Abbildungen der Seite
PDF

isochilus

2385

isologous-series

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

I-s6-dI-a-bat -Ic, a. [Pref. iso-, and Gr. diabatifrog=able to pass through ; diabaino—U> pass over: dt'a=through, and 6ai/u»=to walk.]

Tltermodynamics (of a substance): Receiving or giving out equal quantities of heat, isodiabatic-lines, isodiabatic-curves, s. pi. Physics: Two lines on a diagram, tho one exhibiting t he law of variation of thopressuro and density of a fluid during the lowering of its temperature; the other during its rise. These two lines are isodiabat ic if the quantity of heat given out by the fluid during a certain stage of tho lowering of the temperature, is tho samo as that given out duriug the corresponding stage of its rise.

-cf. [Eng. iso{meric); pref. (See the compound.) iBodiglycol-ethylenic-acid, a. Chem.: CftHiftOg. An acid isomeric with dielycolcthylenic acid, prepared by heating to 100% in a strong vessel, a solution of milk-sugar and bromine, and neutralizing the product with moist oxide of Bilvor. On decomposing the filtered solution by means of sulphydric acid, evaporating at a gentle heat and saturating with cadmium carbonate, cadmium isodiglycol-ethylenato crystallizes out in granular groups of monoclinic needles. It is soluble in water and in alcohol, and from the latter it is precipitated by ether in flocks. Tho aquoous solution gives no precipitate with neutral or basic acetate of lead. It melts at 98"'. and at a higher temporaturo chars, giving off the odor of burnt sugar. Ammonium isodiglycol-ethylenato crystallizes in large transparent crystals, soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol. The calcium salt crystallize** in large shining plates. The barium, strontium, and silver salts aro gelatinous and easily decomposed. Tho sodium salt, CbH^NaOr/SH.'O, forms tufts of prisms, which give off half their wator at 100°. I-sd-dl-mor -phlsm, s.

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

^f mannitan,

obtaine<l by Ixuling"quercitrin with dilute mineral, acids. It is in the form of largo transparent crystals, which aro very soluble in water and molt at 107O| with loss of their water of crystallization.

I-BO-dy-nam'-IC, a. [Pref. iso-, and Eng. dynamic (q. v.).]

Magnetism, etc.: Having equal force or power; of equal size, isodynamic-lines, s. pi.

Magnetism: Lines connecting places in which the magnetism is of equal intensity.

I-SO-djfn'-a-moua, a. [Gr. t>odvnamoi=equal in power: pref. iso-; Gr. dyiiamis=pav>ort might, strength, and Eng. suff. -cms.]

Bot.: The same as Isoorious (q. v.).

I so et -6*8, s. [Lat. isoetes; Gr. isoetcs, as adj. = equal in years; as subst. = an evergreen plant: pref. iso- (c^. v.), and Gr. ctos = a year.]

Bot.: Quilhvort: a genus of Lycopodiacores formerly placed under Marsileacem. It consists of aquatic or terrestrial plants, with long subulate or filiform, often tubular leaves, sheathing at tho base; capsulos sessile in tho axils of tho leaves, traversed by transverse threads, those of tho outer leaves containing globose macrospores, and those of tho inner oblong trigonous microspores, tho crustaceous integument of tho latter marked with three radiating linos. Known species six or eight , chiefly from the North temperate or from tho warm regions.

I-s6 ge -0 thSrm, s. [Prefix iso-; Gr. oe=the earth or land, and thermc heat.] An isogeotliermic line (q. v.).

i-so-gS-ft-thSr'-mal, I-so-ge 6-th5r'-mIc, a. [Eng., Ac. Uogeotherm; -al,-ci.] (See etym. and compound.)

and isobutyl-iodide with sodium. It was named by him, ethyl-butyl. Isohexano is a mobile liquid, boiling at 62 , and bavins a specific gravity of 0*7011 utO' . Ita vapor density is 3*053.

5 s6 h* dr6-, pref. [Eng. iso(meric), and hydro(gen).\ lsohydro-benzoln, s.

Chem.: CuHuOo. A crystalline compound formed by tho action of sodium amalgam on an alcoholic solution of benzaldehyde. Itcrystallizes from water in efflorescent, long, shining, four-sided prisms, from alcohol in anhydrous monoclinic prisms. It melts at 119*5* and differs from hydro-benzoin in not being converted into benzoin when heated with strong nitric acid.

i s6 hy -8-t6se, a. [Pref. iso-, and Gr. hyetos= rain.]

Physic. Geog. (f Meteor.: (Soo etym. and comp.) iBOhyetose-llnes, s. pi.

Physic. Geog. Meteor.; Lines passingover those places on a globe or map where the annual tainfall is th« same.

I ~s6l a Die, a. [Eng. isol{ate); -able.] Capable of being isolated.

I-s6l ate, [Ital. isofato, from isola, Latin

insula=an island; Fr. isoler.]

1. Ord. Lang.: To place or set in a place by one's self or itself: to place in a detached situation; to insulate; to disassociate from others.

Z. Elect.: Tho samo as Insulate (q. v.).

I s6l a ted, pa. par. <ft a. [isolate, InsuLated.!

1. Ora. Lang.: Separated or detached from others; placed or standing by one's self or itself,

"The policy, however, applied generally to them wan to red ace them to imitated units."—Lewis: Cred. Early Roman Hist. (1866), ii.

2. Elect.: [insulated.]

I'-lol-a-t&l-ljf,adv. [Eng. isolated; -ly.] In an isolated manner.

I-s6l & tion, ». [isolate, V.} Tho act of isolating; tho state of being isolated.

I-s6~16'-pls,«. [Pref. iso-, and Gr. lcpis = n scale, rind, or husk.] Named from the equal glumes.

Bot.: A genus of t'yperacea?, tribe Scirpeie. About a hundred species are known, mostly from temperate climates.

I-BoT-6-gotiB, a. [Pref. iso-, and Gr. Zooo*-proportion.] Bearing tho samo proportion; proportionate!

lsologous-sexies, s.

