, v. t. & i. [JADE (1), s.) Jăc-o-bë -an, Jă-co-bě-an, Jă-co-bi-an, adj. Jā-cob-son, 8. The name of its discoverer. (See A. Transitive: Lat. Jacobis) =James: English suff. -ean. Lian) etym. and compound.)

*1. To ride or drive overmuch; to overdrive. Arch.: A term sometimes applied to the style of Jacobson's-nerve, s.

*2. To treat as a jade; to spurn, to kick. architecture prevailing during the later years of Anat.: The tympanic branch of the cranial nerves.

3. To tire out, to fatigue, to weary. the reign of Elizabeth and that of James I. It dif.

*4. To make appear like a jade; to make appear fers from the Elizabethan or Tudor style, in having Ja-co-bůs, s. (Lat.=James.) A gold coin, cur. ridiculous; to befool. a greater admixture of Italian, greatly owing to the rent in England in the reign of James I. It was of "B. Intrans.: To become weary or worn out; to influence of the Italian architect Palladio. the value of 255. sterling, or about $6.

lose spirit. fāte, făt, färe, amidst, whãt, fâll, father; wē, wět, hëre, camel, hêr, thêre; pine, pit, sïre, sir, marine; gó, pot,

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Jade -ite, 8. [Named by Damour from jade; jă-ghir-dar, e. (Hind.) One holding a jaghir the latter system fell, perishing under the weight ut. ite (Vin.). (q. v.). (Anglo-Indian.)

of its immense priesthood and its legions of monks, Min.: A silicate of alumina, soda, a little lime, jă-guar' (u as w), 8. (Braz. jaguara.)

an effort was made by its friends to revive the old magnesia, and iron. Specific gravity 3:28 3:4; hardness, 65-7; colors, milky-white with bright-green

2001.: Felis onca, a ferocious-looking feline ani.

faith. Tut modern Hinduism was shooting up sc

vigorously, that its existence could not be ignored. mal, a little larger than a leopard, which it veins and splotches, various tints of greenish and

ainism was obliged to derive various tenets and bles in color, except that in the jaguar the spots bluish-gray, orange-yellow, apple and emerald

practices from it, so that it became rather a degen. are arranged in larger and more definite groups. green (all green shades brighter than in oriental

erate ihau a reformed Buddhism. jade), rarely violet. The splinters fuse in the flame

It is found in the southern part of the United of a spirit-lamp. Damour, from analyses, suggests

States, throngh Mexico, Central America, and Bra j āke3, s. (Etym. doubtful.] A house of office; a

zil, as far south as Paraguay. It can climb trees privy. a relation to the epidotes. Found in Central Asia,

and swim rivers. In some places its chief food is “Their tenets were an horrible confusion of all sorts of China (where, under the name of "Feitsui,” it is much prized), and as articles worked by the Aztecs,

es the capybara, but it will attack horses, cattle, and impieties, which flowed into this sect as into a jakes."in Mexico. (See Fischer: Vephrit u. Jadeit, Stutt

Jortin: Remarks on Eccles. Hist. (an. 379). : even man. gart, 1880.)

jă-guar-on-di (u as w), s. [A South American #jakes-farmer, 8. One who contracted to clean jad -ẻ -ỹ, *jad-ễr-iề, 8. [Eng. jade (1); fj.] Word.).

out the public privies and drains. The cricks or manners of a jade.

Zool.: Felis jaguarondi, a small, long-bodied fe

line animal. of a variable dark-brown color. found ja -kle, 8. (A Guiana word (7. jad-ish, a. [Eng. jad(e) (1);-ish.]

in the thick forests of Brazil, Paraguay, and Gui. Zool.: Pseudis paradoxa, a greenish frog, spotted 11. Like a jade ; vicious, ill-tempered.

ana, where it feeds on fowls, small mammals, &c. and marked with brown, found in Guiana.' *2. L'nchaste, incontinent.