Chem.: Applied to any series of compounds in which the terms differ, proportionately, in one or more of their elements, thus:

C3H8 CaHfl CgH4 r;tH2

Propane. Propene. Propine. Propone.

is an isolocous-serie.s, in which tho successivo terms differ by Ha.

[ocr errors]

isomer

2386

isostemonous

I'-sft-mSr,a, [isoxzbxoe.]

I-so-meT -Ic, I so mer I c^l, a. [Or. _ ^having so equal share of anything: pref. iso-, and Or. »wo»=a part, a share.)

Chem.: Pertaining to isomerism.

i som er ide, I -so-mer. $. [Eng., Ac.. uoa«r

Caem.; An isomeric body.

I-Som Sr-lam, 1. [Gr. isomer?*, and Eng. raff, -int.] [isomeric]

CAem.: A term applied to tho^e bodies which are composed of the same elements, in the same proportions, but which differ either in their physical characteristics, or in their chemical properties. They mar be divided into three distinct classes: isomeric* metameric, and polymeric bodies.

Isomeric bodies or isomerides are those which show analogous decompositions and chancres, when heated, or when treated with reagents, bat differ in physical properties. The terpenes, I f I . constitute the chief ingredients in the essential oils of turpentine, lemon, orange, juniper, Ac. They have the same composition, and resemble each other closely in their chemical actions, but they differ in odor, boiling point, and their action on polarized light. They are true isomers, in the strict sense of the word.

Metameric bodies, or metamerides, are those which exhibit dissimilar transformations when heated, or when acted on by reagents. The molecular formula, r(H^O... represents the three compounds, propionic acid, ethyl formate, and methyl acetate. Propionic acid, a crystalline body, is converted by potash into potassium propionate; ethyl formate, a colorless, aromatic liquid, boiling at 56', is resolved by potash into ethylic alcohol and potassium formate; while methyl acetate, a colorless, Tolatile liquid, is decomposed by potash into wood spirit (methylic alcohol) and an acetate. These three compounds, which are composed of the same elements in the same proportions, differ in the nature of their products when acted on by reagents, and are said to be metameric with one another.

Polymeric bodies, or polymerides, contain the same elements in the same proportions, but have different molecular weights. The most striking example Is exhibited by the hydrocarbons, all of which are multiples of the lowest, namely, methene, CHj, which, however, is not known in the free state. Thus we have ethylene, *'.H», propylene, I'jha, butylene,l .if., amyiene, C-,H|,>, all of which possess the same percentage composition, but different molecular weights. All polymerides exhibit regular gradations of boiling points, and vapor densi

crystal of pota—inm alum in a solution of chrome-
alum, the crystal will continue to increase with
perfect regularity from the deposition of the latter
salt. "Bodies having apparently an exactly simi-
lar constitution are not necessarily isomorpbous,
bat are rather divisible into two or more groups, of
which the respective members are isomurphous; on
the other hand, the possession of an equal number
of atoms is not essential to isomorphism, for two
atoms of one element are not unfrequently isomor-
pbous with one atom of another element; and
sometimes a molecular group is isomorphous in its
combinations with an elementary atom—NH* with
K, for example. There are also numerous examples
of bodies crystallizing in the same form, but with-
out exhibiting any similarity of chemical constitu-
tion." Isomorphous bodies are generally arranged
according to the ciystallograpnic systems. The
elements belong to the monometric system, with
the exception of arsenic, antimony, and bismuth,
which belong to the hexagonal. The protoxides,
the proto-cblorides, bromides, and iodides, and the
proto-sulphides are also monometric The carbon-
ates belong partly to the trimetric. and partly to
the hexagonal, the nitrates to the hexagonal and
the monometric and the alums to the monoclinic
systems. When the same body^ is found to crystal-
lize in two different forms, it is Raid to be dimor-
phous. [crystallography, Crystals.]

I-So-nin -dTft, «• [Pref. iso-, n euphonic, and
Or. ancr (genit. andrns) —a man, a stamen.]

Bot.: A genus of Sapotacess. Isonandria oborata,
an evergreen tree, growing in Tennaserim, yields a
kind of gutta-percha, and I$onandra gutta the
gutta-percha itself. {Watt: Economic Products of
India-, i. 1.)

I-s6-ni-trd-phen'-Ic, a. [English Uoimcrte); •nitrijct; o connective, and phenic J (See the compound.)

laonitrophenlc-acid, s. [PnExir- .:

I so-nom -Ic, a. [Pref. iso-=equal, and Eng. nomtc (q. v.).] Of or pertaining to isonomy; equal in law or right.

I-sSn'-o-my4, gt [Greek isonomi«7 = distribution, equality of rights, specially equality of rights in a Greek democracy.] Equality of political or legal rights.

I-se-Sc-tfl -Ic, a. [Eng. i*o(mcnV),and ocfyfic]

(See the compound.)
lsobctylic-acld,«. [octtlic-acid.]
I'-«OHBn-an-th^l -Ic, a. [Eng. iso(meric)t and

cenanihylic] (See the compound.)

isocenanthy-Uc-acid, *.

Chem.: (CH,)2-CH*CH2CH2 CH?CO-OH. Isoheptoic acid. An unpleasantly smelling, oily liquid, obtained by heating a mixture of sodic ethylate and isovalerate in carbonic oxide. It boils at 210"213*. Its barium salt forms an amorphous mass, while its calcium Bait (OTHuOiJjCa-r^HjO cry stallizes in microscopic needles.

I-s5p -a-tnf, *. [Pref. iso-, and Gr. path?, pathos = *uuVring.]

Medicine:

1. The attempted cure of a disease by the virus of the same malady.

2. The idea that a diseased organ may be cured by eating the analogous organ of a healthy animal.

I-sd-pen tane, *. [English iso(meric), and penfane. ] [ Pen T A X L . ]

I-s6-p8n -tene, *. [English iso(meric), and pentene.) [pentene.]

I-so-pe*n-tf 1 -0,-mlne, *. [Eng. uo(meric)-pentyl, and amine.] [amylamine.]