Jah, s. (Heb. Iah or Yah, an abbreviation ofjăi-ap, s. [Fr. jalap; Sp. jalapa. Named from Jg (1), #jagg, *jagge, subst. [Ir. gag=a cleft; Jehovah in its older form.] (For def. see etym.) the city Xalapa or Jalapa in Mexico, whence the gagaim=to split or notch; Gael. gag=a cleft; gag (JEHOVAH.]

drug was first brought.) =to split; Wel. gagen=a cleft.]

“Sing unto God, sing praises to his name: extol him1. Pharm.: Tho dried tubercles of Erogonium I. Ordinary Language:

that rideth upon the heavens by his name JAH."-Psalm purga. The true jalap is called also Vera Cruz

lxviii. 4. 1. A notch, a ragged protuberance, a cleft, a den

jalap; another kind, derived perhaps from Ipomea ticulation.

jāil, gāol, *gayhol, *gayl, s. [O. Fr. gaiole, simulans, is called Tampico jalap. The tubers of 2. A prick.

gaole, from Low Lat. gabiola, dimin. of gabio = a true jalap are ovoid, from the size of a nut to that II. Bot.: A cleft or division. (Goodrich & Porter.)

cage, a coop; cavus=hollow ; Fr. geole; Sp.gayola, of an orange. They are sometimessliced; the other

jaula; Port.gaiolo; Ital. gabbiuola.) 'A prison; a kind is fusiform. The chief officinal preparations Jag-bolt, 8. A bolt with a barbed shank.

place of confinement for persons legally committed of it are Extract of Jalap and Tincture of Jalap. jăg (2), s. [Etym. doubtful.]

to castody for any crime or offense against the law. Jalap is a brisk purgative, and is also given as a 1. A small load, as of grain, hay, or straw.

jail-bird, s. A person who has been in jail; an hydragogue in dropsy. 2. A saddle-bag, a peddler's wallet.

2. Botany : incorrigible rogue.

(1) The same as JALAP-PLANT (q. v.). To have a jag on: To be in a state of partial in jail-delivery, 8.

(2) Inomaa jalapa, toxication : the idea being that when a man is fully 1. Lit. & Law: A judicial process, by which jails (1) Mirabilis jalapa was once erroneously supintoxicated he has a load, but when partly intoxi.

le are delivered of the persons confined in them, either posed to be the true jalap, whence its specificn cated he has on only a jag. (U. . Slang.) by trial, or by discharge of court.

The malo jalap of Mestitlan is Ipomoea batatoides. jăg (1), v. t. (Jag (1), s.]

2. Fig.: A release from any confinement or re- (2) Resin of jalap: A resin obtained from jalap 1. To notch; to cut into notches; to form denticu. straint, as of the soul from the body.

by means of rectified spirit. lations in.

jāil'-ēr, 8. [Eng. jail; -er.] One having charge jalap-plant, s. 2. To prick, as with a pin or thorn.

of prisoners legally committed; a keeper of a jail. Bot.: Erogonium purga, a beautiful convolvujăg (2), t. t. [JAG (2), s.) To carry, as a load. jail-fever, 8.

laceous twiner, with long crimson flowers. jag-an-na-tha, jag'-a-nât, jag'-gan-âth, s.

Path.: The name given prior to A. D. 1759 to a

fever very prevalent in jails, where the unhappy jal-a-päte, 8. [Eng. jalap(ic); -ate.] (JUGGERNAUT.)

inmates were often half-starved. It was called also Chem.: A salt of jalapic-acid (q. v.). jăg-a-tai', 8. [From Jagatai, the native name of putrid, pestilential, malignant, camp or hospital ja-lăp'-ic, a. [Eng jalap(ine); -ic.] Derived Turkistan, from Jagatai, a son of Genghis Khan.) fever. It is that now known as typhus fever (q. V.): from or in any way connected with jalapine (q. V.). The dialect used by the inhabitants of Turkistan. jail-keeper, s. A jailer (q. v.).

jalapic-acid, s. jăg -ēr, s. [Etym, doubtful.]

jāil, v. t. (JAIL, 8.] To commit to jail; to im. Chem.: CH 017. A tribasic acid obtained by Ornith.: A name for the predatory gulls of the prison.

boiling jalapine with baryta-water, and, after acgenus Lestris. (Swainson.)

Jain, Jai-na, s. & a. [Sanse. jina=victorious curately precipitating the barium with sulphuricja -ģēr-ant, s. (JAZERANT.] over all human passion and infirmities.]

acid, evaporating the filtrate to dryness. It is an jăg -ēr-8, s. (JAGGERY.]

A. As subst.: A professor of the Jain faith. (JAIN amorphous, yellowish, brittle mass, melting a little

above 100°, very soluble in water and in alcohol, jăg-gěd, a. (JAG (1), s.)

B. As adj.: Of or belonging to the Jains or their less so in ether. It is odorless, but possesses an un1. Ord. Lang.: Having jags or notches; notoned; worship.

pleasant, bitter taste. When heated on platinum specif., in heraldry, applied to a division of the field Jain-architecture, s.

foil to 130°, it decomposes, burning with a bright, or of the outlines of the ordinary, when appearing

sooty flame. Jalapic-acid unites with bases form

Arch.: Tho architecture of the Jains. Their chief rongh, as if forcibly torn away.

ing salts, in which one, two, and three atoms of seats in Iudia being Guzerat and Mysore, the chief 2. Bot.: Cut in a coarse manner.

hydrogen are replaced by the same number of temples and ruins exist in those provinces; the old

atoms of the metals. The jalapates are all amorjagged-chickweed, s.

est are believed to be about Junaghar in Guzerat. Bot.: The genus Holosteum. H. umbellatum, the

· phous. When an aqueous solution of jalapic-acid There are fine ones on Mount Abu, a granitic mount

is boiled with dilute sulphuric-acid, a brown semiUmbelliferous Jagged Chickweed, is British.

ain 5,000 or 6,000 feet high, in the same province.
One temple there is of date between A. D. 1197 and

crystalline mass is formed. By boiling this mass The jăg-gěd-něss, s. (Eng. jagged; -ness.]


with baryta-water, and filtering when cold, alpha 1247, another aboutA.D. 1032. In Jain architecture quality or state of being jagged or notched; un

jalapic-acid is formed in the mother liquor. It there is generally a horizontal dome supported by evenness.

crystallizes in white, flexible needles, which melt eight leading pillars, with other less important jăg-gẽr (1), 8. [Eng. jag (1); -er.]

at 78° to a pale yellow oil. It is soluble in alcohol ones, the whole number in some cases amounting

and in ether, and slightly soluble in water. 1. One who or that which jags.

to fifty-six. There are cells as in Buddhist monas2. A small wheel, mounted in a handle and used teries; they are occupied, however, not by monks, jăl-a-pin, Jăl-a-pine, s. (Eng., &c., jalap; suff. for crimping and ornamenting edges of pies, cakes, but by the cross-legged images of the Tirt

-in, -ine (Chem.) (q.v.).) &c., or cutting them into ornamental shapes; a to whom it is dedicated. There is elaborate orna 1. Chem.: Anamorphous glucoside existing. jagging-iron.

mentation; the temples are surrounded by porticos. together with convolvuline; in the tubers of officinal 3. A toothed chisel.

Some Jain temples have been converted into jalap root. In order to prepare it, the jalap root jăg-gér (2), 8. [Eng. jag (2); -er.] One who

must be several times extracted with water, and mosques. (Fergusson, &c.)

then with alcohol, the color removed by animal carries a jag or wallet; a peddler.

Jain'-Işm, 8. [Goozerathee, &c., Jain, from

charcoal, and the filtrate evaporated to dryness on lag-ger-ý, jag'-gher-ry, Jäg-er-ý, jag'-gor-y, firmities: suffism

B a r Sansc. jina=victor over all human passions and in- a water-bath. The residue is then dissolved in 8. [Hind. jāgri.

alcohol, filtered, and the glucoside precipitated by Comm.: A kind of sugar separated from the juice

Religions : An Indian faith, most closely akin to means of ether. When pure, it is a colorless, odor.