I-SA-per-I-m5t -rlc-al, a. [Eng., Ac, uoperimetr(y); -tea/.]

Geonu: Of or belonging to isopcrimetry (q. T.).

I-sd-pSr Im ^-trf, s. [Pref. iso-, and Gr. pertmcfron=circumference; Eng. snff. -y.]

Geom.; Having equal perimeters, circumferences, or boundaries.

i s0 phane, «. [Pref. iso- = equal, and Gr.phainO = to cause to appear.V

Min.: The same as Fraxklimte (q. v.).

I-s5ph 8r-0uS, a. f Prof. iso-=equal, and Greek phoro»=bearing, carrying.]

Hot.: Transformable into something else.

I -a6-p8d, I -s6-p5de, n. A *. [isopoda.]

A. As adj.: Having the feet equal in length; isopodous.

B. As subst.: A crustacean of tho order Isopoda
(q. r.>.

"One group of Isopods, the Onl«cidas.**— Dr. Henry
Wvodtrarti, in CatttlCs Sat. Hist., vL 210.

I sop -6-da, n. pi. [Pref. iso-, and Gr. pons (genit.
podos) = a foot.]

Zool.: An order of Crustaceans, division Thoracipoda. legion Edriophthalmia. The bo<ly is composed of seven segments, as a rule nearly equal in

[ocr errors]

I so m5r-o-mor -phlsm, *. (Greek isomere», morftff = t<tnn, and suff. -ism.] f Ihomerjc. 1

Cryitallog.: Isomorphism between substances having the same atomic proportions.

l-s5zn er-o&s, a. [isomeric]

Bot. (of a floteer): Equal in number, having all the parts equal in number, as having five sepals, five petals, fire stamens. Ac.

2. Crystallog., Min., <f*c.: Of like composition. (Used of isomorphism between substances of the same atomic proportions.)

I-Bo-mit'-rlc, I-so mit -rlc-al, a. [Gr. Uoe~

equal, and Eng. metric, metrical (q. v. .'

1. Ord.Lanq.: Equal in measure; characterized by equality of measure.

2. Crystalloy.: Monometric, tcssular.

Isometrlcal perspective, $. A method of perspective drawing which allows of buildings being represented with base lines at any angle of view, but without the other lines of any side of such building converging, as they do in ordinary perspective, to a vanishing point. It is generally adopted for birds'-eye views of extensive building?, which thus combine tho advantages of a ground plan and elevation.

I SO mor -phlsm, a. [Pref. iso-; Gr. morphea form, shape, and suff. -ism.]

Min.: A general law. discovered in 1819 by Profe*etor Hitscherlich, of Berlin, by which the variation of minerals is governed. It is that the Ingredients of any single species of mineral are not absolutely fixed as to their kind and quality, but one ingredient maybe replaced by an equivalent portion of some analogous ingredient. Thus in augite the lime may be in part replaced by portiomi of peroxide of iron, or of manganese, while the form of the crystal and the angle of the cleavage

Klane remains the same. These substitutions are, owever, confined within certain limits. (Lyell, Ac.)

1-80 mor photis, a. \ Pref. too-, and Gr. morphe = a form, and Eng. suff. -ous. \

Chem.: A term applied to certain pubstances, which have the same crystalline form, and are also analogous in their chemical constitution. The alums, for instance, no matter what their composition, all crystallize in octahedra, and if wo place a

fate, fat, fire, amidst, what, fall, father; we, w6t, here, camel, h€r, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; g6, pot.

[ocr errors]

isostilbene

2387

Isthmian-games

[ocr errors]

Is -ra-Sl, s. [Hob. Israel; Gr. 2sracl=flghter or soldier of God (Gesenius), from (Sarah) = {1) to intervene, (2) to bo a leader, prefect, or prince, (3) to tight.]

1. The name divinely given to Jacob during the scene at Peniel or Penuel as a memorial that, as a prince, he had power with God and with men and had prevailed (Gen. xxxii. 28).

2. The Jewish people; a contraction for Children of Israel or House of Israel. (Hosea xi. 1.)

U A religious sect which appeared for tho first time in England in 1883; Id the Registrar-General's returns it is called Tho New and Latter llousu of Israel. \\ Kingdom of Israel:

Script. Hist.: Tho kingdom of the Ten Tribes, beginning with Jeroboum and ending with the Assyrian Captivity. If-ri-el-He,*. [Hob., Ac, Israel, and suff. -ite.]

1. A descendant of Israel and of Jacob; a Jew.

2. Used in the New Testament for a Jew viewed as a memberof theTheocracy. [jew.] (Trench: Syn. of the yew Test., p. 158.)

"Behold au Israelite indeed in whom la no guile."— John ii. 47.

!|-ri-fl-H'-lC, a. [Eng., Ac, Isrnclit(e); -ic] Of or belonging to tho Israelites; Hebrew, Jewish.

Is ra el H'-Ish, a. [Eng.,Ac, Israelite); -ish.\ Nearly tho same as Israelitic, but a less respectful word.

Is -ra-el-H-Ism, s. [Eng. Israelit(e); -ism; Fr. IsraHitisme.] The same as Judaism (q. v.).

Is -BU-a-ble (SUas Shu), a. [ Eng. i**u(e); -able.]

1. That may or can be issued; capable of being issued.

2. Pertaining to an issue or issues; admitting of issue being taken upon it; containing an issue or issues : as, an issuable plea.

'A. Admitting or allowing of issue being taken or joined, lssuable-plea, s.

Laic: A plea upon which a plaintiff may take issue, and go to trial upon tho merits, issuable-terms, s. pi.

Eng. Law: Hilary and Trinity, because in them issues are made up for tho assize; but, for town causes, all tho four terms are issuable. ( Wharton.)

Is -BU-a b\f (su as shu), adv. [Eng. issuab(le); -ly.] In an issuable manner; by way of issue.

issuance <SU asshu'). f. [Eng. issu(e); -ance.] The act of issuing or giving out; as, tho issuance of food.