Buddhism (q. v.). The Jains, like the Buddhists, less, tasteless, amorphous mass, very soluble in of the flower and stems of the cocoanut, Caryota

disregard the authority of the Vedas. Like them, bechal and interakida urens, and some other palms.

alcohol and dilute acids, slightly soluble in water, they give high adoration to mortal beings; but but insoluble in ether. It dissolves readily in the jăg-ging, pr. par., a. & s. (JAG (1), v.]

while the Buddhists practically confine their wor- fixed alkalies, and is not reprecipitated by acids, A. & B. As pr. par. & particip. adj.: (See the ship to seven Buddhas, the Jains nominally recog. having been converted into amorphous convolvulicverb.)

venty-two, VIZ., twenty-four for the past age, acid, which is soluble in water. When heated to C. As subst.: The act of cutting in jags or

twenty-four for the present one, and twenty-four 100'it becomes brittle, and may be rubbed down to notches.

for the future. These are called Tirthankars or a white powder. It softens at 123, and melts at

Tirthakars-persons who have crossed over (tiryata 150° to a pale yellow syrup. At a higher temperajagging-board, 8.

anena-i. e.. the world compared to the ocean. ture it takes fire, and burns with a gooty flame, Metall. An inclined board in a buddle or frame They are then deified, and divine qualities are pred emitting a pungent, empyreumatic odor. When on which slimes of ore are deposited to be gradu- icated of them in their present state. They are

dissolved in strong sulphuric acid, the solution ally washed by a current of water to the inclined called supreme lords and gods of gods. Practically

actically acquires a beautiful purple color, which changes to bed where the slimes are sorted according to speaking, worship is confined to two of the Tirth

a brown, and finally to a jet black. gravity.

ankars, Parsanath and Mahavira. The latter is 2. Comm.: The jalapin of the shops is the resin of jagging-iron, 8. The same as JAGGER (1),2 (q.v.). said to have been the preceptor and friend of in

d to have been the preceptor and friend of jalap, extracted by spirit from the tubers, and

Buddha. This would look as if the Jaina faith had jăg-gð, a. (Eng. jag; •y.] Full of or marked

aina laith had afterward precipitated by water.

preceded Buddhism, but the period of its greatest with jags; jagged, uneven.

glory was the eleventh or twelfth century of the ja -ghir, ja'-ghëer, ja'-gëer, 8. [Hind.) Land Christian era, just after Buddhism had been driven Chem.: 2C16H3003, H20. A white crystalline body, given by government as a reward for services, from India. Fergusson thinks that it actually ex- prepared by adding fuming hydrochloric acid to a especially of a military character.

isted prior to the rise of Buddhism, and that when concentrated, aqueous solution of jalapic-acid, and boll, boy; póut, jowl; cat, çell, chorus, chin, bench; go, ģem; thin, his; sin, aş; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = f.


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leaving it to itself till the mixture has solidified to ja-mã -1-cine, 8. (Mod. Lat. (Geoffroya) jama. the Council of Jerusalem mentioned in Acts XV., a thick crystalline mass. On washing the product ic(ensis); suff. -ine.]

and he seems to have had apostolic charge of the on a niter with cold water, and recrystallizing Chem.: An alkaloid discovered by Hüttenschmid mother church at that city (Acts xii. 17. xv. 13. xxi. several times from alcohol. pure jalapinol is ob- in the bark of Geoffrowa iamaicensis. a leguminous 18). He was called "the Less, either from being tained. It is inodorous, feels fatty to the touch, tree growing in Jamaica and in Surinam. To obtain younger than James the son of Zebedee, or from melts at 62°, and solidifies at 59° to a hard, brittle, it, the powdered bark is boiled with water, and the being shorter than he in stature (Mark xv. 10). [1] crystalline mass. It is insoluble in water, but solution evaporated to a syrup. Freshly-ignited His mother's name was Mary (Matt. xxvii. 56; Mark soluble in alcohol and in ether.