Is -su-ailt (SU as Shu), a. [Eng. tssu(c); -ant.] Her.: Issuing or coming out. A term applied to a charge or bearing represented as issuing out of another charge or bearing. When an animal is blazoned as issuant, only the upper half is depicted.

is sue (pron. lshu),a. [Fr.,prop. fern, of tou, pa. par. of wstr=to issue, to go out, from Lat. exeot lroin cx-=out, and eo=to go; Ital. uscita, cscita.] I. Ordinary Language:

1. Tho act of passing or flowing out; egress; motion out of nn inclosed place; as. the issue of water from a pipe, the issue of an audience from a hall or other public building.

2. The act of sending out; delivery? publication. "English rsilwuys improved withncarcely un exception

despite tho issue of very dUuppoiutiug traffic ret urn*." — lA.ind.un Daily Telegraph.

3. A means of passing or getting out; a means of exit or escape

"Let us exnmine what bodies touch n movable whilxt iu motion, as the only nieun* to tind an out of thiet dif

ficulty."—Diyby: On Bodies.

4. A flux, as of blood.

"A woman which was diseased with an issue of blood twelve years."—JMu«A«-w, ix. 20.

5. That which issues; that which proceeds, flows, or is issued or sent out; tho whole quauity or amount issued or sent out; as, tho daily issue of a paper; tho weekly issue of notes from the bank, ice.

6. Progeny, offspriug; a child or children.
"The issue of the next ran should have reigned."

Shakesp.; Henry VI., Ft. II., ii. 2.

7. The produce of tho earth; the profits or return from lands, tenements, or other property.

8. Result, fruit, consequence.
"Look you for any other issue?"

Shakesp.; Much Ado about Sothing, ii. 2.

9. That which proceeds from a man ; action, deed.

"How the people take
The cruel issue of these bloody men.'*

Shakesp.: Julius Cwsar, iii. 1.

10. A material point in nn nrgumi-nt or debate, upon which the parties take affirmative and negative positions, and on which they base tho result of tho nrgument or debute.

II. Technically:

1. Law: The close or result of pleadings; the point or matter depending in a suit on which two parties join and put their cause to trial: a single definito and material point which is anirmed on ono side and denied on the other.

"An issue upon matter of law is called a demnrrer; and it confernes the facts to be true, as stated by the opposite party; but denies that, by the law arising upon those facts, any injury is done to the plaintiff, or that the defendant has made out a legitimate excuse; according to the party which first demurs, rests or abides upon the point in question. The form of such demurrer is by averring the declaration or plea, the replication or rejoinder, to be bad in substance, that is, insufficient in law to maintain the action or the defense; and the party demurring is thereupon understood to pray judgment for want of sufficient matter alleged. Upon a demurrer, the opposite party must aver his pleading to be good in substance, which is called a joinder in demurrer, and then the parties are at issue in point of law. Which issuet in luw or demurrer, tho judges of the court beforewhich the action is brought must determine. An issue of fact is where the fact only, and not the law, is disputed. And when he that denies or traverses the fact pleaded by his antagonist has tendered the issue, the other party may immediately join issue; or if affirmative matter be set outin the pleading, he may at once take issue thereon. Which done, the iss-ue is said to be joined, both parties having agreed to rest the fate of the cuuse upon the truth of the fact in question. And this issue of fact mast, generally apeuking. be determined by the country, that is, by jury."—Btackstone.- Comment., bk. iii., ch. 21.

2. Surg.: A fontanel; an artificial ulcer made on some part of the body to promote secretion of pus.

11 (1) At issue: In controversy; disputed ; at variance; disagreeing.

(2) To join or take issue: To take up affirmative and negative positions respectively upon a point iu debate or dispute.

"That issue will I ioine with him which shall suffise, for the confutation of this booke."—Bishop Gardner: Explte., Ia. 145.

Issue-pea, s.

Therap.: A pea or any similar body placed inside an issue to maintain irritation and promote the Becretion of pus.

TI For tho ditferenco between issue and event, see F\ent.

is -sue (pron. lahfi), *lssew,v.».<&*. [isbue,*.]

A. Intransitive:
I. Ordinary Language.

I. To come, flow, or pass out; to run out, as from any inclosed place.

"I Richard's body have interred anew,
And on it have bestowed more contrite tears
Than f rom it issued forced drops of blood.*4

Shakesp.: Henry V'., iv. L

*2. To run out or extend in lines. "Pipes made with a belly toward the lower end, and then issuing into a straight concave again."—Bacon.

3. To go or come out; to rush out.
"The gates cast up, we issued out to play."

Surrey: Viryite; AKneis ii.

4. To proceed, as offspring or progeny; to be descended, to spring.

"Of thy sons that shall issue from thee, which thou shalt beget, shall they take away."—2 Kings xx. 18.

5. To proceed, as from a source; to arise; to be produced as an effect or result; to grow, to accrue.

*' This is my fault; as for the rest appealed,
It issues from the rancour of a villain."

Shakesp.: liichard II,, i. 1.

6. To result, to turn out, to terminate, to end; as, It is doubtful how this cause will issue.

II. Law: To come to a point iu fact, or law on which the parties join issue; to join issuo.

B. Trans.: To send out; to deliver for use: to supply; to put into circulation.

'A writ was issued out to burn him."—Burnet.- Hist, of the Heform., bk. L

ls -BUe less (lssueaslshu),a. [Eng. issue; -less.] Without issue; having no issue or offspring; wanting children,

"She matched herself with Spain, and brought King Philip hither . . . But issueless she died."—Drayton: Poluolbton, s. 17.

is -su-Sr (issue as Ishti), s. [Eng. issu(e); -er.] One who issues.

Isth-ml-an (or th silent), a. [Lat. Isthmius; Gr. Isthmiox.] Of or pertaining to an isthmus; specif, pertaining to the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece. Isthmian-games, s. pi.

Gr. Antiq.: Games celebrated in April and May of tho first and third years of each Olympiad. The contests included all varieties of athletic sports, as wrestling, running, boxing, &c, and competitions in music and poetry. Tho victors were crowned with garlands of pine leaves, these being the only prize.

[ocr errors]
[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

unt.

isth'-mŭs (or th silent), *ist-mus, *isthim, s. CHA(OH) (COOH)3=OH +C3H13(COOH)3, the lat. i-ta-măl-ic, a. [Eng. ita(conic), and malic.] Lat. isthmus, from Gr. isthmos. ]

ter further decomposing into CO2 and itaconic acid. 1. Ord. Lang. & Geog.: A narrow slip or neck of CzH3(CO-OH)3=CO.,+C3H (COOH)2.-It may also

itamalic-acid. s. land connecting two continents together, or unit. be prepared by heating to 160° a mixture of citric Chem. : CHgO;=3H5(OH):(COOH)2. A hom. ing a peninsula to a continent.

acid and water in a sealed tube. Itaconic acid is ologue of malic acid. On heating itaconic acid 2. Anat.: The name given to various parts which inodorous, but has a strong acid taste. It crystal

with concentrated hydrochloric acid, itamonomore or less closely resemble an isthmus. There is lizes in rhombic prisms, soluble in 17 parts of water chlor-pyrotartaric acid is formed, and this, on bollan isthmus of the thyroid body, an isthmus uteri,&c. at 10° and melting at 161. It bears a Isthmus of the fauces:

blance to citraconic acid, but differs from it in not crystallizes in long, deliquescent needles, which are Anatomy.: The constricted passage between the yielding mesaconic acid when treated with nitric soluble in alcohol and ether, and melt between 60 anterior pillars leading from the mouth to the acid.

and 65. Ata higher temperature, it loses a molecule pharynx.

of water, and is re-converted into itaconic acid. it'-a-ką, s. [The Guiana name of the tree.] Isthmus of the thyroid body or gland: Anat.: A transverse portion of the gland uniting Bot.: (See etym. and compound.)

Itch, 8. [A. S. gictha.] [ITCH, v.] the two lateral lobes. itaka-wood, s.

I. Ordinary Language: Is-ti-oph-or-a, 8. pl. [Gr. istion=a web, cloth, Bot. & Comm.: A kind of wood with black and 1. Literally: or sheet, and phoros=bearing, carrying.)

brown streaks, much used in cabinet work. It (1) In the same sense as II. Zool.: A group or division of Insectivorous Bats comes from Macharium schomburgkii, a papilio (2) A sensation of uneasiness in the skin arising having a nose-leaf; but Mr. Dobson, who has deeply naceous tree, tribe Dalbergieæ, growing in Guiana. from the disease or other cause. studied the subject, considers the arrangement t, considers the arrangement I-tăl-ian (i as y), a. & 8. [Ital. Italiano; Lat. something

9-tălcian (1 su b r ol Holiana. Lat 2. Fig.: A constant teasing desire or longing for unnatural,

Italicus, from Italia=Italy; Sp. Italiano.] Is'-u-rět, 8. [Eng. is(omeric), and -uret (q. v.).]

"And this is what the world.
A. As adj.: Of or pertaining to Italy.

Denominates an itch for writing."
Chem.: Hydroxyl-methenyl-diamine. This base,
which is isomeric with carbamide, is formed by the
B. As substantive:

Couper: Epistle to Lady Austen. direct union of hydrocyanic acid with an alcoholic 1. A native or inhabitant of Italy.

II. Path.: Scabies; a disease arising from the solution of hydroxylamine. It crystallizes in 2. The language spoken by the Italians.

irritation produced by the presence in the parts rhombic prisms, which are soluble in water, insol

affected of the itch-mite (q. v.) and its ova. The

Italian-beech, 8. . uble in alcohol, and melt at 104°-105°. It has an

animal burrows chiefly between the fingers, on the alkaline re-action, and unites with one equivalent

Bot.: The same as ITALIAN-OAK (q. v.). Really front of the forearm, on the abdomen, and the in

side of the thighs. The disease chiefly assails of acid, forming crystalline salts. On boiling the an oak, and in no respect a beech. aqueous solution, it decomposes in a very com- Italian-iron, s. A laundress' smoothing-iron for

uncleanly people. It is very common among the plicated manner, yielding nitrogen, carbon dioxide, fluting and smoothing frills; a gauffering-iron.

natives of India and other Orientals. Where it is ammonia, guanidine, biuret, and urea.

widely spread on the body, an ointment made from Italian-juice, 8.

flour of sulphur and lard or vaseline, well rubbed in It. *hit. *hyt, pron. [A. S. hit, neut. of he (q.v.); Icel. hit, neut. of hinn; Dut. het, neut. of hij. The

Comm.: The extract of licorice prepared in Cal. at night and washed off in the morning, is the best genitive case its is comparatively modern. It does abria. There are several kinds; but that prepared Tomody. not occur once in the Authorized Version of 1611,

on the estates of the Marchioness Solazzi, and itch-insect, s. and is found but three times in all Shakespeare, known as Solazzi juice, is the best. [SPANISH

Zool.: An inaccurate name for the itch-mite and not once in Milton, although other writers had already begun to introduce it. In some parts of the

(q. v.). (Griffith & Henfrey.)

Italian-marble, 8. [MARBLE. country the rustics still employ his where educated Italian-may, 8.

itch-mite, s. men would use its. In Levit. xxv. 5, where the moderp editions read" of its own accord,' the edition

Zool.: Sarcoptes scabiei, a small white parasitic Bot.: Spiræa filipendula.

spider, of the family Acaridæ, producing the disof 1611 has" of it own accord." The A. S. genit. his Italian-oak, s.

ease called itch. The mouth is furnished with was regularly used as the genit. of it up to the time Botany: Quercus æsculus. Called also Italian- bristles; so are the third and fourth pair of legs, of Shakespeare.) beech (q. V.).

while the first and second pair have suckers. (ITCH.) 1. A pronoun of the neuter gender corresponding with the masculine he and feminine she, the plural Italian-roof, 8. A hip-roof.

Itch, *icchen, *iken, *yechen, *yichen, r. i. of all three being they. It is frequently classed as I-tăl'-ian-āte (i as y), a. (Eng. Italian; -ate.) [A. S. giccan; cogn. with Dut. jenken; Ger. jucken.) a demonstrative.