charcoal in powder is then added, and the jamai. xv. 40; Luke xxiv. 10), and he was brother to Jude jăl-a-pin--lăte, 8. (Eng. jalapinol; -ate.] cine extracted from the mixture by repeated treat- or Judas (Mark vi. 3; Jude 1).

ment with boiling alcohol. It crystallizes in vel. Epistle of St. James: Chem.: A salt of jalapinolic-acid.

lowish-brown needles, wbich are soluble in boiling New Testament Canon : The first of the catholic jal-a-pin-ol-ic, a. (Eng. jalapinol ; -ic.] De- water and in alcohol. but insoluble in ether it or general epistles. The apostle James, the son of rived from or in any way connected with jalapinol melts at 98° to a brownish-red liquid: at a higber Zebedee, died too early to have been its author. (q. v.).

temperature it swells up very much, and burns, giv- (JAMES, 1.] It was penned by either James, the son jalapinolic-acid, s.

ing off an odor of roasted cocoa. It is inodorous, of Alphæus, or James, the brother of our Lord, if

very bitter, and neutral to vegetable colors. The the two were different; by the apostle who bore Chem.: C16H390.. A monobasic acid produced by salts of jamaicine are bitter. crystalline, and sol.

both designations if they were the same. It was treating jalapinol with caustic alkalies, or by heat- uble in water and in alcohol.

addressed to the twelve tribes scattered abroading gradually a mixture of jalapin and sodium

i.e., to the Jewish converts to Christianity beyond hydrate, and decomposing the sodium jalapinolate Jäm'-a-na, subst. (JACANA.] The same as the

the limits of Palestine. Its teaching is in disconby means of hot acidulated water. On cooling, JACANA (q. v.). (Swainson.)

nected portions, and treats more of conduct than of jala pinolic-acid separates in the solid form. It isjămb, *jam, *jaum, jambe, *jaumbe, s. [Fr. belief, though the indispensableness of faith to inodorous, but has an irritating taste, insoluble in jambe=the leg or shank, a jamb of a door, from efficacious prayer is strongly insisted on (i. 6). Porwater, but soluble in alcohol and in ether. It crys- Low Lat. gamba=a hoof.

tions of it look antagonistic to the teaching of St. tallizes from alcohol in the form of white tufts of Cf. Ital. & Sp. gamba=the

Paul (cf. Rom. iii. 28 with James ii. 21, 25), and needles. It melts at 65°, and solidifies at 62° to a leg.

most rationalists believe that the antagonism is white, crystalline, brittle mass. At a higher tem 1. Arch.: The upright

real. But faith is used in a different sense in James perature it decomposes, emitting a pungent odor, sides of an aperture, as a

from that which it obtains in the Pauline writings, which attacks the eyes and throat. It forms salts doorway, window, or fire.

What Paul calls simply "faith," James would term called jalapinolates. place, and supporting the

a living faith, and it is not against it but against a

dead faith that he contends (ii. 17). The epistle 1ăl'-ôn-giē (1 as zh), s. (Fr., from jaloux=jeal. lintel, entablature,or man.

was written probably at Jerusalem. Its date is unous (q.v.).) A louvre-window or Venetian shutter.

The beames and pillars

certain. It has been fixed in A. D. 44 or 45, in A. D. jăi-pa-ite, s. [Named by Breithaupt after its also sustaining the said build

60, in A. D. 62, and not till the second century. locality Jalpa, Mexico; suff. -ite (Min.) (q. v.).] ings, yea, the jambes, posts,

Clement of Rome seems to have referred to it, and Min.: Jalpaite is a cupriferous sulphide of silver, principals, and standerds, alí Jamb and Fittings. perhaps Hermas. Origen expressly mentions it as with isometric cleavage, and malleable. Color of the same mettall." - P.

the epistle ascribed to St. James (Comment.on John, Holland: Pliny, bk. xxxiii., A. Architrave. B. Plowed blackish, lead-gray; specific gravity, 6'87-6.89.

tom. xix.). It figures in the Syrian Version of the ch. iii.

ground. C. Door. D.