Italianized; made conformable to Italian customs 1. Lit.: To have a sensation of uneasiness in the "Keep thy heart with all diligence, for out of it are the or practices. (Marlowe.)

skin which causes in the person a desire to scratch issues of life."--Proverbs iv. 23.

I-tăl-ian-āte (i as y), v. t. [English Italian: or rub the part affected. 2. It is used as the nominative to impersonal -ate.) To render Italian ; to make conformable to

2. Fig.: To long; to desire continually; to feel a verbs; as, It rains, it snows. Italian customs; to Italianize.

constant teasing desire. 3. It is commonly used to introduce a sentence, I-tăl-ian-ism (i as y), 8. [Eng. Italian; -ism.]

"Though I now be old and of the peace, if I see a sword preceding a verb as a nominative, but referring to a A

Jout, my finger itches to make one."-Shakesp.: Merry naive, but referring to a

braca i

A phrase, idiom, or custom peculiar to or characclause or distinct member of the sentence following; teristic of the Italians or the Italian language.

Wives of Windsor, ii. 3. as, It is well known that he is dead.

Itch'-wood, s. (Eng. itch, and wood (q. v.).] 4. It is frequently used to begin a sentence when a I-tăl'-ian-ize (i as y), v. i. & t. [Eng. Italian:

Bot.: Inocarpus vitiensis. personal noun, or the name of a person, or a mas. -Ize.] culine or feminine noun follows, and it may repre- A.Intrans.: To act or speak as an Italian; to act itch'-ý, a. [Eng. itch; -y.] Affected with the sent any one of the three genders, or either the sing. the Italian.

itch; of the nature of the itch. ular or the plural number; as, It is I, be not B. Trans.: To render Italian; to give an Italian

“Excess, the scrofulous and itchy plague, afraid," " It is these,"&c. character to.

That seizes first the opulent." 1 When a question is asked, it follows the verb; as, Who was it that betrayed Christ? ;

Couper: Task, iv. 582. 1-tăl -ic, a. & 8. [Lat. Italicus=Italian, from 5. It is used absolutely for the state of a person or Italia=Italy.)

-ite, suff. [Lat. -ites; Gr. -itës. (See def.)] thing; as, “How is it with the general?" (Shakesp.: A. As adjective:

I. Ordinary Language : Coriolanus, V.5.)

1. Ord. Lang.: Of or pertaining to Italy or the1. As an adjectival suffix: Of or belonging to, as 6. It is used indefinitely after intransitive verbs, Italians frequently imparting a ludicrous meaning.

2. Print.: A term applied to a sloping type, com;

Danite.

2. As a substantial suffix: One belonging to; as, "If Abraham brought all with him, it is not probable monly employed to give emphasis or to draw special that he meant to walk it back again for his pleasure." attention to a particular letter, word, or sentence.

an Israelite, a man belonging to the people of Raleigh. It is so called from having been invented by Aldo

Israel. it-a-bă 1-11, 8. [The Guiana name.]

Manuzio (Aldus Manutius), an Italian printer, born II. Technically:

in 1447, died in 1515. Bot.: (See etym. and compound.)

1. Chem.: A suffix used in chemical terms in the This line is printed in italic type.

naming of salts. When the name of the acid ter. Itaballi-wood, s.

B. As substantive:

minates in -ous, the name of the salt ends in -ite, Bot.: The wood of Vochya guianensis. It is hard Print.: An italic letter or type.

and the word thus formed is connected by or with but not very durable.

Italic School of Philosophy

the name of the base combined with the acid. Thus Y-tăb'-ir-yte. I-tăb'-ir-ite. 8. (From Itabira, a Hist. & Philos. A term adopted by some writers from sulphurous acid come sulphites, as, sulphite to denote the Pythagorean and Eleatic systems

of sodium, sulphite of barium, &c. mountain in Brazil. ) Min. & Petrol.: A micaceous variety of hematite, taken together, but more properly confined to that

2. Min.: A mineral. Remotely it was derived found in micaceous schist in North and South Car- of Pythagoras alone. The reason of the name lies from the

from the Gr. -itēs, which is an adjectival terminaolina. &c. Called also specular schist (g.v.). in the statement that Pythagoras taught in Italy. tion=of or belonging to, and required lithos added, (Dana.)

and more particularly in the south and southwest.

' before the meaning stone was supplied. Thus py

rités is=of or on fire, and pyrités lithos, firestone, i-ta-col-u-mite, i-ta-col-n-myte, 8. [From Italic-version, 8.

not simply pyritēs, is the mineral which strikes fire, Itacolumi=the Giant, the name of several Brazilian Ch. Hist.: The version of the Scriptures in Latin as copper or other pyrites. When the Greek word mountains.]

known as Vetus Itala. It was made early in the was transferred to Latin, lithos=stone, wasdropped, Petrol.: A laminated granular flexible quartz second century, the Old Testament being trans- and pyrites is used by Pliny for (1) flint, (2) a millrock, with a little talc, found in Brazil, Georgia, lated from the LXX., not from the Hebrew. St. Stone, and (3) iron pyrites, sulphuret of iron. MinNorth Carolina, the Ural Mountains, &c. It some Jerome was dissatisfied with it, and, after trying in eralogists taking the word from Pliny's Latin, and times contains diamonds and gold. Ratley spells vain to amend it to his satisfaction, made the Latin not from Greek, now attach to .ite the signification the word Itacolumite and Dana Itacolumyte. translation, now in common use in the Roman stone or mineral.

i-ta-con-ic, a. (Formed by transposition from Church, known as the Vulgate, which was approved 3. Palæont. & Palæo-bot.: Fossil. Used as the aconitic (?).] (See the compound.) by the Council of Trent.

English equivalent of -ites in the termination of itaconic-acid, s.

I-tăl -Y-çişm, 8. [Eng. italic; -ism.] An Italian many genera; as ammonite, the English equivalent

of ammonites; belemnite, of belemnites; Nipadites, Chem.: CH.(CO-OH)2. A bibasic acid, isomeric idiom or custom; an Italianism.

of Nipa. with citraconic and mesaconic acids, obtained by i-tăl-Y-çize, v. t. [Eng. italic; -ize.] To write *4. Petrol.: Formerly -ite was used also for rock.

tion of citric acid, whereby its water or print in italic type; to make emphatic or dis- but Dana, for discrimination's sake, altered it to is first driven off and then aconic acid is formed. tinct by the use of italics.

-yte. Some still use-ite in place of -yte. fāte, făt, färe, amidst, whãt, fâli, father; wē, wět, hëre, camel, hér, thêre; pine, pit, sîre, sir, marine; go, pot,

11

item

Item, adv. & s. [Lat. = likewise, also.]

A. As adv.: Likewise, also.

"Item two Hps indifferent »ed; item two gray eyee."— Shakesp.. Twelfth Sight, i. 6.

B. As substantive:

1. A separate article or particular; a single article.

"I coald huve looked on him without the help of admiration, though the catalogue of his endowments had been fabled by hi« Ride, and I to i>eruse him by items."Shakesp..- Cymbeline, i. 5.

2. A hint, an inuendo.

"If this discourse have not concluded our weakness, I have one item more of mine."—Gtanvitl.

3. A paragraph of news.

I -tem, v. t. [item, adv.] To make a memorandum of; to note.

2389

I-tln, Sr-a.r-y', a. & o. [Lat. itinerarium nn account of a journey, from *itinero= to travel; iter (gen. itinrris) = a journey; Fr. itintraire; Sp. & Itul. itinvrario.~\

A. At substantive:

1. (>rd. Lang.: A book of travels; an account of the various places to bo met with on anj particular road or lino.

2. Roman Ritual: A form of prayer intended for the use of clerics when traveling, and, for their convenience, placed at the end of the Breviary. The Itinerary consists of the canticle Benedict**, with an antiphon, prayer, and two collects. Itineraries are not found in the older Breviaries; but Gavantus mentions an ancient Pontifical with an Itinerary for the use of prelates rattier longer than that at present employed. (Addis tt Arnold.)

[ocr errors]

to state in items; as, to itemize an account.

It-er-JVble, a. [Lat. iterabilis, from *7ero=to repeat; Sp. iterable.) Capable of being iterated or repeated.

"Whereby they had made their acta iterable by sober hands."—Browne; Miscellanies, tract xi.

It-er-a.nce, IV-tdr-tnoe, s. [Lat. iterans, pr. par. of itero=to repeat.] The act of iterating or repeating; iteration.

"What needs this itterance, woman? "— Shakespeare: Othello, T. 2.

It-er-8,nt, a. [Lat. iterans, pr. par. of Hero.] Repeating, iterating.

"Waters being near, make n current echo; but being farther off, they make an iterant echo."—Bacon; Sat. Hist.

It -5r- &te, v. t. [Lat. iteratus% pa. par. of itero= to repeat, from i7erum=again; Fr. Hirer; Span. iterar; Ital. iterare.]

I* To repeat; to utter or say over again.

"This ia the very cause why we iterate the psalms ofteser than any other part of Scripture."—Booker; Eceles. Polity.

2. To do over again, or a second time; to repeat. "Having wiped and cleansed away the Boot, I iterated the exj»eriment."—Boyle; Works, ir. 652.

It er-ate, a. [iterate, t\] Repeated.

"The sacrament of baptisme ones likewise ministred, and ncuer to be iterate."Bp. Gardner; Explication, to. US.

It-£r-lte-l, adv. [Eng. iterate; -ly.] By repetition or iteration.

"It was rather an itinerary circuit of justice than a progress." — Bacon. Henry VII.

I-tln Sr-ate, v. i. [Lat. +itineratwn, sup. of itinero.] [itinerant.] To pass or go from placo to placo; to wander.

-I tls, suff. [Lat. -itis; Gr. -itisJ]

Path.: Inflammation ;ns, h apa tit if=inflammation of the liver; pcricardz/i« = infln!nmation of the pericardium.

Its, pron. [See def.] Tho possessivo case of the pronoun if (q. v.).

It-self, pron. [Eng. it, and self.] Tho neuter pronoun corresponding to the masculine himself, and feminine herself.

Itt -nSr He, *. [Named by Gmelin after Von Ittner, who was the first to describe tho mineral.]

Min.: A variety of Hattyne. It occurs massivo or in granular dodecahedrons, is translucent, of a dark blue, ash-gray, or smoky-gray color, and resinous luster. Found in Germany.

It -trl-a., *. [yttria.]

It -trl-um, s. [yttrium.]

It-zl ba, it-ze bu, it-zi boo, it-che-bo, subst.

[Japanese.]

Numis.: A Japanese monetary unit of account. It is a silver coin, value varying from 32 to SB cents. It is a thin oblong plate, with square comers. Its use is now dying out. owing to the introduction into Japan of tho decimal system. I-U -11-dffl, s. pi. [Lat. iul(us) (q. v.); fern. pi.

"Tterately affecting the pourtraits of Enoch, Lazanu, a(fj# suff. -ida'.)

Jonas, Ac."—Browne; Urne Burial, ch. iii. ZoOt.: A family of Chilognatha (Millipedes). The

It-Sr-& -tion, ». [Lat. iteratio, from iteratvs, body is elongated and cylindrical, with numerous

pa. par. of if ero=to repeat; Fr. iteration; Sp. iter- segments, each bearing two pairs of legs. They ad

aeion: Ital. iterazione.] vance with a gliding motion, and roll themselves up

1. The act of iterating or repeating; repetition. when in danger. They may be seen in mossy situa

"An iteration of the ones perfited sacrifice on the cross." Hons or on the trunks of trees. They un<l«ff« •

-Bp. Gardner; Explication, to. 149. metamorphosis, tho larva commencing with only

*2. Allegation, quotation; readiness in quotation tfix foot*

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

placej especiallyin the discharge of'official duties; the discharge of official duties by itinerating from place to place.