New Testament. It was ranked by Eusebius among 1ăm (1), 8. [Etym. doubtful: Skeat connects it2. Mining: A pillar of

Rabbete d joint. E.

his Antilogoumena. In A. D. 397 the Council of with Jam, v. (q. v.)] A conserve of fruit boiled with ore in a mine.

Carthage placed it in the canon. Though Luther sugar and water.

jamb-lining, s.

spoke disrespectfully of it, yet it is now generally jăm (2), 8. [Pers. & Hind. jâmah=dress.)

Carp.: The vertical boarding on the sides of a

accepted as a portion of Divine Scripture. 1. A kind of muslin dress worn in India. doorway.

Jāmeş, subst. [From the name of its first com2. A child's frock. jamb-post, s.

pounder.] jăm (3), s. (JAM, v.] A crush, a squeeze ; a crowd or block of people.

Carp.: One of the uprights on the sides of a door- James'-powder, 8. way or window.

Phar.: Oxide of Antimony. Sbo, or Sb-0. It is jăm (4), S. (JAMB.] jamb-stone, 8.

prepared by pouring a solution of terchloride of jăm, v. t. (Of doubtful origin : according to Skeat

It Arch.: One of the stone pillars on the sides of a the same as cham or champ=to chew, to tread heav- d

carbonate of soda, the product being oxide of antiily; also as adj.=hard, firm.] V doorway or of a window.

mony and chloride of sodium. The oxide is after1. To wedge in, to press, to crush, to squeeze.

jămb (b silent), v. t. (JAM, v.]

ward washed and dried at a heat not exceeding 2. To tread hard; to make hard and firm by tread- *jăm-bart, 8. [JAMBE).

212o. (Garrod.) ing, as land by cattle. (Provincial.)

*jămbe (pl. *jambes, *jam-beux, *jam-beaux), jāme-son-ite, 8. (Named by Haidinger after jam-nut, 8. An auxilliary nut screwed down 8. [Fr.jambe=the leg.) JAMB, s.].

Prof. Jameson ; suff.-ite (Min.) (q. v.).] upon another one to hold it; a check-out, lock-nut, old Armor: A leg or shin-piece of cuirbouilli or Min.: Essentially a sulphide of lead and antior pinching-nut. (NUT-LOCK.)

metal worn during the fourteenth, fifteenth, and mony, represented by the formula PbS+Sb2S3. jam-weld, s.

sixteenth centuries, but especially during the reign Orthorhombic in crystallization, with highly per

of Richard II. Forging: A weld in which the heated ends or

fect basal cleavage. Hardness, 2-3; specific grav. edges of the parts are square-butted against each *jăm-beē, 8. (0. Fr. jamboier=to walk; jambe ity, 5.5-5.8. Mostly occurs in fibrous masses, origiother and welded. =the leg.) A walking-stick or cane.

nally in Cornwall, but subsequently at many other jăm-a-dar, s. [JAMIDAR.]

jam-beux, 8. pl. [JAMBE.)

places. Jạ-mai-ca, 8. [0. Sp. Xaymacasa country jăm-bo-la-na, 8. [The native naine.]

Jāmeş'-town, s. (A place in Virginia.] abounding in springs.]

Bot.: The Java plum (q. v.).

Jamestown-weed, 8. Geog.: The name of a large island in the West jăm-bô-rēe', subst. A spree; a drunken frolic. Bot.: A popular name for Datura stramonium. Indies.

(Šlang.) Jamaica-dogwood, s. jăm-bo-sa, s. (Malay schambu=the name of one

3ăm-pin, 8. [Japanese. A sedan-chair, sup

one ported between two bamboo-poles, and borne by Bot.: Piscidia erythrina.

of the species.) Jamaica-ebony, s.

Bot.: A sub-genus of Eugenia. It contains the four men. (East Indies.)

Rose Apple, Jambosa vulgaris (Eugenia jambos), jăm-păn-ēe', s. (Eng. jampan; -ee.] One of the Bot.: Amerimnum or Brya ebenus.