2. A body orDiiml>er of persons who discharged official duties, not atone fixed place, but by passing from place to place.

l~tln'-8r-a.nt, «. & s. [Lat. itinerant, pr. par. of *i/in#ro=to travel or journey from place to place; iter (gen. itinei'is)~a journey from, itum, sup. of eo = togo; Fr. itinerant.]

A. As adj.: Passing or moving from placo to place; wandering, strolling, not stationary.

"A lone enthusiast, and among the fields,
Itinerant in this labor."

Wordsworth; Excursion, bk. i.

B. As subst.: One who passes or wanders from place to place; a wanderer; a stroller; specif, an itinerant preacher, one who moved from placo to place preaching.

I-tln'-Sr-tXLt-l?, adv. [Eng. itinerant; -///.] In an itinerant, wandering, or strolling manner.

species is about six inches long.

I'-Vfll, *. [According to Fuschius. an abbreviation of Lat. afoi//a=Teucrium Ivu of Linnaeus, which it resembled in smell.]

Hot.: Tho typical genus of the sub-tribe Ivcee (Q.v.). (

I-Vfll -a.-rlte, s. [ From Ivaara, in Finland, where it occurs.]

Min.: A variety of Schorlomite. It is black and opaque, with an adamantine luster.

Iv-a,-ran-cu-Ija., s. [Name in somo Indian languages.]

Bat.: An essential oil, obtained from AndropOfjon schcenanthus, an Indian grass.

-Ive, suff. [See def.] A common adjectival suffix in English, derived from the Latin -ivus; it gives an activo forco to the stem to which it is suffixed; as motive, that which moves; formative, that which forms, See.

I-v5 », s. pt. [Mod. Lat. iv(a); Lat. U m. pi. adj. suff. -ea>.)

Bot.: A sub-tribe of Composites, tribe Senecionideee.

ixia

I -vied, a. [English ivy; -ed.] Covered orover^ grown with ivy.

"Each 1vi»d arch and pillar lone
Pleads haughtily for gloriex gone!"

Byron: Giaour.

I -v5r-f, *i vor-ie, *e-ver-y, s. & a. [Old Fr.

ivurie; Fr. ivoirc, from Lat. e/)oreuji=made of ivory; ebur (gen. eboris) = ivory; Ital. avorio, avolio.]

A. As substantive:
I. Literally:

1. Gen.: Tho hard material of the teeth; enamel. [dentine.]

2. Spec.: Tho tusks of the elephant, the narwhal, &c. (A tusk is simply a huge projecting tooth.)

IT Ivory was brought from Tarshish by Solomon's ships (1 Kings x. 22). Homer often mentions it. Phidias, B. C. 400, mado statues from it, plating them with gold.

II. Fig. (pi.): The tooth. (Slang.)

B. As adj.; Consisting or made of ivory; resembling ivory.

Vegetable ivory:

Bot., <t*c: The albumen of the seeds of a fine palm, Phytelephas marrocarpa, found in South America, along the banks of the river Magdalena. The ivory consists of the coagulated milk.

ivory-black, s.. A species of bone-black made by tho calcination of ivory scraps, turnings, and sawdust. a It is used as a pigment in tho manufacture of paints and printers' ink.

ivory-nut, s. [ivoby-palm.]

ivory-palm, s.

Bot.; Phytelephas macrocarpa. [IvOBT, ^[.] ivory-paper, s. A superior kind of pasteboard,

with a finely prepared polished surface, used by

artists.

ivory-saw, s. A thin saw stretched in a steel frame for sawing ivory from tho solid. It has a blade one-fortieth of an inch thick, one inch and n half wide, and fifteen to thirty inches long. Tho teeth, five or six to the inch. A frame-saw with a blade made of a fino watch-spring is suitablo for tho purpose.

ivory-shell, s.

ZoOl.: The molluscous genus Eburna (q.v.). ivory-tablet, s. Small leaves of ivory, arranged in pocket-book form, for receiving memoranda, ivory-white, a.

Bot.: White, verging to yellow, with a little luster, as the flower of Convallaria niajalis. (Lindley.)

I -vSr-^-type, s. [Eng. ivory; -type.'}

Phot.: A kind of picture in which two finished photographs are taken, one light in color, mado translucent by varnish, tinted on the back, and placed over a stronger picture, so as to give the effect of a photograph in natural colors. Also known as Hellenotype.

I'-Yf, s. [A. 8. iftg; O. H. Ger. ephi, epfi, ephih, ephon: N. H. Ger. ephen, eppich, from Lat. aptum = parsley.] [APTUM.]

Botany:

1. Hedera helixA a well-known climbing shrub, adhering to trees or to walls by aerial rootlets; the ordinary leaves aro cordate, flve-lohod, those of flowering branches ovate or lanceolate; flowers yellowish-green, in umbels, appearing in October and November; berry globose, black, in ono variety yellow. Wild in forests, woods, among rocks, &c.; used to train over walls, houses, &c. It is a sudorific, and its berries are emetic.

"Direct the clasping ivy where to climb."

Milton: P. L., ix. 217.

2. The genus Hedera (q. v.).

T[ American Ivy is Ampelopsishsderacea; German Ivy. Senecio mikanoides; Ground Ivy, Nepeta glec horn a; Coliseum or Keuihvorth Ivy, Linaria cyntbalaria; and Poison Ivy, Rhus toxicodendron.

ivy-berry, *. The berry of tho ivy.

ivy-gum, s. A gum obtained from old ivybushes.

ivy-mantled, a. Covered or overgrown with ivy.

"Colin nature from her ivy-mantled den."

Cowper: Charity, 95.

ivy-tree, s.

Bot.: Tho Otago name for Panax colensoi.

*I'-Y#ed, a. [IVIED.]

I -V^-w5rtg, s.pf. [Eng. Ivy, and worts.]

Bot.: Tho name given by Lindley to the order Araliacece (q. v.).

ix i a,N. [From Gr. ixos=. . . birdlime,from tho viscous character of somo species (Paxton); cf. also Gr. ixia, ixini=Carlina guutmiferat a composite plant, not the modern ixia.]

« ZurückWeiter »