Apple, J. malaccensis. Both are bearers of a jampan. Jamaica-ginger, s. A variety of scraped ginger from the East. About thirteen species are culti

jăm'-roş-āde, s. [Sarsc. jambu=the rose apple imported from Jamaica. [GINGER.] vated in greenhouses.

and Lat. rosa, with suff. -ade (?).]
Jamaica-kind, s.
jăm -dar-1, 8. (Hind. jâmah=a robe, dress.] ,

Bot.: The rose-apple (q. v.).
Phar.: An extract made from the bark of Cocco-
Fabric: A Dacca muslin woven with figures of

jăn, s. (Arab.) An inferior demon. laba uvifera, the West Indian seaside grape.

flowers and other ornaments. Jamaica lace-bark tree, 8.

Jāmes, s. (Fr. Jame, Jacques; Lat. Jacobus: jăn'-ca, 8. [A Spanish West Indian word.]

Gr. Iaköbos: Heb. laagob=Jacob (q. v.).) Bot.: Lagetta lintearia.

janca-tree, s. Scrip. Hist.: The name certainly of two, and Jamaica-milkwood, s. possibly of three, persons mentioned in the New

Bot.: Amyris toxifera. Bot.: (1) The same as ALLSPICE (q. v.); (2) Bro Testament.

*Jāne (1), *Jean, s. [A corrupt. of GENOA.] sinium spurium.

1. James, the son of Zebedee, and the brother of

1. A coin of Genoa; a small coin. the apostle John himself also being an apostle Jamaica-pepper, s.

2. [JEAN.) (Matt. iv. 21, 22, x.2, xvii. 1: Mark i. 19, 20, iii. 17, ix. Bot.: Pimenta vulgaris.

2, xiii. 3, xiv. 33; Luke vi. 14; Acts i. 13). He was Jāne (2), 8. [Fr. Jeanne, the fem, of Jean= Jamaica-redwood, s.

martyred under Herod Agrippa I., A. D. 44 (Acts John.) A woman's name. Bot.: Gordonia hæmatoxylon.

xii. 2).
2. James, the son of Alphæus, also an apostle Jadi

jane-of-apes, 8. The female counterpart of Jamaica-rose, s.

Jackanapes (q. v.); a pert, forward girl. (Matt. x. 3: Mark iii. 18; Luke vi. 15; Acts i. 13). It Bot.: The genus Meriana.

has been greatly debated whether' James, the jàn-ga'-da, 8. (Port.] A kind of raft-boat used Ja māi-can, s. & a. (Eng., &c., Jamaic(a); suff.

Lord's brother," mentioned in Gal. i. 19, was the in Brazil and Peru.

same with the son of Alpheus. Ifin this passage thejă n'-gle, *gan-gle, lăn-glý, v.i.&t. -an.) word" apostle" is used in its usual technical sense, langler, a word of imitative origin; cf. Dut.jangalen

ro. Fr. A. As subst.: A native or inhabitant of Jamaica. they are clearly identified, for there were only two to importune, from janken=to howl: Low Ger.

B. As adj.: Belonging to, produced in, or in any Jameses apostles. If used in a loose sense, they janker way connected with Jamaica (q. v.).

may have been different. A, probably the to talk loudly. I

oose sense they janken= to yelp like a dog; Lat. gannio=to yelp,

same one, " seemed to be" a "pillar," like (ephas Jamaican-stenoderm, s. and John (Gal. ii. 9). This James apparently had

A. Intransitive: Zoöl.: Stenoderma jamaicense, a frugivorous bat. strong Jewish proclivities, finding fault with those 1. To quarrel or bicker in words; to wrangle. feeding chiefly on Achras sapota, the Jamaica Jewish Christians who ate w

2. To chatter. naseberry.

(Gal. ii. 12). It was probably he who prc sided over 3. To sound harshly or discordantly. fate, făt, färe, amidst, whãt, fâli, father; wē, wět, hëre, camel, hêr, thêre; pine, pit, sïre, sir, marine; gó, pot,

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